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1. The Biblical prohibition in squeezing fruits on Shabbos:
A. Edible Fruits:
Olives and grapes: One who squeezes olives in order to take out oil, or grapes in order to take out wine is liable due to that he has detached the juice from the fruit, and it was already explained in chapter 305 [Halacha 28] that anyone who detaches food or juice from the area where it was absorbed in, has [transgressed] an offshoot of [the] threshing [prohibition].
The reason for this is: because fruit juices do not have the status of a liquid with exception to what comes out of olives and grapes alone [as explained in Admur 158/4-5]. Rather they have a status of food on them and [squeezing them out] is like separating food from food which does not contain the prohibition of squeezing, as explained there [in chapter 305].
Grapes and olives which have already been crushed:It is Rabbinically forbidden to squeeze juice out of grapes and olives even if they have been crushed from before Shabbos and have juice flowing out from them.
Are fruits other than grapes and olives considered Biblically forbidden today if they are commonly squeezed, just as are olives and grapes?
Approximately 90% of cultivated olives are used for oil making; 70% of cultivated grapes are used for wine and 70% of oranges are used for juice. 90% of Florida oranges are juiced. The question is hence asked whether juicing oranges and other citrus fruits today would fall under the Biblical prohibition just like olives. The answer is as follows:
Some Poskim rule that in today’s times all commonly juiced citrus fruits are Biblically forbidden just as olives and grapes. Others however rule that it remains Rabbinically forbidden, and so is implied to be the opinion of Admur.
Is there a Borer prohibition involved in squeezing fruits?
No, as the fruit and its juice are Min Bemino, the same species, to which the Borer restrictions do not apply.
B. Inedible fruits:
First Opinion: The above is only referring to fruits which are fit to be eaten, however fruits which are not fit to be eaten are forbidden to be squeezed according to all opinions even into food [and certainly not in order to drink their juice].
The reason for this is: because when one squeezes food which is not fit for eating he is not separating food from food but rather is [separating] food from waste which contains [the prohibition of] “detaching” as was explained in chapter 305 [Halacha 28]. It is also forbidden because of [the prohibition of] separating food from amongst waste, even if he wants to eat it right away, as [the Sages] only permitted to separate food from waste with ones hands in order to eat right away being that it is the form of eating to take the food with his hands from the waste and eat it, and [it is thus] not similar to [forbidden] work, however to squeeze and then eat is not a form of eating but is a form of work.
Second Opinion: There is an opinion which permits squeezing unripe grapes into food (and it goes without saying that they permit this to be done to other fruits which are not fit to be eaten, and even to squeeze them for their juice is permitted according to those who permit this with other fruits [which are edible]). [This lenient opinion however only applies by grapes that are ripe enough to be eaten in a time of need, however if the fruit is completely inedible, then all agree that it contains the Borer [and perhaps also Mifarek] prohibition.]
The Final Ruling: One is to be stringent like the former opinion [even if the fruit is edible in a time of need, and if it is completely inedible, then it is Biblically forbidden according to all].
Summary-The Biblical prohibition in squeezing fruits on Shabbos:
Edible foods: The Biblical prohibition of squeezing juice from a solid is the Mifarek/detaching prohibition which is an offshoot of the threshing prohibition. It applies to squeezing juice from grapes and olives. It does not apply to squeezing the juice from any other edible foods.
Inedible foods: Regarding squeezing juice from inedible foods, it is disputed if it contains a Biblical prohibition or is even initially allowed. Practically one is to be stringent.
 Admur 320:1
 Admur ibid; Shabbos Braisa 145a; Rambam Shabbos 8:10; M”B 320:1
 Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Rashi 143a
 Admur ibid; M”A 320:1; Shabbos 145a
Other opinions: According to Tosafus and Rabbeinu Chananel, Rebbe Yochanun rules other fruits are also Biblically forbidden. [Brought in Tzemach Tzedek Shabbos 22; Shabbos Kehalacha 2:404]
 Regarding inedible fruits refer to Halacha 2D regarding if squeezing them contains a Biblical prohibition.
 Admur ibid; Ran 61a; Rashba 145a; Rosh; Tzemach Tzedek 58
Ruling of Rashi: Rashi 145a states that the reason why other fruits are only Rabbinical is because they are not commonly squeezed. This reason is not recorded in Admur ibid, Some explain this reason of Rashi to be a different opinion than the Ran. [P”M 320 A”A Hakdama] Others explain that Rashis commentary is complimentary to that of the Ran, and it is due to the fact that the squeezing is not common, that its liquid is not considered liquid, as states the Ran. [Iglei Tal Dash 16; Rashba ibid] It is clear from Admur 252 Kuntrus Achron 12 that Rashi and the Ran are stating two different reasons. The practical ramification is regarding fruits today that are commonly squeezed.
