4. Kiddush on Rosh Hashanah

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Setting up the table before Yom Tov:[1]

The mother of the home is to change her clothing to Yom Tov clothing and light the candles as is done on every other Yom Tov. She is to arrange that the table is set with a nice tablecloth, ready for her husband’s return from Shul. Nevertheless, if one came home and saw that the table was not yet set up, he is not to make a quarrel with his wife over this and get angry, as anger is a very bad omen. Rather he is to judge her favorably and not hold any resentment even in his heart.

4. Kiddush:[2]

Making Kiddush early: Some Poskim[3] rule that one should not make Kiddush prior to the start of the Holiday, in order not to precede the time of judgement and severeities. Practically, however, this ruling is omitted from the Shulchan Aruch, and on the contrary, it remains a Biblical command to accept Rosh Hoshanah early, as applies by every Shabbos and every Holiday.[4] Thus, one may choose to make Kiddush early, after accepting the Holiday.

Standing or sitting?[5] [From the letter of the law] one may recite Kiddush in a sitting position. [However the Chabad custom is to stand for Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov.[6]]

Shehechiyanu: The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited in Kiddush on both the first and second day of Rosh Hashanah.[7] The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited during the night Kiddush. It is recited after the completion of Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine.[8] [One who recited the blessing of Shehechiyanu during candle lighting may not to repeat the blessing during Kiddush.[9] See Chapter 3 Halacha 18 for the full details of this matter!] See below regarding having a new fruit on the second night by Shehechiyanu.

Forgot Shehechiyanu:[10] One who forgot to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu during Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine, is to recite it afterwards, immediately upon remembering. Even if he only remembered the next day, he is to recite Shehechiyanu. It may be recited anywhere upon remembering, even if he is in middle of the marketplace. This law applies to both days of Yom Tov. [If one did not remember to recite Shehechiyanu until the second night of Yom Tov began, then he fulfills his blessing of Shehechiyanu of the first day through the Shehechiyanu recited in Kiddush of the second day.[11] Once the Yom Tov of Rosh Hashana concludes, Shehechiyanu can no longer be recited.[12]]

Yaknaha”z:[13] When the second day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknaha”z in the order of Kiddush of the second night. The blessing of Besamim is omitted from the order of Yaknaha”z. The custom is to say the blessing of Meorei Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together, and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather we simply look at the candles after the blessing and then continue with Yaknaha”z. See chapter 5 Halacha 26 for the full details of this matter!


Rosh Hashanah that coincides with Shabbos:

When [the first night of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening, the following passages prior to Kiddush are read in an undertone: shalom aleichim, eishes chayil, mizmor ledavid Hashem ro’i, da hi se’udasa.[14]  

Vayechulu:[15] When Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening, the custom is to recite Vayechulu before Kiddush [starting from Yom Hashishi[16]].[17]

Extra words of Shabbos:[18] When Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening, one is required to add the extra words that mention Shabbos, in the paragraph of Kiddush, and conclude the blessing of Kiddush with Mikadesh Hashabbos ViYisrael Vihazmanikm.

Forgot to mention Shabbos in Kiddush:[19] If one forgot to add any of the parts for Shabbos in the Kiddush, then he does not fulfill his obligation, and must repeat the Kiddush.[20] Likewise, If one accidentally said the Friday night Shabbos Kiddush and not the Kiddush for Yom Tov, he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat the correct Kiddush.[21] [If he already drank the cup of wine, then he is to pour a new cup and recite Kiddush again.[22]] However, if he concluded the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, then even if he did not mention Shabbos in the main paragraph the Yom Tov Kiddush, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.[23] Furthermore, if he mentioned Shabbos anywhere in the main paragraph, then even if he did not conclude the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation according to some Poskim, and is hence not to repeat it.[24] This applies whether he concluded with only Mikadesh Hashabbos, or only Mikdesh Yisrael Vihazmanim.[25]

The day Kiddush:[26] By the day Kiddush of Rosh Hashanah one says the verse Tiku and Ki Chok etc. One does not say Eileh Moadei or Askinu. When Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, the following passages are said prior to the verse of Tiku. They are to be said in an undertone: Mizmor Ledavid; Askinu; Veshamru; Im Tashiv; Da Hi; Zechor; Al Kein.

The new fruit-Taking a new fruit by Kiddush of the second night:[27]

By Kiddush of the second night of Rosh Hashanah it is accustomed[28] to place a new fruit[29] in front of the person making Kiddush, or for him to wear a new garment[30], and intend to exempt it with the blessing of Shehechiyanu. Upon him saying the blessing of Shehechiyanu he is to look at the fruit.[31] [Immediately after Kiddush, after drinking the wine but before washing for bread, he is to say the blessing of Haeitz and eat the new fruit.[32] The person who said Kiddush is not to make any interval, even of speech, between Kiddush and eating the new fruit.[33] The Chabad custom is to eat a Kezayis[34] of the new fruit. [See Q&A] One may eat other fruits to accumulate the total of a Kezayis.[35] If he ate a Kezayis he is to recite an after blessing afterwards, prior to washing for the meal.[36] If he did not eat a Kezayis of fruit then an after blessing is not said.[37] The custom is that also the people who listened to the Kiddush eat the new fruit, saying a blessing of Shehechiyanu and then Haeitz over it. See Q&A!]

