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2. The Rabbinical prohibition- Salting foods:
For a general summary see 2D!
Although Biblically the prohibition of tanning does not apply to foods, nevertheless Rabbinically the prohibition of tanning applies food.
A. Salting raw meat [which is edible by some in its raw state] in order to soften it:
Meat which has not yet been salted for blood: There is a Rabbinical [prohibition of] tanning food and therefore it is forbidden to salt raw meat, even with intent to eat it raw on Shabbos (if it had still not yet been salted in order to kosher it from its blood). [If, however, the meat was already slated for its blood, then one may salt it on Shabbos if he plans to eat it that day.]
The reason for this prohibition is: because salt helps raw meat (which has not been previously salted) to soften it and prepare it and make it ready to eat and is [thus] similar to tanning.
Meat which has already been salted for blood: See D below
It is forbidden to salt raw meat even in order to eat the meat on Shabbos, if it had never yet been salted for its blood. Regarding meat that has been previously salted, see next case.
May one salt raw fish such as Sushi?
No. It is forbidden to salt raw fish on Shabbos just like it is forbidden to salt raw meat. This applies even if the fish is edible such as in a sushi dish. This however only applies to fish which the salt helps to soften it and prepare it and make it ready to eat and is [thus] similar to tanning. If, however, one is salting the fish simply to give it taste, then it may be done right before the meal, but only if one adds oil and the like to the sushi prior to the salting, as explained above.
B. Salting in order to preserve:
Salting raw meat for preservation: It goes without saying that it is forbidden to salt [meat] in order so it stay preserved and not spoil, even if [not doing so] will cause a great financial loss, and even if it had been already salted and koshered from its blood.
Salting other foods for preservation: This law as well applies for other items [and foods], that it is forbidden to salt them on Shabbos in order to preserve them even in a case of great financial loss.
Summary-Salting a food in order to preserve it:
All foods are forbidden to be salted for preservation purposes, even if not doing so will cause great financial loss.
C. Pickling foods on Shabbos:
Similarly, it is forbidden to place heavily salted water or other liquids [such as vinegar or wine] into vegetables or other foods which are pickled to be preserved (even if one plans to eat from them right away in which case he is not troubling himself for only a weekday purpose) [See Q&A regarding vinegar]
The reason for this is: ([as] nevertheless) since he is pickling them to preserve, it is similar to tanning in which the salt preserves them.
Other opinions regarding the reason: [However] there are opinions which say that pickling is forbidden [not because of the tanning prohibition but] because it is Rabbinically considered cooking.
Dipping foods in salt water: One may dip foods into salt water for taste, following the regulations explained in Halacha D-E regarding salting foods for taste.
|Summary-Salting a food in order to preserve it:
It is forbidden to pickle foods in salt water.
May one pickle foods that are not normally pickled?
Salt water: One may not allow a food to sit in salt water for even less than Shiur Kevisha, unless it is a food that salt does not help to change its form, as explained in Halacha E. Regarding if these foods that salt does not help to change its form, may be left for more than Shiur Kevisha, see Q&A below regarding vinegar that it is disputed as to whether one may leave uncommonly pickled foods in vinegar. Vetzaruch Iyun if the lenient opinion would be lenient even regarding salt water.
Vinegar: See next Q&A! Ketzos Hashulchan 321
Q&A on vinegar and other non-salt pickling agents
May one pickle foods in vinegar, or other non-salt pickling agent, on Shabbos?
Many Poskim rule it is forbidden to pickle foods even in vinegar on Shabbos, even if one plans to eat it on Shabbos. Some Poskim however rule it is permitted to pickle foods in vinegar on Shabbos [if one plans to eat it on Shabbos]. Practically, one is to be stringent. Some Poskim arbitrate that it is permitted to pickle in vinegar foods that are not normally pickled, and only those foods that are normally pickled are forbidden. Others however rule one is to be stringent by all foods.
May one place liquid into vinegar on Shabbos in order to create more vinegar?
Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so. Others however rule it is permitted to do so. If one is doing so in order to weaken the vinegar, then it is allowed according to all.
May one add vinegar to a salad on Shabbos?
Yes. One may add a small amount of vinegar to the salad.
How long must the food remain in the mixture for it to be considered pickling?
It must remain for 24 hours, unless the liquid is very strong, in which case it can pickle in 18 minutes. See next Q&A regarding if one may pickle the food for less than this amount of time.
May one leave the food in the pickling juice for less than Shiur Kevisha?
Salt water: One may not allow the food to sit in the salt water for even less than Shiur Kevisha, unless it is a food that salt does not help to change its form, as explained in Halacha E. It is permitted to dip all foods in salt water, following the limitations explained in Halacha D-E!
