10. The laws of a Keli Rishon

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10. The laws of a Keli Rishon:


Definition of a Keli Rishon: A Keli Rishon is the original pot of food that was taken off the fire, or off any other heating surface [even if its content is no longer Yad Soledes-See D].[1] A Keli Rishon has the ability to cook foods as will be explained.

Solid foods: According to the understanding of some opinions, the Alter Rebbe rules that a solid piece of food which is Yad Soledes, even if placed into another pot/dish which was never on the fire, is still considered a Keli Rishon. This will be explained in Halacha 11[2]].

A very hot Keli Sheiyni: A Keli Sheiyni which contains very hot water that was poured in from a Keli Rishon is viewed as a Keli Rishon. This will be explained in Halacha 10.[3]


A. Precooked/prebaked foods:

Fully cooked dry food which will not dissolve:[4] Dry food which contains no liquid at all is [permitted to be] cooked after having been previously cooked [in liquid] as long as it is fully cooked. This applies even if it completely cooled down. Thus, it is allowed to soak it in a hot Keli Rishon [that is off the fire[5]].

Fully cooked dissolvable foods: [According to the Shulchan Aruch[6]] it is even allowed to soak a fully cooked food in a hot Keli Rishon in order so it dissolve there and become a liquid substance[7]. [However according to the Siddur, which is the final ruling, it is forbidden to heat it in a way that it will dissolve and reach a heat of Yad Soledes. Thus, one may not even pour from a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes onto sugar, as being that the sugar dissolves it contains a cooking prohibition.[8]]

Placing roasted foods in a Keli Rishon:[9] By roasted meat one is to be stringent not to place it even into a Keli Sheiyni being that [one is liable for] cooking [a food] that was previously roasted. [See Halacha 7 above]

Placing baked products into a Keli Rishon:[10] It is the custom[11] to initially be careful not to place bread even into a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes, although if one did so then it is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] even [if one placed it] in a Keli Rishon. [See Halacha 7 above]

Precooked liquids: If they cooled off to the point that they are no longer warm enough to be served, they may not be placed in a Keli Rishon-See Halacha 6 above and D/E below.

Summary of placing precooked foods into a Keli Rishon:

Precooked foods may only be placed into a Keli Rishon if all the following four conditions are fulfilled:

1. The pot is off the fire


2. The food was previously fully cooked in liquid as opposed to baked/roasted


3. The food is currently dry, or moist but is still warm enough to be served


4. The food is not a dissolvable substance.


If a food had been soaked in a Keli Rishon before Shabbos may it be placed into a Keli Rishon on Shabbos?

  • Example: If one placed tea bags in a Keli Rishon pot that was off the fire before Shabbos, may one return those tea bags if dry, to the Keli Rishon on Shabbos.

Some Poskim[12] rule it may be placed in a Keli Rishon on Shabbos [if the food is Mikalei Habbishul[13]]. Others[14] rule it may not be placed in a Keli Rishon on Shabbos. Practically one is to be stringent in all cases.[15] This applies even if the food is easily cooked.[16]


May one reuse a spoon or ladle which had been used to remove soup from the pot?[17]

If the liquid on the spoon or ladle is still warm, then it may be reused. If it has cooled down, then it must be dried prior to entering it into the pot, if the food in the pot is still Yad Soledes [110 degrees]. A piece of good advice to avoid this issue is to simply leave the spoon inside the Keli Rishon until everyone is done taking portions.

B. Uncooked foods:

Uncooked food:[18] Any food which has not been [fully] cooked before Shabbos [whether liquid or solid], one may not soak it on Shabbos in hot [liquidly] food that is Yad Soledes, even if it will not dissolve in there at all. If one [transgressed and] soaked it in a Keli Rishon then he is liable for cooking.

Uncooked spices:[19] A Keli Rishon has the ability to cook so long as it remains the heat of Yad Soledes even after one has removed it from the fire. Therefore, it is forbidden to place spices into it.

Salt that has not been abstracted through cooking or evaporation:[20] However salt is allowed to be placed inside [a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes] and has been removed from the fire as salt requires a long amount of cooking similar to ox meat and does not cook unless it is on a fire.

Other opinions:[21] [However] there are opinions which say that salt only requires a slight amount of cooking and is thus forbidden to be placed even in a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes.

The Final Ruling:[22] One who is strict will be blessed.

