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A. The Nussach of the Bracha:
Prior to blowing the Shofar one recites the following blessing while standing: “ברוך ….אקב”ו לשמוע קול שופר” [“Baruch… Leshmoa Kol Shofar”]. If one mistakenly recited “Letkoa Beshofar” or “Al Tekias Shofar” he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.
B. The blessing of Shehechiyanu:
After reciting the blessing of “Lishmoa Kol Shofar” one is to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu [“בא”ה אמ”ה שהחיינו וקימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה]. The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited on both the first and second day of Rosh Hashanah. After reciting these two blessings [of Leshmoa and Shehechiyanu] the blower is to blow “תשר”ת תש”ת תר”ת” three times each set.
Wearing a new garment on the second day: By the Shofar blowing of the second day the Baal Tokeia should initially wear a new garment and have it on him while reciting the blessing of Shehechiyanu, intending to exempt it with the blessing of Shehechiyanu. [Upon saying Shehechiyanu one is not to intend only on the new garment and is to mainly intend that the Shehechiyanu is being said over the Mitzvah of Shofar.] When the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, in which case the Shofar was not blown on the first day, there is no need to wear a new garment during the blows of the second day. If one does not have a new garment available, he is nevertheless to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu over Shofar on the second day.
Does it suffice if one of the listeners has a new garment?
No. It only helps if the Baal Tokeia is wearing a new garment.
Q&A for Sefaradim
If a Sefaradi is Davening by an Ashkenazi Minyan on the second day may he answer Amen after Shehechiyanu?
Some write that he should not answer Amen although if he did, so it does not constitute an interval.
If on the second day one is blowing Shofar and reciting the blessings for a man of Sephardic origin is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?
If on the 2nd day of R”H a man of Sephardic origin is blowing Shofar for a man of Ashkenazi origin is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?
No. The listener is to say the blessing.
The blessing is recited in a standing position. See above Halacha 5 for further details on this subject!
Being Yotzei with the Baal Tokeia: It is a Mitzvah for the entire congregation who is fulfilling the Mitzvah of hearing Shofar to hear the blessing from a single person. Either the person blowing the Shofar is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf, or one of the participants who are listening is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf.
Not to answer Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo: The listeners are not to say Baruch Hu Uvarach Shemo upon hearing Hashem’s name said in the blessing. In the event one said Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo it is possible that one has not fulfilled his obligation of the blessing. For this reason it is imperative to warn the public of this matter, as many are unaware of this.
Answering Amen: The congregation answers Amen after each of the two blessings that are recited. However, some say that those which follow the Sephardic custom are not to answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu which is said by the second day. See Q&A above! If one listened to the blessing but did not answer Amen he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.
May a listener say the blessing instead of the Baal Tokeia?
If the Baal Tokeia already fulfilled his obligation: See F!
If the Baal Tokeia is currently fulfilling his obligation: Some Poskim rule that it is permitted for a listener to be delegated the merit of saying the blessing so long as he plans to fulfill the Mitzvah with this blow. Other Poskim however rule that initially the person who is blowing is always to say the blessing if he is currently also fulfilling his obligation. Practically, Admur rules like the former opinion that either the blower or listener may say the blessings on everyone’s behalf.
What is one to do if he is unable to hear the blessing properly and missed a few words?
He is to recite the blessings to himself making sure to conclude the blessing prior to the start of the blows.
If one arrived to Shul after the blessing over Shofar had been recited, may he say the blessing to himself?
If one is able to say the blessing prior to the first blow, then he should do so. If one is unable to, then he [or she] should say the blessing in-between the sets of Tekios. See next Q&A!
If one missed the blessing and heard some of the sounds, may a blessing still be recited over the remaining sounds?
Did not yet hear 30 blows: If one did not yet hear 30 sounds, then a blessing may be recited over the remaining sounds according to all. Thus, if one walked into Shul in middle and he missed even one blow, he can say the blessing prior to hearing the single blow that he missed. Some Poskim however leave in question whether a blessing may be recited if one already heard ten blows.