Vinegar: Some Poskim rule if the vinegar is strong then one may not leave a commonly pickled food in it even for a short amount of time, less than Shiur Kevisha, as it appears like one is pickling it. Other Poskim rule one may leave all foods in vinegar [for less than Shiur Kevisha], if one does so during the actual meal. From other Poskim it is implied that it is completely permitted to leave all foods in vinegar for less than Shiur Kevisha.
May one enter foods into water if it will remain for 24 hours?
Yes, so long as he will eat some of this food on Shabbos, and it is hence not considered that he is troubling himself on Shabbos for a weekday.
May one pickle foods if he adds oil to the pickling liquid?
See M”B 321:10 for a dispute.
May one return pickled foods into the vinegar or brine?
Yes. It is permitted to return pickled foods to their vinegar or brine on Shabbos. This however only applies if the food has completed its pickling process. If, however, it is still within the process of pickling it may not be returned.
May one return an already pickled food to a different pickling mixture?
Some rule it is permitted to do so. Others rule it is forbidden.
May one pickle an already cooked food?
No. This applies whether in salt water or vinegar.
D. Salting foods which salt helps to change their natural state, or are commonly pickled, in order to eat on Shabbos:
Regarding placing food in salt water-See 2B! Regarding salting raw meat-See above 2A. The following laws refer placing salt on all other foods.
- First Opinion:
Not to salt more than one piece at a time: Any item which salt helps to change its natural state, [such as] to soften it or harden it or remove its bitterness and other [changes] of the like, such as for example radish or onion or garlic and the like of other spicy foods which when they are left in salt they secrete and remove their bitterness and become hard, as well as beans and lentils which were cooked with their peel of which salt softens their hardness which they have as a result of their peel [See Q&A], as well as species of raw cucumbers (called ugerkis) of which the salt helps them, as well as all other things which are commonly pickled, it is forbidden to salt more than one piece at a time [even] in order to eat it right away.
The reason for this is because: as when one salts two pieces together and certainly [when he salts] more [than two pieces] it appears like one is pickling pickled foods [which itself is forbidden due to cooking, or do due it being similar to tanning]. [Regarding the reason behind the prohibition of pickling-See Halacha 3A!]
Not to salt for a later use: [Furthermore] even one piece of radish and the like is forbidden to dip into salt and leave it [with the salt] for a long time in order so its sharpness dissipate through it secreting moisture, being that doing so is similar to tanning.
Dipping many pieces individually to eat right away: However it is permitted to dip even a few pieces [when dipping] each one individually and one places it in front of him in order to them eat right away, one after the other without much delay. Even if the [pieces] remain a small amount of time [in their salt prior to being eaten] and they [thus] secrete some moisture [nevertheless] this poses no problem so long as that they do not remain a long time [with their salt] even [when planning to eat them] within the same meal [as nevertheless it does not appear like pickling]. [Meaning] for example [if] from the beginning of the meal to the end [of the meal there is enough time] for [the salted food] to secrete a lot of moisture [then it is forbidden to delay eating it until the end of the meal] because doing so is similar to tanning which is forbidden [to do] with even only one piece [of food].
- Other Opinions:
[However] there are opinions which say that it is forbidden to leave [the food] in salt at all even for a small amount of time, [and] even [when it is] only a single piece. Therefore [according to this view] it is forbidden to dip two pieces [in salt even] one after the other and then place them in front of him to eat immediately one after the other being that until one [finishes] eating the first piece the second piece remains in the salt. [Thus] it is only permitted to dip a single piece and then eat it right away.
The reason behind why one may not salt more than one piece at a time according to the 2nd opinion: According to the latter opinion the reason that [the Sages] prohibited to salt a few pieces at the same time is not because it appears like [one is] pickling pickled [foods], but rather is because that until one [finishes] eating the first [piece] the second piece remained in the salt and since the salt benefits it, this is similar to tanning. [See Q&A]
Salting many pieces at the same time and then immediately adding vinegar or oil: Therefore [based on the latter opinion] that which [people are] accustomed [on Shabbos] to cut a radish very thin and then place it on a plate and salt it and then pour on it vinegar involves no prohibition even though that this is similar to salting many pieces together which [we said above] is forbidden [to be done] even to eat right away, [as] nevertheless since [the radish pieces] do not remain at all alone with the salt, as one immediately pours on it vinegar and other species, it is [therefore] not similar to tanning. Certainly [this allowance applies] if one pours oil on it being that oil weakens the strength of the salt. [See Q&A regarding how close to the meal this must be done]
Nevertheless one must beware to pour the oil or vinegar [on the salted pieces] immediately after salting it [and doing so may not be delayed]. However that which some [people] are accustomed to make a vegetable (called lettuce) in which they first salt the vegetable on its own and then leave it this way and drain the water that comes out from it and then [only] afterwards mix it with oil and vinegar, doing so is a complete prohibition and is more similar to tanning [than when it is not left at all alone its salt] being that he delays until [the food] absorbs the salt well. [See Q&A]
- The Final Ruling:
The custom is like this latter opinion [that one may not delay the eating of the salted food at all] and so is the law with regards to any [food] which salt benefits. [See Q&A]
Summary- Salting foods which salt helps to change their natural state:
All foods which salt helps to soften it or harden it or remove its bitterness and other changes of the like, which includes all foods which are commonly pickled, may only be salted one piece at a time, and must be eaten immediately. It is thus forbidden to salt another piece prior to eating the first piece as doing so delays the eating of the first piece.