Salt that has been abstracted through cooking:[23] [However] all the above refers to salt which has not been [extracted through] cooking, however salt which has been extracted through cooking water is permitted to be placed in a Keli Rishon according to all opinions being that there is no [prohibition to] cook an already cooked [food] that is dry even if it dissolves through this second cooking as was explained above [in Halacha 8. However according to the Siddur foods which dissolve do contain a cooking prohibition and thus one is to be stringent not to place it even into a Keli Sheiyni. This will be brought next.] Nevertheless [even according to the ruling here in Shulchan Aruch] one who is stringent in this just like by other salt [which is not cooked], will be blessed.

The ruling of the Siddur regarding Salt: One may not be lenient regarding our salt that although it is previously cooked, nevertheless since it dissolves upon re-cooking one may not be lenient with it any more than the salt of the old days [which was not previously cooked] based on the difference of opinions mentioned in Shulchan Aruch of which there are opinions which hold that it is forbidden to even place it in a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes, and one who is stringent is to be blessed.

Ox Meat:[24] Ox meat is forbidden to be placed inside a Keli Rishon [even if it is off the fire] as although the meat [itself] will not cook, nevertheless the moisture that is on it will cook. However, if [the meat] is completely dry and does not have on it any moisture at all [then it is allowed] to be placed in a Keli Rishon that is off the fire.


Summary of placing uncooked food into a Keli Rishon:

Is Biblically forbidden if it will reach Yad Soledes [with exception of dry and lean ox meat as will be explained][25], and should not be done even if the food in the pot is not Yad Soledes.[26]

Salt[27]: Even if it was previously cooked it is not to be placed in a Keli Rishon if it will dissolve. [If it will not dissolve then it is proper to nevertheless be stringent.[28]]

Ox meat: Even if raw is allowed to be placed even in a Yad Soledes Keli Rishon, if the meat is completely dry[29] [and does not contain any fat. If contains fat is forbidden even if was precooked and is dry.[30]]

Are salts today considered precooked?[31]

No. Salts today are not precooked and are rather dried in an oven.


C. If one transgressed and placed spices into a Keli Rishon:[32]

If one transgressed and placed salt even in Keli Rishon, even if it is on the fire, in which case he transgressed a prohibition [according to all], nevertheless the food is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] as the salt is nullified against the food.

Other Opinions: [However] there are opinions[33] who argue and prohibit the food until after Shabbos. [Some Poskim[34] rule the food is forbidden even if one placed a small amount of salt in the food.[35] Others[36] rule it applies only if one had not placed salt in the food before Shabbos, or if one placed so much salt that it alone is able to salt the food without the help of yesterday’s salt.[37]]


Summary-If one transgressed and placed uncooked food into a Keli Rishon:

If the food reached Yad Soledes then it if forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos, with exception to spices added to a Keli Rishon dish, in which case the dish may be eaten even though it was Yad Soledes, and even if the pot was on the fire. However, there are opinions which argue and prohibit even by spices.


D. If the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes:[38]

It is proper[39] to abstain from placing spices in a Keli Rishon even if it is no longer Yad Soledes, in order to distance [oneself] and make a fence around the matter [so that one not come to transgress the prohibition of placing spices when it is Yad Soledes]. [For opinion of M”B see footnote[40]]


E. Pouring water into a Keli Rishon:[41]

A small amount of water:[42] It is forbidden to pour cold water, even a small amount, into hot water that is Yad Soledes that is in a Keli Rishon.

A large amount of water:[43] [However] if there is so much cold water [being entered into the Keli Rishon] that it is impossible [for the Keli Rishon] to heat it up until it reaches Yad Soledes, and rather it will only thaw its coldness, then it is allowed [to pour it] even into a Keli Rishon as long as it is not on the fire. [See footnote for ruling of Beis Yosef[44]] [See Q&A]

Placing a bottle of water into a Keli Rishon in order to thaw it down:[45] It is forbidden to place it into a Keli Rishon even only in order to thaw out the coldness, due to a decree that one may forget and leave [the bottle] there until it [reaches] Yad Soledes [which is considered to have cooked the water]. [See Q&A regarding if the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes] [If, however, the bottle of water contains a lot of cold water to the point that the mixture would not be Yad Soledes then it is permitted to do so.[46]]



Must one pour the cold water into the Keli Rishon in one splash, or may one pour it in continuously, until enough water enters for the Keli Rishon to be under Yad Soledes?[47]

Some Poskim[48] rule that one must pour the entire amount into the Keli Rishon in one splash, as otherwise the small amount that is poured in first will get cooked in the interim. Others[49] however hold that so long as one is continuously pouring water into it without any break at all in the stream, then even if it will take some time until the suffice amount of water needed to cool the pot will enter, nevertheless it is allowed, as it takes time liquid to cook.

May one place a bottle of liquid in a Keli Rishon that is no longer Yad Soledes in order to thaw it down?[50]

Yes, as even placing it in a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes is only forbidden due to that one may come to forget and leave it there until it becomes Yad Soledes.