One already heard 30 blows [all Tekios Meyushav] may a blessing be said over Tekios Meumad: If one already heard 30 blows some Poskim rule one may still recite a blessing over the Musaf blows. Others however rule he can no longer recite a blessing and is rather to think it in his mind.
What is one to do if he arrived at Shul before Musaf?
He is to say a blessing to himself prior to the blows of Musaf. If in this congregation the custom is to blow during the silent Musaf prayer, then he should explicitly have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with these blows and delay the blessing until the blows in the Chazan’s repetition.
E. Talking between the blessing and the blowing:
One may not speak between the blessing said over the Shofar [by Tekios Meyushav] and the start of the blowing even of matters that relate to the blowing or prayer. If one transgressed and spoke of matters [not relating to the blowing, even if he spoke of] matters relating to the prayer, he must repeat the blessing. If, however, he spoke of matters that relate to the blowing then he is not required to repeat the blessing. Nevertheless, initially he may not speak of even matters that relate to the blowing prior to doing the Mitzvah unless it is not possible for him to begin the Mitzvah unless he speaks. [This law applies equally to the listener and not just to the Baal Tokeia. Hence if a listener spoke of irrelevant matters between the blessing and the commencing of the blows then he must repeat the blessing quietly to himself.]
Talking between blows: See Chapter 11 Halacha 9!
Talking between Tekios and Musaf: See Chapter 12 Halacha 3!
Talking during a blow: See Chapter 10 Halacha 13!
What is the law if one spoke during the first Tekiah after the blessing?
If he spoke during the first Tekiah of irrelevant maters, then he must repeat the blessing. If however he already heard the first Tekiah then the blessing does not need to be repeated.
May one practice the Segula of Vihi Noam prior to the first blow?
If one is not successful in blowing the Shofar properly [and he is a good blower and the Shofar is a good Shofar] it is a Segula to turn the Shofar around and whisper into it the paragraph of Vihi Noam. [see Chapter 11 Halacha 5 for the full details of this subject]. Nevertheless, if one is not successful in sounding even the first blow then he may not recite the above Segula, as doing so would be an interval between the blessing and the blowing, and would require a new blessing to be recited. If however there is no other Shofar available in the area and hence bringing a new Shofar would anyways require the recital of a new blessing then the Segula may be recited and a new blessing is to follow.
If after the blessings one switched the Shofar for a different Shofar must the blessing be repeated?
The new Shofar was already on the Bimah: If the Baal Tokeia had the new Shofar in mind at the time of the blessing then a new blessing is never repeated. It is for this reason that it is accustomed to set up many Shofros at the time of the blessing, and have them all in mind during the blessing, just in case he needs to switch Shofros during the blows.
The new Shofar was not present during the blessing: If the Baal Tokeia did not have the new Shofar in mind prior to the blessing then if the Shofar is being switched prior to the first blow the blessing must be repeated. However some Poskim rule that even in such a case the blessing is not to be repeated. If the new Shofar is being brought only after the first blow, then according to all a blessing is not repeated.
What is the law if one realized in middle of one of the blows that the Shofar is invalid, must the blessing be repeated?
If one sees that the Shofar was invalid from the beginning of the blowing, then the blessing must be repeated. This applies even if he had other Shofros on the Bima at the time of the blessing. If, however, the invalidation occurred after the first blow, or one is unsure as to when the invalidation occurred, then a blessing is not recited. [This applies even if a new Shofar is being brought as explained in the previous Q&A!]
A person is able to fulfill his obligation of Shofar through hearing the blows from another person even if he knows how to blow Shofar himself and even if there isn’t a Minyan present.
Saying the blessing when blowing for other men: If one who has already fulfilled his obligation of hearing Shofar is blowing Shofar for a man who has not yet fulfilled his obligation, then if the man knows how to recite the blessings, he is to recite them rather than hear the blessings from the blower who already fulfilled his obligation. [This law likewise applies if the blower did not yet fulfill his obligation, but plans to only do so with a later blowing. Bedieved, if the blower recited the blessings rather than the listener, nevertheless the listener fulfills his obligation of reciting the blessings.] If, however, the listener is unable to recite the blessings then the blower is to recite both blessings [i.e. Leshmoa and Shehechiyanu] for the listener. [On the second day of Rosh Hashanah men of Sephardic origin do not recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu.]