Examples of foods which salt helps change and are included in above restriction: Radishes, Onion, Garlic, Beans and Lentils that were cooked in their peels, cucumbers, lettuce.
Adding oil or vinegar to the food: However, if one immediately adds oil or vinegar to the food after salting, [and certainly if one did so even before the salting] then it is permitted to salt even many pieces at the same time [and they may even be eaten later on, on Shabbos, although one must do so in close proximity to the meal.] [See Q&A]
Canned fruits and vegetables:
All canned foods that are not pickled in their packaging process, are not included in the definition of commonly pickled foods, and only those foods that are commonly preserved in pickling agents, such as salt and vinegar are included in this prohibition.
May one sprinkle salt onto the foods rather than dip the foods into the salt?
Yes. However some Poskim rule one may only dip the foods into the salt and not sprinkle them on top.
If the reason behind the prohibition to salt more than one food at a time is due to that it appears like pickling which itself is prohibited according to some due to that it appears like cooking, why may one therefore not be lenient to salt already cooked foods, after all there is no cooking after cooking?
The reason that this is nevertheless not allowed is possibly because the Sages did not make any differentiation in their decree against salting foods. Alternatively, pickling a precooked food is similar to roasting after cooking which is not allowed, as pickling is a different form of cooking than is cooking.
May one salt an already salted food?
If the food was already fully salted, it is permitted to add salt to it on Shabbos. If, however, adding more salt will help in changing the food, then doing so is forbidden.
May one ask a gentile to salt one’s foods on Shabbos?
This follows the same ruling as all Rabbinical prohibitions in which it is forbidden to ask a gentile to perform them. Thus, it is forbidden to ask a gentile maid to add salt to one’s food unless one also tells her to add oil right away. One may however ask a gentile to make a salad, which includes slating it and dressing it, and she can decide to do it in whatever order she chooses, whether to first place the dressing and then the salt, or first the slat and then sometime later the dressing, and one is not required to protest her actions. Nevertheless, one may note explicitly ask her to delay the placing of the dressing on the salad after the salting.
Q&A on salting more than one at a time
May one also be lenient like the second opinion, or must one be stringent like both opinions?
Seemingly the custom is only to be stringent like the second opinion with regards to prohibit the salting of even two foods one after the other. However, with regards to leniencies which derive from the view of the second opinion [see the next question], seemingly one is to be stringent as holds the first opinion.
May one salt more than one food at a time if he plans to eat both of them at the same time?
No. However, some Poskim rule there is room to be lenient, although practically it is proper to be stringent.
May one salt more than one bean at a time and the like of other foods which are usually eaten many at one time?
Yes. However this may only be done to an amount of beans which he will be eating immediately within one mouthful. It is forbidden to salt more than one mouthful worth of the bean or other food of the like.
Q&A on adding oil
Should one add the oil before the salt or may he add the salt and then the oil?
The custom is to allow placing the salt first and then the oil, as written in Poskim ibid. However it is proper to first place the oil and then the salt.
May one be lenient to salt many foods and then add oil to it immediately even according to the first opinion, and if not then may one today practically be lenient in the above?
There is room to question whether this would be allowed according to the first opinion. Practically although there is certainly room to be lenient even according to the first opinion, it is proper to be stringent to place in the oil prior to placing in the salt in which case this is permitted according to all without question.
Is the placing of oil and salt on one’s food only allowed to be done in proximity to the upcoming meal?
Some Poskim rule it is only allowed to be done prior to the current meal and may not be done for the sake of the next meal. However some write it may be done for even later use.
What liquids may be added to the salad to nullify its salt?
All liquids are valid, including lemon juice and water.
How much salt may one add to the food that will have liquid placed on it?
One may not add a lot of salt, as this will turn the liquid into salt water.
How much vinegar may one add to the food that has salt on it?
One may not add a lot of vinegar, as this will consider the foods as Kavush.
Q&A on other spices
May one place sugar [or other spices] on fruits or vegetables without restriction?
Some Poskim rule that those foods which are commonly preserved using sugar or sugar water [such as canned peaches and other canned fruits; dried fruits, and fruits used in jams] are not to have sugar placed on them in a way it appears like one is preserving them. However, foods that are not normally pickled would be allowed to be sugared according to all. Other Poskim however rule there is no salting prohibition relevant to, even to foods that are commonly preserved in sugar. Even according to the stringent opinion, one may sprinkle a small amount of sugar onto even many foods for the sake of mere taste, and is not required to follow the limitations of one piece at a time and to eat it right away. It is only forbidden to spread a large amount of sugar in a way that it appears one is preserving it.