F. Placing cold water into an empty Keli Rishon:[51]

A small amount of water: A kettle from which one has removed hot water is forbidden to place in it a small amount of cold water being that [the kettle] is able to heat it up to Yad Soledes.

A large amount of water: However, it is allowed to place in it a large amount of cold water in order to warm it up.

The reason that doing so does not involve the prohibition of Tikkun Keli:[52] Now, although through placing cold water into it one forges and strengthens [the kettle] and it is thus found that he has fixed a vessel, as this is the method used by copper and steel smiths being that they place hot steel and copper into cold water in order so it hardens and strengthens, and this is [considered] the finishing act done by the blacksmith, as fire stretches the metal and brings it close to shattering while water strengthens it. Nevertheless, since [here] one does not intend to fix the vessel, and rather only [intends] to warm up the water, it is allowed [to place water into it], as [in this case the forging of the kettle] is not inevitable [when one places cold water in it] as before one forges a vessel it is heated to a very high [temperature], while here it is possible that the [kettle] will not reach [this high temperature which is required for] its forging, due to the water [that was placed into it] preventing it from heating up so much.


Summary of E-F: Placing cold water into a Keli Rishon:

Water/liquids:[53] It is permitted to simultaneously place a large amount of cold water into a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes [that is off the fire] so long as there is so much cold water being added that the water will not become Yad Soledes. However, if there is only a minute amount of water being added to the point that it will reach Yad Soledes, it is forbidden. The above applies whether or not there is food currently inside the Keli Rishon.[54]

A bottle of water/liquids: Is forbidden to be placed even if one plans to remove it prior to reaching Yad Soledes.


General Q&A

May one remove a pot from the stove using a damp cloth or mitten?[55]

No, as doing so will cook the liquid. [Thus, as a precaution it is forbidden even if one plans to remove the cloth prior to it reaching Yad Soledes.]


Must the spoon used to remove food from a Keli Rishon be dry?[56]

Yes. Furthermore, even if one wants to reuse the same spoon to remove food from the Keli Rishon, such as one who used a ladle to remove soup and then placed the ladle down and now wants to take more soup, then if the liquid on the ladle has cooled down one must dry it prior to using it.

When replacing a cover onto a Keli Rishon must one make sure that the inner side of the cover is dry from the perspiration that it received during cooking?[57]

If the liquid on the inside of the cover has cooled off, then one must dry it prior to placing it back on the pot.


Q&A on definition of a Keli Rishon

Is a boiler which has heating coils inside of its vessel, such as certain water boilers, considered like a Keli Rishon?[58]


If water is poured into a vessel from a Keli Rishon while the Keli Rishon is still on the fire, is the water still considered like a Keli Sheiyni?

  • Is the water of a boiler which has a spout with which to pour out the water considered a Keli Rishon or Keli Sheiyni once it is poured out into a cup?

Yes, the water is considered a Keli Sheiyni, despite it having been still attached to its source of heat while entering into the cup.[60]

If one poured the food of a Keli Rishon into another pot which is hot due to having been heated over a fire, does that food still have the status of a Keli Rishon?


What is the law of a food which is removed with a ladle from a Keli Rishon?[62]

If the ladle has sat in the Keli Rishon for some time then it is considered a Keli Rishon, and thus the food that is in it has the same law as a Keli Rishon. If one removed it immediately after entering, it is considered a Keli Sheiyni.

If one poured food from a Keli Sheiyni back into a hot Keli Rishon does it still retain the status of a Keli Sheiyni?[63]

If there is only a small amount of food being placed back into the Keli Rishon, to the point that the food becomes further heated by the Keli Rishon, then the food returns to being a Keli Rishon. However, if a large amount of food is being poured into it, then even if the Keli Rishon is still hot to the point of Yad Soledes, it retains its Keli Sheiyni status.


Q&A on opening and closing the hot water of sinks and the like:

May one open the hot water tab on Shabbos?[64]

So long as the water in the boiler is still Yad Soledes, then even if the boiler is no longer on, it is forbidden to open the tab as turning on the hot water automatically enters cold water into the boiler.[65] [Furthermore those which have a type of boiler which automatically heats the water as it is turned on, they are forbidden to do so as in addition to cooking the newly entered cold water, they are also lighting a flame.]

May one open the hot water if one knows for certain that the water in the boiler is no longer Yad Soledes?[66]

This is allowed only if one knows for certain that the heating system will not turn on later on Shabbos and heat the new cold water added into the boiler. Regarding a solar heated boiler in which the sun will heat the new water on Shabbos, then from the letter of the law if the water is no longer Yad Soledes one may open the faucet, although it is proper to avoid doing so.

