The order when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos:
When Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, several questions arise regarding which actions that are normally done on Erev Pesach may be performed on Shabbos and which are to be preceded to before Shabbos, and how one is to eat his Shabbos meals. The following is a list of all the different changes relevant to this occurrence split in accordance to the weekdays. For further details and sources please view our corresponding book the laws and customs of Pesach Chapter 11.
- Taanis Bechoros-Fast of the first born: When Pesach falls on Sunday, and Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, then the fast is preceded to Thursday.
- If the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday, may the firstborn eat before Bedikas Chametz? When Pesach falls on Sunday and the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday the 13th, which is Erev Bedikas Chametz, the firstborns who are fasting face a dilemma regarding eating before the Bedika. The following is the ruling: If a Bechor who is fasting has many rooms to check, and it is difficult for him to continue fasting until its conclusion, then he may eat a little prior to performing the Bedika, as only an actual meal was forbidden to be eaten. Alternatively, he is to appoint an emissary to perform the Bedika while he eats.
- Prepare the home for Bedikas Chametz: Prepare the home for Bedikas Chametz with sweeping, mopping, and performing all last-minute cleaning from Chametz, as well as distributing the ten pieces of bread. This should all be done so the Bedika can begin immediately after nightfall as is required according to Halacha.
B. Thursday night:
- Bedikas Chametz: When the night of the 14th falls on Shabbos, the Bedika is preceded to Thursday night. One performs the Bedika with all the laws relevant and recites a blessing prior to the checking, as usual.
- Bittul-Nullifying the Chametz: After the search is complete, one nullifies the Chametz [i.e. Kol Chamira], as done by a regular year.
- Guarding the Chametz: After the search is complete, one must be careful to guard all the Chametz that was found during the search as well as any Chametz that he plans to eat from now until the 5th hour of Shabbos.
C. Friday – Erev Shabbos:
- Biur Chametz: Friday preferably before midday! When the day of the 14th falls on Shabbos, Biur Chametz is preceded to Erev Shabbos which is the 13th. One is to burn all of his Chametz, with exception to two meals worth of Chametz foods which will be eaten on Shabbos [and any other Chametz one plans to still eat on Friday]. From the letter of the law, one may wait to destroy the Chametz until right before Shabbos begins, although it is proper to destroy it prior to midday. Some Poskim rule that one is to burn the Chametz prior to the start of the 6th hour just like every year. Practically, according to Admur one may even initially burn the Chametz any time prior to midday.]
- Bittul-Kol Chamira: Not performed on Friday! When Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, the second Bittul which is normally said after Biur Chametz, is delayed until Erev Shabbos, after one has completed his eating of Chametz.
- Yehi Ratzon of Biur Chametz: Friday after Biur Chametz! The Yehi Ratzon which is normally recited by Biur Chametz, is recited as usual on Friday, after the burning of the Chametz. Nonetheless, some are accustomed to say it on Shabbos after the Bittul.
- Mechiras Chametz: Lechatchila: By early Friday morning. Bedieved: Until Shabbos begins. Technically, one can still sell his Chametz to a Gentile throughout the day of erev Pesach. However, being that the rabbis who perform the sale usually do it earlier in the day even when it falls on Erev Shabbos, therefore everyone should make sure to do Mechiras Chametz prior to Erev Pesach, and at the very least by the early hours of morning, so the Rabbi receives the signed power of attorney document which authorizes him to sell his Chametz on his behalf, prior to the sale acquisition taking place. Nonetheless, there are Rabbanim and Badatzim who explicitly stipulate with the Gentile that any power of attorney documents that are received after the sale will be included in the sale until the start of Shabbos, and therefore if for whatever reason one has still not done Mechiras Chametz, or knows of somebody who has still not done so, he should call up a Rabbi who sells Chametz and ask him if a person who did not sign on the power of attorney document can still be added to the sale. This applies until the start of Shabbos.
- Kashering: Friday, until the start of Shabbos. Some write that initially all the Kashering should be done prior to the 5th hour on Erev Shabbos, as is the case by other years.
- Eating Chametz: May eat until Sof Zeman Achilas Chametz by Shabbos day! When Erev Pesach on Shabbos, it is permitted to eat Chametz on Friday and Shabbos night and morning until the 5th hour of the day on Shabbos the 14th of Nissan. Thus, one is to use Challah for Lechem Mishneh on Friday night and Shabbos morning, prior to the 5th hour.
- Lechem Mishneh: One is to arrange on Erev Shabbos to have enough Lechem Mishneh for both the Friday night and Shabbos morning meals.
- Melacha on Erev Shabbos: Majority of Poskim rule it is permitted to perform Melacha past Chatzos of Erev Shabbos, just like every Erev Shabbos. One may thus cut his nails and get a haircut throughout the day of Erev Shabbos. Some Poskim, however, question whether Melacha may be performed after midday on Erev Shabbos. Practically, the custom is to be lenient, although one who is stringent is blessed.
- Cooking Chametz for Shabbos: Coming up in part 2
- Kitniyus for Shabbos: Coming up Part 2
- Preparations for the Seder on Erev Shabbos: One may not do any preparations for the Seder on Shabbos, and therefore the preparation must be performed on Erev Shabbos. These include the following:
- Roasting the Zeroa
- Cooking the egg
- Washing and checking the lettuce
- Dicing the Maror [horseradish]. The horseradish is to be ground on Erev Shabbos and kept in a sealed container.
- Making the Charoses: When Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos the Charoses is to be made on Erev Shabbos. Alternatively, if one desires, he can grind it by hand on Motzei Shabbbos, which is Yom Tov, as there is no grinding prohibition involved in grinding these ingredients on Yom Tov.
- Salt water: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to make salt water on Yom Tov without restriction. Other Poskim, however rule that it contains the same restrictions as making salt water on Shabbos [see next]. Practically, one is to initially prepare the salt water before Yom Tov, and if one forgot to do so, then he is to make it on Yom Tov using a Shinuiy, such as to first put in the water and only then the salt. Although those who make it regularly have upon whom to rely.