May one sugar his grapefruit on Shabbos?
Yes, as grapefruit is not commonly pickled.
May one place pepper on foods without restriction?
Yes, as doing so does not involve either pickling or tanning.
May one add preservatives to foods on Shabbos?
If one salted a food that salt helps change their natural state on Shabbos without adding oil/vinegar to it may one still eat it on Shabbos?
If this was done unintentionally, such as he forgot to place oil in it right away, or he was not aware that salting involves a prohibition, then the food may be eaten. If it was done despite knowledge of the prohibition, and one advertently delayed placing in oil, then it may not be eaten by anyone until Motzei Shabbos. [See “The laws of Cooking” chapter 2 Q&A there!] In all cases, if one has oil, vinegar or other liquid available, he is to immediately pour it into the salted food in order to avoid it coming to a transgression. [Alternatively, one can rinse the salt off the food if he plans to eat the food right away.]
E. Salting foods which salt only helps to give taste and are not commonly pickled:
Any item [or food] which salt does not help to change its nature and rather only gives it taste [and is also not commonly pickled, See previous Halacha 3C for exact definition], such as for example [a cooked] egg and [pre-salted cooked or even raw] meat is [permitted to be salted although nevertheless it is] forbidden to salt when done in order to leave it for another meal.
Other opinion: [However] there is an opinion which says that if there is any reason that it is better to salt [the food] now as opposed to salting it later on in proximity to the meal, such as if now [the food] is slightly hot and will [thus] absorb the salt much better [if it were to be salted now] then there is no prohibition involved in doing so.
The Final Ruling: (One may rely on their words to be lenient in a [dispute over a] Rabbinical prohibition if one needs to do so).
Summary-Salting foods which salt only helps to give taste:
Is permitted to be done for the need of the coming meal. However, for the need of a later meal is forbidden to salt it, unless there is need to do so such as salting it now benefits the food more than salting it prior to the meal.
May one salt his food even much time prior to beginning the upcoming meal?
No. It may only be done in close proximity to the meal.
May one salt a dip on Friday night if he will also be eating from it the next day?
Seemingly this is allowed.
|List of foods and their regulations:
· Radish: Follows regulations brought in C.
· Onion: Follows regulations brought in C.
· Garlic: Follows regulations brought in C.
· Beans and lentils: Beans and lentils of today may be salted without regulation, so long as it is done in proximity to the meal. This applies even if they were cooked with their peel.
· Cucumbers: Follows regulations brought in C.
· Lettuce: Follows regulations brought in C.
· Cooked meat: Follows regulations brought in D.
· Tomatoes: Requires further analysis.
· Avocado: Follows regulations brought in D.
· Cooked fruits and vegetables: Follows regulations brought in D.
· Mixed vegetables:
Practical questions based on above
May one place vinegar into his cucumber salad on Shabbos?
See above Halacha 2B Q&A.
May one add salt to his cooked meat or chulent?
Yes, although this may only be done in close proximity to his meal.
May one add salt to a tomato salad?
If the salad also contains onions then it has the same ruling as does a vegetable salad, which requires oil for this to be allowed. If however it is just plain tomatoes, or tomatoes with another vegetable which salt only adds to it taste, then it is allowed to be done close to the meal.
May one add salt to his vegetable salad prior to the meal?
If the salad contains cucumbers, lettuce, or onions then this may only be done if one has already added oil to the salad or plans to do so immediately after salting it. In all cases it may only be done in close proximity to the meal.
General Summary- The Rabbinical prohibition of Salting:
Salting a food in order to preserve it:
All foods are forbidden to salt in order to preserve, even if not doing so will cause great financial loss.
Salting a food in order to eat on Shabbos:
All foods which salt helps to change their natural state: Such as to soften it or harden it or remove its bitterness and other changes of the like, which includes all foods which are commonly pickled, may only be salted one piece at a time, and must be eaten immediately. It is thus forbidden to salt another piece prior to eating the first piece as doing so delays the eating of the first piece.
Examples of foods which salt helps change and are included in above restriction: Radishes, Onion, Garlic, Beans and Lentils that were cooked in their peels, cucumbers.
Adding oil or vinegar to the food: However if one immediately adds oil or vinegar to the food after salting, [and certainly if one did so even before the salting] then it is permitted to salt even many pieces at the same time [and they may even be eaten later on, on Shabbos.]
Meat: It is forbidden to salt raw meat even in order to eat it on Shabbos if it had never yet been salted for its blood. Regarding meat that has been previously salted, see next case.
Salting foods which salt only helps to give taste: Is permitted to be done for the need of the coming meal. However for the need of a later meal it is forbidden to salt it, unless there is need to do so and salting it now is better for the food then salting it only prior to the meal.