May one ask a gentile to open the hot water tab?[67]

  • Example: The Mikveh water is too cold for immersion; may one ask a gentile to open the hot water?

Yes, one may ask a gentile to do so [even if the heating system of the boiler is turned on in the process].[68]

May one open the hot water if he closed the pipes, thus not allowing any cold water to enter into the boiler?[69]

Yes, this is allowed even if the water is Yad Soledes as no water can enter it. [However, one must take care not to let the water hit the sink unless the sink is dry, as otherwise it will cook the water remaining in the sink which is forbidden.]


May one leave the hot faucet open from Erev Shabbos?[70]

Yes [although he may not use that water to wash with if it has been warmed up on Shabbos[71]]

May one further open the faucet on Shabbos when left open before Shabbos?[72]


May one close a faucet of hot water that was left open before Shabbos or was accidentally opened on Shabbos?[73]

No, this may not be done unless a) The heating system is not on [and will not turn on at a later point], and b) there is no hot water left in the boiler. However, if there are only a few drops coming out from the faucet and one wants to close it to save those drops then seemingly it is allowed in all cases that doing so will not cause the heating system to turn off.

May one ask a gentile to close the hot water faucet that was left open?[74]

Yes, this is allowed even in a case that doing so will shut off the heating system.


If the hot water tab is open may one open the cold water in order to cool it down?[75]

This is only allowed if he opens enough cold water that when it mixes with the hot water it will not reach Yad Soledes.



[1] Admur 318:17

[2] Admur 318:20 and 31. See Q&A below

[3] Admur 318:20

[4] Admur 318:11; Michaber 318:4

[5] As placing a food into a pot that is on a fire, or even on a blech is forbidden due to the Chazarah prohibition, as explained in “The Laws of Chazarah”.

[6] Admur 318:11

[7] This follows the ruling of the Magen Avraham which argues on the Levush which holds that it is forbidden when it dissolves.

[8] Siddur. If the food will melt through placing it into a Keli Rishon then this is forbidden to be done, based on the ruling of the Siddur, as explained in Halacha 8 above-see there!

Other Opinions: However the M”B 318:71 rules that it is permitted to place sugar into a Keli Rishon although it is proper to Lechatchilah beware from placing or pouring on it from a Keli Rishon.

[9] Admur 318:12; Michaber 318:5

[10] Admur 318:12; Michaber 318:5

[11] Regarding why by meat Admur says that one is to be stringent while by bread he simply says “the custom is” the Chidushim and Biurim Kolel Tzemach Tzedek learn that the ruling regarding roasted meat was all in accordance to the stringent opinion which holds that there is always a cooking prohibition after roasting, however in accordance to the final ruling which takes into account the lenient opinion, then this is simply a custom.

[12] Rambam

[13] P”M 318 A”A 14

[14] Beis Yosef in name of majority of Poskim; implication of Michaber; M”A 318:14

[15] M”A 318:14; M”B 318:31

[16] P”M ibid; M”B ibid

[17] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 117

[18] Admur 318:11; Michaber 318:4

[19] Admur 318:17; Michaber 318:10

[20] Admur 318:17 as rules Michaber 318:9. Such as blocks of salt that can be found in the dead sea and in other areas around the world. However, salts, including sea salt, that is abstracted through evaporating water which thus cooks the water in the process is discussed in the next Halacha.

[21] Admur 318:17; Rama 318:9; Tosafus; Mordechai

[22] Admur 318:17

[23] Admur 318:18; M”A 318:31; M”B 318:71

[24] Admur 318:17; Michaber 318:9

[25] Admur 318:11

[26] Admur 318:17

[27] Following the ruling of the Siddur, as opposed to that of the Shulchan Aruch [Halacha 18-19] which rules that even if he salt has not been previously cooked then it is allowed to be placed in a Keli Rishon although one who refrains from doing so is blessed. According to both Siddur and Shulchan Aruch it is blessed for one to be stringent.

[28] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 158

[29] Admur 318:17

[30] Following the ruling in the Siddur.

[31] Madrich Eida Hachareidit

[32] Admur 318:17; Rama 318:9

[33] Seemingly this refers to both the opinion of the Taz and M”A brought next which both write different limitations to the above ruling of the Rama. Admur does not specify anything of the ruling of the M”A here and hence seems to imply he holds thata ccoridng to the Rama the salt is nullfieid in all cases.