Saying the blessing when blowing for only Women: If one already fulfilled his obligation of hearing Shofar, or plans to do so with a later blowing, then if he is blowing for only women, [if the women follow the Ashkenazi custom], she is to say the blessings herself. If she cannot say the blessing herself one may not say the blessings for her, and one is hence to blow without a blessing. [If she follows the Sefaradi custom she is not to say the blessing at all even if she knows the blessing.] See Halacha 1B for further details on this topic!
Having intent to fulfill the Mitzvah: It is important to remind those hearing Shofar to have in mind while hearing it, that they are fulfilling the Mitzvah of Shofar, as Mitzvahs require intent. See Halacha 5!
What is the definition of not knowing how to recite the blessings?
Seemingly, this means the person has difficulty verbalizing the Hebrew words, or does not know the Nussach of the blessing. There is no obligation for the blower to have the listener repeat the blessing after him. However, some Poskim write that it is best to do so, although he is not to say Hashem’s name.
May one blow the Shofar on behalf of children above the age of Chinuch if he already fulfilled his obligation?
Yes. However, in such a case the child is to say the blessing and not the Baal Tokeia.
When blowing Shofar for others who know to say the blessing should each one say the blessing themselves or should one say it on behalf of them all?
If there are less than ten people present, then each person is to say the blessing themselves prior to the blowing. If there are ten people present then one person says it aloud for everyone to hear and fulfill their obligation. [However, some rule that when blowing for a group of women, every woman is to say the blessing to herself even if there are ten women present.]
When blowing Shofar in various areas should one fulfill his obligation with the first blowing or the later blowing?
Some Poskim rule it is best to fulfill one’s obligation in the first area that he is blowing Shofar. Others rule he is to full his obligation in the last area. Admur does not differentiate in this matter and leaves the choice in the hands of the Baal Tokeia.
If on the second day one is blowing Shofar and reciting the blessings for a man of Sephardic origin, is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?
No. See B in Q&A!
If on the second day a Sephardi is blowing Shofar and reciting the blessings for a man of Ashkenazi origin, is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?
No. See B in Q&A!
 585:4; Michaber 585:2 based on Rishonim in next footnote
 The reason one does not recite “Litkoa Beshofar”: One does not recite “”Litkoa Beshofar” as the blow itself is not the main Mitzvah and rather the hearing of the sound is the main Mitzvah. This can be seen from the following law: If one blew the Shofar but did not hear the sound of the Shofar, he has not fulfilled his obligation as is explained in chapter 587:2-3 with regards to blowing in a pit. [Admur ibid; Tur 585; Bahag; Beis Yosef; Bach 585; Kaf Hachaim 585:16]
The reason one does not recite “Leshmoa Bekol Shofar”: One should not recite “Leshmoa Bekol Shofar” as this implies that one is commanded to comply with the commands of the Shofar. [ibid; Bach; M”A 585:2; Taz 585:2; Bach; Levush; Peri Megadim 585 M.Z. 2; Vetzaruch Iyun if there is any difference between the wording of the M”A (Laasos Ritzono) and Taz (Letzayeis) in this matter. Admur recorded the wording of the Taz.]
Other opinions: Some Rishonim ruled that one is to say “Letkoa Beshofar. [Smag; Rabbeinu Tam brought in Bach ibid]
 Admur ibid; M”A 585:2; Elya Raba 585:4; Nehar Shalom 585:2; Chayeh Adam 141:7; M”E 585:3; M”B 585:4; Kaf Hachaim 585:16-17
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that even Bedieved one does not fulfill his obligation and the blessing must hence be repeated. [Peri Chadash and Mateh Yehuda brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]
The law if one recited “Leshmoa Bekol Shofar”: Regarding if one mistakenly recited “Bekol Shofar” Admur [and the M”A ibid] does not rule whether he fulfills his obligation. However, the Elya Raba 585:4 rules that one fulfills his obligation even if he said Bekol Shofar. [Peri Megadim 585 A”A 2] So rules also Chayeh Adam ibid; M”E ibid; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 585:17.