 Admur 321:2; Tosafus Shabbos 75b; Smag 65
Other opinions: Some Rishonim hold there is no prohibition at all in salting foods even Rabbinically. [See Toras Hamelachos]-recheck if correct.
 Otherwise, the meat is Muktzah, as will IY”H be explained in the Laws of Muktzah.
 Admur 321:2
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:7; M”B 321:21; Tosafus Chulin 14a; Rosh 1:19
 Admur ibid; Tosafus ibid
 Admur ibid based on parentheses, in his understanding of the M”A and Rosh, and Tosafus ibid that the prohibition is only regarding a case of where it was not yet salted for blood; So also rules Elya Raba 321:9 in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham that it is permitted to salt raw or cooked meat on Shabbos if one plans to eat it that day.
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to salt raw meat and fish on Shabbos in all cases, even if it was already salted for its blood. [Implication of M”A and M”B ibid; See P”M 321 A”A 7]
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Ran Chulin 5a; M”B ibid
 See previous footnotes; If however the meat was previously salted, then the salt does not help.
 Halacha 2
 M”A 321:7; M”B 321:21; omitted in Admur ibid; See there Biurim 18 that this law of raw fish was omitted by Admur because fish is Muktzah
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 20:42
 Admur 321:2
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:7; M”B 321:21; Shibulei Haleket 88; Beis Yosef
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to salt raw meat on Shabbos in order to prevent a monetary loss. [Elya Raba 321:9 in implication of Shibulei Haleket]
 Admur ibid
 Halacha 4
 Admur 321:3; Michaber 321:2; Mishneh Shabbos 108b and Braisa there
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:3; M”B 321:8; Smak 281:17
 M”B ibid
 This implies that he plans to only eat some of them and leave some more left soaking in the liquid. So is also evident from the reasoning.
 Admur 321:3; Michaber ibid; Tur; Rashi; Levush 321:2; M”B 321:9
 Admur 321:3, brought in Michaber 321:3, Taz 321:3; M”B 321:15; Vetzaruch Iyun as in 321:2 the Michaber wrote the reason is due to that it is similar to tanning, which is reason brought by the Tur? See P”M 321 M”Z 3 which explains that regarding pickling the Michaber felt the reason of “similar to tanning” is more appropriate, while regarding salting he felt the reason of “cooking” is more appropriate.
Practical ramification between the reason of the Rambam and Rashi: The practical ramification between the reasons is if one may place foods into vinegar, as according to the Rambam it is forbidden while according to the Tur perhaps it is permitted. [P”M ibid based on Taz 321:3; See Toras Hamelachos Miabeid p. 69] Regarding how we rule in this dispute-see Q&A!
 Rambam 22:10
 Admur ibid; P”M Y.D. 105 M”Z 1; Chochmas Adam 58:1; Iglei Tal Ofeh 61; M”B 321:16;
Other opinions: Some learn that according to the Rambam there is a Biblcial cooking prohibition involved in pickling foods. [Perisha 321:4; Mor Uketzia 320; Pleisy 105:2; Nodah Beyehuda Kama Y.D. 26; See Sdei Chemed Chaf Klal 43]
 Halacha 4
 Although it is implied from Admur and Michaber ibid that is allowed, in truth it should be no better than the limitations to salt vegetables on Shabbos brought in Admur 321:4; See Kaf Hachaim 321:12, Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:1 and footnote 69
 Taz 321:3 regarding adding wine to vinegar that according to Rambam is forbidden; P”M 321 M”Z 3 and A”A 7 that so applies according to Rambam being it appears like cooking; Aruch Hashulchan 321:34; Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 8; M”B 321:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6; Shabbos Kehalacha 20 Biurim 11
 M”A 321:7 regarding raw meat, as explained in P”M 321 A”A 7 that he holds unlike Rambam that there is no prohibition of Kevisha by vinegar; To note that Admur omitted both this ruling of the M”A ibid and of the Taz ibid Vetzaruch Iyun as to what is his opinion. See 321:4 that he allows adding vinegar to the food.
 As all Poskim brought in previous footnotes, and many other Poskim who discuss different cases of pickling involving vinegar.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2 and 8 in explanation of M”A ibid
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 321 footnote 66
 Taz 321:3 based on Rambam; M”B 321:15; Yad Ahron [brought in M”B ibid] rules it is forbidden only due to Uvdin Dechol
 Implication of Admur who omits this ruling of Taz; Aruch Hashulchan 321:34; Toras Shabbos 321:7; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:5
 M”B ibid
 Admur 321:4 regarding adding vinegar to salted salad; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:4; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:32
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:35 Biurim 16
 See Admur ibid which implies that only when left for Shiur Kevisha is it forbidden, however in truth it should be no better than the limitations to salt vegetables on Shabbos brought in Admur 321:4; See Aruch Hashulchan 321:34; Kaf Hachaim 321:12, Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:1 and footnote 69
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 8
 Makor Chaim 321; Aruch Hashulchan 321:34; Conclusion of Shabbos Kehalacha ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6;
 Piskeiy Tehsuvos 321 footnote 69
 Taz 321:3; P”M 321 M”Z 3; M”B 321:15; Shabbos Kehalacha ibid rules leniently, although says is best to do so for only that meal
 Daas Torah 321; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321 footnote 66; See M”B 320:14 and 336:51 regarding soaking raisins in water.