[34] Taz 318:15

[35] The reason: As we do not say the rule of Zeh Vizeh Gorem when the two items are not working simultaneously. [ibid]

[36] M”A 318:31; M”B 318:73

[37] The reason: As the entire allowance of the Rama is because of the rule of Zeh Vizeh Gorem which only applies if there was a limited amount of salt added. [ibid]

[38] Admur 318:17, This follows the opinion of the M”A 318:28, taken from the Yerushalmi.

[39] Lit. good

[40] Other Opinions: The M”B 318:64 rules that once the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes then one may place any food in it [that does not contain a Molid prohibition]. 

[41] Admur 318:22

[42] Admur ibid; Michaber 318:12

[43] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

[44] This follows the ruling of the Rama. However according to the Beis Yosef/Sephardim it is forbidden in all cases to pour cold water into a Keli Rishon. This is proven from the fact the Michaber does not differentiate between a large and small amount of water and so is implied from the Michaber in Beis Yosef and so rules in his opinion the Rosh Yosef and Mamar Mordechai. [Shabbos Kehalacha 2:1 p. 110]

[45] Admur 318:23; Michaber 318:13

[46] Biur Halacha 318 “Aval”

[47] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 110

[48] M”B 318:83 in name of Chayeh Adam; Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 28

[49] Shevisas Shabbos and Pnei Yehoshua

[50] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 34, brought in Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 209

[51] Admur 318:21; Michaber 318:12

[52] Admur ibid; M”A 318:36; M”B 318:80; It seems from the reasoning of Admur here that he does not hold of the logic of the M”A ibid that only when one has intent to fix the vessel is it forbidden, even if it is a Pesik Reishei. See also Admur 646:12-13 [brought next in footnote] from where it is likewise implied that if it is a Pesik Reishei and one will benefit from the item, then we do not care about the persons current intents. This is similar to the ruling here that since one will receive benefit from forging the pot, then if it is a Pesik Reishei then it would be forbidden to be done.

Ruling of Admur 646:12-13 [See Michaber 646:11; M”A 646:2]: It is forbidden to pluck the grapes off an invalid Hadas branch on Yom Tov of Sukkos if one is doing so in order to validate the branch. Furthermore, even if one is not doing so in order to validate the branch, but rather in order to eat the grapes, but this is the only branch one has to fulfill the Mitzvah, then nevertheless it is forbidden to do so. This prohibition is due to Tikkun Keli, of which it is forbidden to be done even if one has no intent to do so, [being that one does plan to benefit from the vessel that his action created]. [Admur 646:12] If, however, one does need to use this Hadas for the Mitzvah, being he has other valid Hadassim available, then it is permitted to pluck the grapes from the Hadas for the purpose of eating being one is not fixing anything he has no use for it. [Admur 646:13]

[53] Admur 318:22

[54] Admur 318:21

[55] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 284

[56] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 117

[57] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 118

[58] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 21

[59] So rules Rav Farkash, and other Poskim of today with regards to removing water from a boiler or hot Mikvah. Now, although there is room to say that once the boiler has been turned off the water has the status of a Keli Sheiyni as since the walls of the vessel were never heated from under therefore, they have the same logistics as that of a Keli Sheiyni which its walls have not been heated due to a fire and therefore continuously cool down. Nevertheless, this differentiation is not accurate being that nevertheless here the walls were continuously heated by the fire through the heated water while by a Keli Sheiyni the walls are not continuously heated.

[60] It is possible to learn that the water still has the status of a Keli Rishon being that the water while being poured was still on the fire and thus can be considered to have been cooked in that vessel. This understanding can be derived from the explanation of the Peri Megadim [A.A. 33] as to why in the bathtub case the water is still considered a Keli Rishon. Nevertheless, this argument is not accepted by Poskim as a) By the bathtub case the spring water constantly passes through the tub and thus heated up the walls of the tub. And b) If this deduction were correct then the Poskim should have mentioned it explicitly. The following Poskim rule leniently: Rav Farkash [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 22], Minchas Yitzchak [4:46], Rav Aurbach in SSH”K 1

[61] P”M 253 A”A 20, Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 33

[62] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 84-86; See Admur 451:28; Shach 107:7; Taz 92:30

[63] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 33

[64] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 27

[65] As by doing so cold water will be caused to enter into the boiler, and the boiler is defined as a Keli Rishon.

[66] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 129

[67] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 70

[68] As the adding of the hot water into cold water is allowed, as will be explained in “Iruiy Keli Rishon”, and the adding of the cold water to the boiler is a mere Pesik Reisha which the gentile has no intent to do which is permitted to be done by a gentile, as explained in chapter 253.

[69] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 129

[70] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[71] Admur 326:4

[72] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[73] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[74] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 128

[75] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 128

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