 585:5; Michaber 585:2
 The reason: The reason that Shehechiyanu is recited is because blowing Shofar is a Mitzvah that applies only on the occasion of the arrival of a specific time. [Admur ibid; Levush ibid]
Why is the blessing of Shehechiyanu repeated by Shofar and the night blessing does not suffice: The blessing of Shehechiyanu recited at night does not count for the Mitzvah of Shofar as the Mitzvah of Shofar does not begin until day. [Orchos Chaim 99; Olas Shabbos 585:1; Kisei Eliyahu 585:3; Kaf Hachaim 585:18]
 600:7; Rama 600:3; See the section on Rosh Hashanah Chapter 3 for the full details of this subject.
Opinion of Michaber and Sefaradim: According to the Michaber [600:3], and so is the custom of the Sefaradim, Shehechiyanu is omitted on the 2nd day before Shofar. [Admur ibid in parentheses]
Why is the blessing of Shehechiyanu recited on blowing Shofar on the second day of R”H but not on the second day of shaking the Lulav? The reason for this is because Bedieved one fulfills his obligation if he recites Shehechiyanu on the Lulav even prior to the holiday, and hence his obligation was already fulfilled when he recited Shehechiyanu on the first day of Sukkos. However, by Shofar the blessing is only fulfilled by the actual Mitzvah and hence the Shehechiyanu is repeated just like by night. [M”A 644; Ran; Haghahos Maimanis; Kaf Hachaim 644:8]
 600:7; M”A 600:3; Hagahos Maimanis; [The Rama [600:3] omits the necessity of having a new garment by Shofar-see Kaf Hachaim 600:10]
Other Opinions: Some rule one is not required to search for a new garment and Shehechiyanu may be recited even initially. [See M”B 600:7; Kaf Hachaim ibid that according to Rama and others one does not need a new clothing for Shofar; See Shaareiy Tziyon 600:5; Minchas Shlomo 20; Birkeiy Yosef 600:2; Maaseh Rav 203; Shaar Hakavanos p. 90; Mishnes Chassidim; brought in Piskeiy Hassidur 178; Kaf Hachaim 600:7 [regarding Kiddush].
Opinion of Michaber and Sefaradim: According to the Michaber [606:3], which is the custom of the Sefaradim, Shehechiyanu is omitted on the 2nd day before Shofar. [Admur ibid] This applies even if one is wearing a new clothing. [Kaf Hachaim 600:10]
 Admur ibid; However, the listeners do not have to wear a new garment. [Avnei Nezer 449]
 See the section on “Rosh Hashanah” Chapter 2 Halacha 24 in Q&A for exactly what garments are valid to be worn for the Shehechiyanu.
 It does not help for the Baal Tokeia to have a new fruit before him being that he is unable to eat it until much later on. [See Admur 600:6-7 only mentions the option of a new fruit by Kiddush and not by Shofar. See Machatzis Hashekel 600:1; See the section on “Rosh Hashanah” Chapter 2 Halacha 24 in Q&A!]