 As implies Admur ibid in parentheses; See Shabbos Kehalacha 20 Biurim 15
 Rav Poalim 1:15; Chelkas Yaakov 1:137; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 20:37-38; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6
 Minchas Shabbos 80:35
 Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6 footnote 74
 See Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2
 The reason: Regarding salt water it is forbidden due to the Miabeid prohibition according to Rashi, and even according to the Rambam it is nevertheless not allowed even in vinegar as possibly the Sages did not make any differentiation in their decree against salting foods. Alternatively, pickling a precooked food is similar to roasting after cooking which is not allowed, as pickling is a different form of cooking than is cooking.
 Admur 321:4; Michaber 321:3-6; Shabbos 108b
 Stam in Admur; Michaber 321:3; Rambam
 Admur ibid Taz ibid
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:6
 Admur ibid; Rashi ibid
 Admur ibid; Michaber 321:3; Shabbos ibid; See Shabbos Kehalacha 20 footnote 69 regarding radishes of today which are not very sharp, although he nevertheless concludes to be stringent.
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:2; M”B 321:13
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:1; M”A 321:7; M”B 321:13
Must all these conditions be fulfilled for it to be forbidden? See Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2; Shabbos Kehalacha 20 Biurim 5
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tur in name of Rabbeinu Peretz
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:6; M”B 321:22
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid; M”B ibid
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:5 according to Rambam; M”A 321:7
Foods that are not normally pickeled: Some Poskim rule that foods which are not normally pickled may be salted on Shabbos regularly as is the law with eggs and cooked meat. [P”M 321 M”Z 2; M”B 321:13; Rav SZ”A SSH”K 11:2; See M”A 321:7; Taz 321:5 that according to Rambam if it is not commonly pickled it is permitted; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:33] Admur ibid does not hold of this opinion as is clear from the fact that he differentiates between foods that are commonly pickled and all foods that salt helps to change, and so rules Nehar Shalom 321:2; Kaf Hachaim 321:17; implication of M”B 321:18
 Admur ibid; Rashi ibid “3-4 pieces”; Michaber ibid “One may not salt 4-5 pieces at a time but is rather to dip each one individually”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321 footnote 26 that 4-5 is Lav Davka and he means as writes Admur ibid
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid
 Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid, omitted by Admur ibid
 Admur 321:3; Tur; M”B 321:14
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:1; Terumos Hadeshen 1:55
 Admur ibid; Opinion in Michaber 321:4; Terumos Hadeshen in name of Or Zarua; Taz 321:1; M”B 321:14 and 17 and 20; This opinion is based on the reason of the Rambam behind the prohibition against salting, as explained in Bach 321 and M”A 321:6 and Admur ibid that there is no suspicion of pickling when salting individually.
 M”B 321:19; see M”A 321:6
 M”A 321:6; Raavan 352; Elya Raba 321:6; Bach; M”B 321:14; based on reason of Rashi behind the prohibition
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:1; M”A 321:6; M”B 321:14; Shiltei Giborim; Rashi ibid; Regarding why pouring vinegar is not considered like pickling-see Shabbos Kehalacha 20 Biurim 11
 This is allowed to be done in close proximity to the meal as will be explained in “The laws of Grinding”.
 See story of Chofetz Chaim mentioned in Q&A in the footnote there!