Practical ramification: Seemingly, the practical ramification between whether one views the squeezing of oranges and the like as a Rabbinical versus a Biblcial prohibition is regarding the law Bedieved, that if it was squeezed on Shabbos Beshogeg, then if one views it as a Rabbinical prohibition then one may drink it on Shabbos, while if one views it as a Biblcial prohibition, then it may not be drunk on Shabbos, as explaiedn in
 Michaber 158:4; Mishneh Terumos 11:2; Machshirin 6:4; There it is explained that only seven liquids are considerd Mashkeh according to Torah law of receiving impurity 1. Water 2. Wine 3) Olive oil; 4) Milk 5) Dew; 6) Honey; 7) Blood
 Admur 252:14
 See Shabbos Kehalacha 2 pp. 388-393
 Based on Rashi ibid and Rashba ibid that mention “not commonly juiced” as part of their reason; Chazon Ish 33:5; Mishmeres Shabbos 1:41
 Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 14; Rav SZ”A and Shevet Halevi, brought in Shabbos Kehalacha ibid; Shabbos Kehalacha p. 393 concludes that we follow this opinion
 As Admur omits the wording of Rashi in 320:1 and in 252 Kuntrus Achron 12 he explains that Rashi and Ran are arguing.
 M”A 319:16; Iglei Tal Borer 10:5; Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 19; See Minchas Yitzchak 1:75-4; Shabbos Kehalacha 15:1 in Biurim [p. 388]
Opinion of Admur: It is proven from Admur 320:8 [and M”A 320:7] that there is no Borer oprohibition involved in squeezing fruits, as if there was then it would be forbidden to squeeze any fruit on Shabbos, irrelevant of the Mifarek prohibition, due to that it is considered Borer Derech Melacha, as explained Admur ibid. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that squeezing fruits involves the Borer prohibition and hence may only be done [even by the permitted fruits] a) for right away use and b) without using a vessel. [See P”M 320 A”A Hakdama; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid writes that even according to the M”A in 321:30, it is forbidden to squeeze even permitted fruits for right away use, just as he rules regarding peeling.] Perhaps he considers it like two species, similar to the whey of cheese that is considered like two species being that it is mixed together very well with the milk, as writes Admur in 319:25.
 Admur 320:8; Michaber 320:5 in name of Rabbeinu Tam; M”A 320:7
 Meaning even according to the opinion which holds that fruits which are not commonly squeezed may be squeezed for their juice.
 Admur 320:8; based on M”A 320:7
 Admur ibid as is implied from M”A ibid; Biur Halacha 320:5 “Lechol”; See Admur 305:28 that even regarding milking a cow there is no Biblical Mifarek prohibition when squeezing into food. Hence it remains to be understood, why here Admur writes there is a Mifarek prohibition. The Tehila Ledavid 320:6 explains that in truth an animal is not considered real Pesoles, and hence it is only Rabbinical when squeezed into food. However, an inedible fruit is real Pesoles, and hence is Biblical Mifarek even into food. See Shabbos Kehalacha 15 footnote 80 [p. 443]
Other opinions: It is understood from the Taz and Olas Shabbos [brought in next footnote] that they do not hold there is a Mifarek prohibition when squeezing into food, and the only prohibition involved is Borer.
 Admur ibid; Tur 320, brought in name of Rabbeinu Tam
 Admur ibid; M”A 320:7; Conclusion of M”B 320:20 and Biur Halacha “Lechol”
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to squeeze inedible fruits into food if one plans to eat it right away. [Olas Shabbos 320; Taz 320:4; Elya Raba 320:?] The M”B ibid concludes to be stringent like the M”A ibid; Admur, although one who is lenient does not need to be protested.
The reason: The M”A ibid severely negates this opinion, as there is no allowance to do a Melacha for right away use. Admur ibid understands the M”A ibid that there are two reasons why one may not squeeze for right away use, as 1) The prohibition here is due to Mifarek, and by Mifarek there is no allowance to squeeze for right away use. [so learns also Biur Halacha ibid as implied in P”M 320 A”A 7] and 2) As even Borer was only allowed when done as Derech Achila, and here it is considered Derech Melacha.
 Admur ibid, based on M”A ibid
 Admur 320:9; Michaber 320:5
 Tur in name of Semag in name of Rabbeinu Yosef
 Tehila Ledavid 320:6, as explained in M”A 319:16, and implied from Admur here which only brings this lenient opinion in 320:9 regarding Boser, and not in 320:18 regarding the general rule of all fruits; See also M”B 320:19
The reason: As everyone agrees it is Borer to separate food from waste.
 Admur 320:9; M”B 320:21, see Shaar Hatziyon 320:24; The Michaber ibid brings two opinions on this matter regarding inedible grapes, the latter-stringent- opinion being like that of Rabbeinu Tam. The Michaber does not give a final ruling on this matter.
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