 M”E 600:13; Minchas Shlomo 20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:2
 Admur ibid; Michaber 600:3
The reason: As the blessing of Shehechiyanu has never yet been recited over the blowing. [ibid]
The law if one by mistake blew Shofar on Shabbos with Shehechiyanu: According to the Ashkenazim this has no relevance and the blessing of Shehechiyanu is to be repeated the next day. [Kaf Hachaim 600:9] However according to the Michaber and Sefaradim he is not to recite Shehechiyanu the next day. [Peri Haretz 2:10; Birkeiy Yosef 600:4; Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 600:7 [“Only Lechatchila one needs..”]; 600:6 [regarding Kiddush]
 Avnei Nezer 449
 As one cannot be Motzi another person with Shehechiyanu unless he is also obligated in the matter. [P”M 225 A”A 1]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:3
 Yabia Omer 1:29
 Admur 213:6; M”A 213:7; Mabit 1:180 in interpretation of Tosefta ibid; Admur 298:20 and Michaber 298:13 regarding Havdala candle; M”A 298:18
 The reason: As Berov Am Hadras Melech, and we do not say in this case that there is an advantage of increasing in necessary blessings, as when a group fulfills a Mitzvah together they are considered like one entity/body and it suffices for them to recite one blessing. Accordingly, if every individual says their own blessing it is not considered a required blessing at all, as their Mitzvah is considered like the Mitzvah of a single entity, and there is not so much of an advantage of increasing in blessings. Now, although saying individual blessings in such a case is not prohibited due to a blessing in vain [Bracha Sheiyno Tzericha], being that every individual is obligated in this blessing, and even now through hearing it, it is as if they are saying it [and therefore are Yotzei], nevertheless, since there is no advantage in the increased amount of blessings, therefore one person is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf to fulfill the advantage of Berov Am. [Admur ibid regarding Birchas Hanehnin, and he applies the same rule to Birchas Hamitzvos of a collective Mitzvah]
 Admur ibid; Implication of Taz 585 brought in Shaareiy Tziyon 585:24; M”B 589:4 in name of Achronim
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that initially the person who is blowing is always to say the blessing if he is currently also fulfilling his obligation. [Kaf Hachaim 589:12 and 585:38; Yoreh Deah P”M 1 M”Z 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:9]
 124:2; Degul Merivava, Chayeh Adam and other Achronim brought in M”B 124:21; See Shraga Hameir 5:55; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585 footnote 29; 124:11 footnote 106; Mishneh Halachos 13:16
 The reason: Whenever a person is hearing a blessing with intent to fulfill his obligation, such as by Kiddush, Havdala and blessings over fruits and Mitzvos, he may not answer Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo, being that one who hears [and fulfills his obligation] is like one who is saying it himself and it is forbidden to make an interval in the midst of a blessing. [Admur 124:2 in parentheses]
 Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam brought in M”B 124:21; See Shraga Hameir ibid that in such a case he also missed the words “Elokeinu Melech Haolam of the person saying the blessing; See Minchas Elazar 1:20
The reason: It is possible that even Bedieved one does not fulfill his obligation as since he made an interval between Hashem’s name and Malchus with words that were not inserted by the Sages he has therefore swerved from the dialect of the blessings that was set by the Sages. [Admur ibid in parentheses]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one answered Baruch Hu Uvarach Shemo he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. [conclusion of M”B ibid; Mahram Shick 51; Birkeiy Yosef 213:3 in name of Mahrash Abuhav; Piskeiy Teshuvos 124:11 and 585:3]
 Admur 213:4; Michaber 213:2; Rambam Brachos 1:11; Brachos 45b
 Admur 213:6; Implication of Taz 585 brought in Shaareiy Tziyon 585:24; M”B 589:4 in name of Achronim
 Kaf Hachaim 589:12 and 585:38; Yoreh Deah P”M 1 M”Z 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:9
 Admur 213:6
 Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 15; Kaf Hachaim 585:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:3
 Kaf Hachaim 585:39; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:8
 Kaf Hachaim 585:37 and 39; See regarding the blessing over Megillah: Nehar Shalom 692:1; Beis Oved 692:7; M”B 692:6
 Kaf Hachaim 585:36; Peri Chadash
 See P”M 593 A”A 3 that according to Rav Hiay Gaon one is Totzei and even according to the final ruling in Shulchan Aruch this is considred a Safek Gamur.
 Peri Haretz 9; Ikarei Daat 30:1; Bnei Yissachar 3:34 [even after Musaf if there remain the ten blows, he may say the blessing]
 Kaf Hachaim 585:36 and 39
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:8 footnote 59
 Admur 592:7; Michaber 592:3; M”A 592:5; see also Admur 167:9; 206:3; Seder 9:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 37:7; See Admur 8:21-22 regarding speaking and switching rooms between the wearing of two Talleisim; 25:18-20 regarding speaking between the Tefillin Shel Yad and Shel Rosh; 167:9 regarding talking between the blessing and eating; 432:6 regarding talking between the blessing of Bedikas Chametz and the Bedika
 Admur ibid; M”A 592:5; Chayeh Adam 141:9; Derech Hachaim; M”E 592:5; M”B 592:14; Kaf Hachaim 592:24
The reason: As he made an interval between the blessing and the matter the blessing is being said for. [Admur ibid]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even if one spoke of matters relating to the prayer, he is not required to repeat the blessing. [Elya Raba 592:5 as implied from Mordechai and Aguda] Practically the Poskim ibid negate his opinion.