 Admur ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 321:15
 Admur ibid; Taz ibid; M”B 321:14
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:6; Bach 321; M”B 321:20; Kaf Hachaim 321:26
Ruling of Michaber: The Michaber does not mention the stringent opinion here although only brings the lenient opinion in 321:4 as “There is an opinion”. The M”B ibid seems to learn the Michaber is lenient, although the Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes to be stringent. [See Shabbos Kehalacha 20:29]
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:4
 Piskeiy Teshuvos footnote 24
 Taz 321:1; P”M 321 M”Z 4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321 footnote 25; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:30
 Menorah Hatehorah 321:8
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2
 [An alternative reason: The second opinion here argues on the fact that salting was prohibited due to pickling and rather holds that it was prohibited due to tanning, and this is the main opinion. As well even regarding the pickling prohibition some hold that it itself is due to a decree against tanning and not because it appears like cooking. Thus the concept of no cooking after cooking is irrelevant according to these opinions and it is thus prohibited to salt a food even if previously cooked. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why the Ketzos Hashulchan ignores this reason and accepts simply that the salting decree is because it appears like cooking.]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos footnote 21; See regarding Pickling: Rav Poalim 1:15; Chelkas Yaakov 1:137; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 20:37-38; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:6
 See Admur 307:16; 276:10; Minchas Yitzchak 1:109-2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:3
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 3
 Implication of Taz 321:1 and M”A 321:6; P”M 321 M”Z 1 regarding sprinkiling salt; M”B 321:14 in name of Taz and other Achronim; implication of Terumos Hadeshen; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:28; Biurim 9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:2 footnote 28
 Conclusion of Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 3; See Shabbos Kehalacha 20 Biurim 9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:2 footnote 28
 Seemingly this is allowed according to the second opinion mentioned above as is evident from the radish example brought by Admur. However according to the first reason [the Rambam’s reason] there is room to question whether this would be allowed as on the one hand perhaps they view the actual salting of more than one food at a time as appearing like pickling, irrelevant to whether or not one plans to eat them together. However, on the other hand perhaps as so long as the salted foods do not delay at all from being eaten, then perhaps even according to the Rambam this would be allowed as it does not appear like pickling. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Bo 2:14; Peulas Tzaddik 2:48; Kaf Hachaim 321:28; Piskeiy teshuvos 321:2; See Shabbos Kehalacha 20 footnote 72
 This may be done according to all, as one does not commonly eat one single bean at a time, but rather many at one time and it thus does not appear like one is tanning/pickling. Although this may only be done to an amount of beans which he will be eating immediately within one mouthful. It is forbidden to salt more than one mouthful worth of the bean or other food of the like.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 3 and 5; Menorah Hatehorah 321:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:4; See Shaareiy Teshuvah 321:1 in name of Shvus Yaakov that “if one first places the oil, it is permitted”; See however Shabbos Kehalacha 20:31 and Biurim 12 and Tosefes Biur that there is no need to first place the oil, as is the simple implication of Admur ibid
 So is wording in Shiltei Giborim; M”A 321:6; Admur ibid; M”B ibid; However see Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid in name of Shvus Yaakov which says to first place in the oil, although in truth in the Svus Yaakov the word first is omitted.
 The reason: As perhaps if one were to place the salt first he may come to forget to place in the oil immediately after. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid 5] As well this should be done being that according all opinions when the oil is placed first there is no question of a prohibition, as will be explained in the next Q&A, and it is better to do an act that will go in accordance to all. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid 3] As well some Poskim explicitly write to place the oil first. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 321:1]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 3
 As explained in the previous question in the footnote there. To note however that from the wording of Admur above in the radish case it strongly implies that this is only permitted according to the second opinion. On the other hand, it is difficult to accept that we would be lenient against the first opinion which is the opinion of the Rambam which is plainly ruled by the Michaber and Rama. It therefore would seem that even according to the Rambam’s opinion this would be allowed, as explained in the previous footnote. Vetzaruch Iyun! [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 3]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 4
 As this is no different than salting foods which salt only helps to give taste of which is only allowed to be done prior to the current meal and may not be done for the sake of the next meal. [See next Halacha “D” and Q&A there with regards to how close to the meal this must be done!] As for the reason that this was not mentioned by Admur, perhaps he relied on the fact that the reader understood that since the case is discussing cutting the radish thin, it can only be discussing a situation that one is doing so prior to the current meal, as otherwise this poses a grinding prohibition, as will be explained in “The laws of Grinding”. [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 4]
 Shabbos Kehalacha 20:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:4; based on Shvus Yaakov 2:14
 Piskeiy teshuvos 321:4; Shabbos Kehalacha Tosefes Biur 20:7; However see P”M 321 A”A 7 that implies water is not valid. See Shabbos Kehalacha ibid
 Menorah Hatehorah 321:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:4; See Shabbos Kehalacha 20:32
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:4; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:32
 See Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:46; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:3
 Makor Chaim 321:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2; Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 11 footnote 1; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:46; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:3 and Poskim in footnote 37; See Or Letziyon 2:33-1
 Shabbos Kehalacha ibid
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 39
 The reason: This matter is dependent on the disputed reason behind the salting prohibition; whether it is forbidden due to tanning or pickling. According to the second reason mentioned above that salting is prohibited due to a tanning prohibition, sugaring a food would be allowed as it neither serves to soften or to preserve the food, nor is it used in the tanning process. However, according to the first reason mentioned above [the Rambam’s reason] behind the salting prohibition that it is due to pickling, than sugar too would be prohibited to place on foods that are normally pickled, just as is the law with salt, unless it is done in the permitted way mentioned by salt. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
Does sugar help remove blood from food? This matter is disputed in Poskim. See “A Semicha Aid for learning the Laws of Melicha” Chapter 69:7 in Q&A!