 Such as asking someone for the Shofar and matters of the like. [Admur ibid]
 M”A 592:5; Chayeh Adam 141:9; M”E 592:5; M”B 592:14; Kaf Hachaim 592:22
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 592:4
 M”A 585:11; Mateh Moshe 808; Mahril; Kaf Hachaim 585:48
 Degul Merivava 585 on M”A ibid; brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 585:7
Why is this not considered a matter relevant to the blowing? As this Segula is not a definite cure to the problem. [ibid]
 Shaareiy Teshuvah 585:7
 Alef Hamagen 585:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:6
 M”B 585:4; Binyan Olam 31 brought in Piskeiy Teshuvah and Kaf Hachaim 585:15; see Alef Hamagen 585:6; See Admur 8:21 [regarding Tallis]; 639:14 [regarding Sukkah]; Mahram Shick 285 [regarding Mezuzah]; Daas Kedoshim 289 [regarding Mezuzah]
 Kaf Hachaim 585:15 and 37; Maharshag 1:57; Kinyan Torah 7:44; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:6
The reason: As the blessing is not on the Shofar itself but on the hearing of the sound of the Shofar, irrelevant of which Shofar it will be. [Kaf Hachaim 585:37]
 M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Alef Hamagen 585:6
 Peri Chadash brought in Kaf Hachaim 585:37; Alef Hamagen 592:8 in name of Achronim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:6
 As the blows themselves are an interval between the blessing and the Mitzvah. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Admur 591:1; Michaber 591:1; M”B 594:1
The reason: This follows the same law as by all Mitzvos that one person is able to be Motzi another. [Tur] This is due to the concept of Areivus that every Jew is a guarantor for each other. [Kaf Hachaim 594:1]
 Admur 585:5; M”A 585:3 based on Terumas Hadeshen 140; Opinion in M”B 585:5 and 692:10; Machatzis Hashekel 585; P”M 585 A”A 3; Derech Hachaim 2 regarding Shofar; Mateh Efraim 585:6; Chayeh Adam 141:7; Kaf Hachaim 585:21; Poskim who rule similarly in other Halachas: Tzitzis: Admur 8:11; Kiddush: Michaber 273:4; Admur 273:6; Megillah: Kaf Hachaim 692:14 and 25; Derech HaChaim 3; Minchas Yitzchak 3:53-54; Salmas Chaim 269; Luach Tukichinsky; Kinyan Torah 3:103; See Sdei Chemed R”R 2:19
The Rama [585:2] rules that the blower is to recite both blessings whether he is blowing for himself, to fulfill his personal obligation, or whether he is blowing for others. The M”A [585:3] brings the Terumas Hadeshen  which rules that it is always better for the listener to recite the blessing, although he concludes that the custom is that the blower recites it. Regarding Shehechiyanu the Terumas Hadeshen does not discuss who is to recite it. The Rambam, Mateh Moshe, Mahriv and Hagahos Maimanis rule that the listener is to recite it while the Beis Yosef writes that the custom is for the blower to recite it. It is based on these two customs written in the Terumas Hadeshen and Beis Yosef that the Rama here writes that the blower is to recite both blessings. Nevertheless the M”A ibid concludes that this custom only applies if the listener does not know how to recite the blessing however if the listener knows how to recite it, then he is to do so and he then fulfills his obligation according to all. The ruling of Admur here follows the ruling of the M”A ibid.
Ruling of the M”B: The M”B 585:5 rules that the custom is to be lenient and one is not to protest their opinion as so is the main opinion. The Kaf Hachaim 585:21 questions this ruling of the M”B as majority of Poskim ibid rule that it is to initially be said by the listener. However see Minchas Yitzchak ibid that explains the M”B did not mean to say that most Poskim initially rule this way.