 See Shabbos Kehalacha ibid Biurim 22
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; However, see Shabbos Kehalacha ibid who rules one is to follow all the restrictions mentioned by salt, and is hence not to sugar more than one piece at a time, and is to eat it right away.
The reason: As the concept of Miabeid does not apply to sugar, and it is hence similar to the ruling regarding vinegar that it may be sprinkled on food during the meal. [See ibid footnote 40
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 408, Yalkut Yosef
 See Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 2
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:3; Toras Hamelachos Miabeid 81; See Piskeiy Teshuvos footnote 41 for other opinions
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 5; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:54; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:3
 Implication of 339:7; 405:9; Gr”a; Chayeh Adam; M”B 318:3 and in Biur Halacha “Hamivashel”; and is implied from Admur in the Halacha here that the fine only applies to a Biblical prohibition. [Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 2]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that a Rabbinical transgression has the same law as a Rabbinical transgression. [P”M 318 brought in Biur Halacha ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 124]
Story with Chofetz Chaim: There is a story told of the Chofetz Chaim [told over by Rav Shmuel Chaim Kublanken, who was eating by the Chofetz Chaim that Shabbos, to the author of the Ketzos Hashulchan] that he forgot and accidently salted radishes prior to adding oil to it [which is possibly forbidden according to the reason of the Rambam, as well perhaps he did not have oil] and when he remembered he pushed the radishes away and avoided eating them. Nevertheless, one must say that this was a mere stringency of the Chofetz Chaim in order to follow those opinions [Peri Megadim] which are also stringent by Rabbinical prohibitions to forbid the food. This however is not the actual Halachic ruling. As well one must say that the Chofetz Chaim added some liquid to the radishes as otherwise he would in truth have transgressed the salting prohibition according to the second opinion. [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 5]
 Based on the general rule of Meizid by Dirabanan on Shabbos as brought in 339:7; Mishneh Terumos 2:3
 321:5; Michaber 321:5; Shibulei Haleket in name of Geonim
 Admur ibid; Taz 321:5; See M”B 321:18
 Admur 321:4; M”B 321:18; Kaf Hachaim 321:18
 Michaber 321:5
 Admur ibid; Michaber 321:3 and 5; Shabbos 108b
 Meaning meat that had been already salted to remove its blood, as otherwise it is forbidden even when done to eat right away as explained in Halacha 2. Vetzaruch Iyun as even pre-salted meat can be salted for preservation and salt helps change its form to harden it, thus perhaps in truth it refers to cooked meat, Vetzaruch Iyun.
 Michaber 321:5
 Based on Admur 321:2 in parentheses [brought above in 2A], and the fact he omits the Michaber’s wording of “cooked meat”
 See new printing of Shulchan Aruch Admur 321:5 that so is the correct reading of text in Admur; Kuntrus Hashulchan ibid
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Shibulei Haleket ibid
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:7; M”B 321:21
The reason: As even by these foods, if they are left a long time in the salt, it is similar to Miabeid/tanning. [M”B 321:21 in name of Levush and Mamar Mordechai; Panim Meiros, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 321:9] Alternatively, the reason is because although there is no similarity to Miabeid by such foods, the Sages did not allow one to trouble himself on Shabbos if he does not need to benefit from the action at this time. [Taz 321:5]
 Taz 321:5
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is always permitted to salt it even for the need of the next meal, so long as one plans to eat the food on Shabbos. [Elya Raba 321 and implication of Gr”a, brought in M”B 321:21] Some conclude that one may be lenient to salt the food for another meal, if it will be eaten in close proximity of the first meal. [M”B ibid based on P”M 321]
 Perhaps Admur mentions only slightly hot as if it were Yad Soledes than it is proper to not place salt on it at all, even in a Keli Sheiyni. [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 7]
 Admur ibid; Mishneh Berurah 321:2121
 From the Ketzos Hashulchan [128:4] it seems that he learned this “need so” to mean that it will soften the meat. However, this does not seem to be the simple meaning of Admur, as if so then saying “needs so” is superfluous being that the arguing opinion itself only holds that when one needs so it is allowed.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 9; Shabbos Kehalacha 20
Other opinions: Some conclude that one may be lenient to salt the food for another meal, if it will be eaten in close proximity of the first meal. [M”B ibid based on P”M 321]
 The Ketzos Hashulchan [based on Magen Avraham] rules that this may not be done. Rather it is only allowed to be salted right before the meal, as is the law with regards to Borer, that it may only be done right before the meal.
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:4
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:8
 Admur 321:4; See SSH”K 11 footnote 6; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:33
 See SSH”K 11:2 that it is allowed to be salted without restriction so long as it is done prior to the upcoming meal, just like eggs; Shabbos Kehalacha 20:33 that is lenient in time of need; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:2 that is stringent by all vegetables.
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:2 footnote 32
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:4
 Admur 321:2
 Admur 321:5
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