 The reason: This follows the general rule that the blessings are to be recited by one who is currently fulfilling his obligation of the Mitzvah. [273:6] The Terumas Hadeshen 140 explains that since the Mitzvah is to hear the sound of the Shofar and both the blower and listener are equally fulfilling this action of hearing, therefore it is better for the listener to recite the blessing since he is fulfilling his obligation with the hearing. [This is unlike the law of placing a Mezuzah for another person in which case the person placing the Mezuzah says the blessing, as in that case he is the only person doing the action as opposed to the owner of the house.]
 See 273:6; Thus, if one is blowing for other Jews prior to Shacharis and he plans to fulfill the Mitzvah during Davening, the listeners are to recite the blessings if they have knowledge in how to do so.
 273:6; Terumos Hadeshen 140
 The reason: Although the person who is saying the blessing is not fulfilling the Mitzvah at the moment, and hence does not need the blessing, nevertheless since all the Jewish people are gurantors to each other, therefore it ends up that he too needs this blessing now [due to his obligation of a gurantor]. (It is for this reason that it is accustomed for the Chazan to recite the blessing [over Tzitzis] aloud in order to fulfill the obligation of one who is not an expert.) This same law applies by the blessings of all Mitzvos. [ibid]
 Michaber 600:3; Admur 600:7
 589:2; Rama 589:7
 Michaber 589:6- as is the ruling of the Beis Yosef in all Mitzvos that women are not obligated in.
Other Opinions-Sefaradim: Some Sefaradi Poskim rule that women may recite a blessing over any Mitzvah that they are not obligated in. [Birkeiy Yosef 654:2; Yosef Ometz 82; See Kaf Hachaim 589:23] The Birkeiy Yosef ibid states that after seeing the answer from heaven in Shut Min Hashamayim he retracted his ruling like the Michaber and would tell women to recite a blessing. He concludes that if the Michaber would have seen the Shut Min Hashamayim certainly he would have retracted his ruling.
 So is implied from M”A 585:3; See Background.
 Pashut, as otherwise all the above Poskim would have simply stated for this to be done; Furthermore, perhaps from the fact that the Poskim do not mention this option one can derive that it is forbidden to do so, being that at least one person is saying a Bracha Levatala when one says it after the other word for word. See Admur 215:2 “Although it is forbidden for a Gadol to be taught [the blessings].” However, seemingly there it only refers when the Gadol does not currently need to say the blessing, however when he needs to say the blessing then perhaps it is permitted to teach him, and have him repeat word for word. [so is implied from explanation of Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 3:138] Furthermore, the Tur in name of the Rosh explicitly rules that by Birchas Hamazon one may recite the blessing word after word for the other. Although perhaps Birchas Hamazon is an exception, Vetzaruch Iyun!
 Kaf Hachaim 8:21
 Peri Megadim 589 A”A 4; Chayeh Adam 140:7
 If the child knows how to say the blessing then this follows the same ruling as any time one is blowing for another in which case the person fulfilling the Mitzvah is to say the blessing, as explained above.
If the child does not know how to say the blessing: The P”M ibid writes that the adult may say the blessing on behalf of the child since he is obligated in Mitzvos, however he concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. The Piskeiy Teshuvos 589:2 writes based on this that the adult is not to say the blessing.
 Mateh Efraim 585:6; Kaf Hachaim 585:22
 M”E ibid; See however Kaf Hachaim ibid that questions why one person can’t be Motzi others with less than ten. He thus states that with less than ten one can choose either method, that one says on behalf of all or that each one says it to themselves.
 Minchas Yitzchak 3:54 regarding Megillah based on Shaareiy Tziyon 689:15 in name of Karban Nesanel and Tosafus
The reason: As it is not befitting for one woman to fulfill the obligation for other women. [Minchas Yitzchak ibid]
 M”E 585:9 as one should not delay a Mitzvah
 Lechem Hapanim in Kitzur SH”A 129; Alef Hamagen 585:21; See Har Tzevi 2:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:7
The reason: In order to suspect for those opinions in Rishonim [Bahag and Geonim] that if one already fulfilled his obligation he cannot blow for others.