If one does not have a new fruit or garment:[38] If one does not have a new fruit or new garment available, he is nevertheless to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu in Kiddush.


Should women who already said Shehechiyanu by candle lighting answer Amen to the blessing of Shehechiyanu said by Kiddush?[39]

Some Poskim[40] rule that they may not answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu, due to it being considered an interval between the blessing and the drinking of the wine. Other Poskim[41], however, rule that women are allowed to answer Amen for the blessing of Shehechiyanu, and doing so is not considered an interval.[42] Practically, the custom is like this latter opinion, to answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu.

Q&A on the new fruit

How much of the new fruit is one to eat and is an after blessing said?

The Chabad custom is to eat a Kezayis of fruit and say an after blessing.[43] Other Poskim[44] however write that there is no measured amount of fruit that one is required to eat. One may choose to eat less than a Kezayis, in which case an after blessing is not recited, or one may choose to eat a Kezayis in which case an after blessing is recited before the meal.[45] If one forgot to recite an after blessing before the meal then he is to recite an after blessing during the meal as soon as he remembers.[46]

Are also those who listened to Kiddush to eat the new fruit after Kiddush?[47]

The custom is that also the people who listened to the Kiddush eat the new fruit, saying a blessing of Haeitz and Shehechiyanu [see next] over it.[48] One first says the blessing of Shehechiyanu and only afterwards recites the blessing of Haeitz.[49] [This, however, refers only to those who did not say Shehechiyanu during candle lighting over a new fruit, such as men who are being Yotzei Kiddush. Those, however, who recited Shehechiyanu over candle lighting having in mind the new fruit, should not repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon eating the new fruit.]


Do the listeners of the Kiddush say Shehechiyanu prior to eating the new fruit?

Those who listened to the Kiddush that was said by the leader of the household do not need to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu prior to eating the new fruit[50], [unless they did not have it in mind[51] or they made an interval, such as speaking of unrelated topics in between[52]]. Nevertheless, even if no interval was made, the custom is to say their own blessing of Shehechiyanu over the fruit.[53]


If the leader of the home has a fruit which for him is not new but for a household member is new, who should say Kiddush?

Some Poskim[54] rule that the leader of the home may say Kiddush as usual, until the blessing of Shehechiyanu, which is then said aloud by the household member for which to him the fruit is still new.[55]

May one use the Rimon as the new fruit for the second night?

The Rimon is not to be used as the new fruit being that one is required to eat it on the 1st night as part of the Simanim.[56] Nevertheless, there are those which use it as the new fruit for the 2nd night.[57]



[1] Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 6; Kaf Hachaim 583:1; See Kaf Hachaim 262:21 for a dispute in Kabala regarding whether the husband or wife is to set the table. See “The Laws and Customs of Erev Shabbos” chapter 1 Halacha 13!

[2] 599; Regarding the order of Kiddush followed by many Sefaradim see Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 7; Kaf Hachaim 583:2

[3] Opinion of Mahara Mivina, brought in Teshuvas Maharil 33 “Some do not eat during the day [of Erev Rosh Hashanah] in order not to add from the weekday to the holy on this Yom Tov, being that it is a day of judgement.” ; See Maharil ibid “On this reason I have wondered, as one has already accepted the Holiday in prayer, however, perhaps the main accpetnace is by Kiddush which is Biblical.”; See Shoel Umeishiv Reviah 3:125; Mahariy Engel Yuma 81b; Shnos Chaim 61; Mikraeiy Kodesh 4

[4] M”A 581:10; Maharil ibid in previous footnote questions the stringent opinion; See Admur 608:1; Poskim ibid who discuss this opinion in the Maharil

[5] See 271:19; 473:8

[6] Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 39; English p. 55; Hagada of Rebbe p. 8

[7] 600:5-6; Siddur Admur; Tur 600; Michaber 600:2-3; See Chapter 5 Halacha 24 for the background of this matter.

[8] Admur 473:2; Michaber 472:1

[9] Mateh Efraim 619:12; Sefer Haminhagim p. 128 [English]

[10] Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach and 643:5 regarding Sukkos; M”A 473:1; Eiruvin 40b; Sukkah 47b

[11] See Admur 473:2 “He is exempt with the Shehechiyanu that he recites over Kiddush of the second night.” This implies that he fulfils his obligation of Shehechiyanu of the first night. Now, although in 473:2 the case erefers to Pesach, in which oine hjas seven days of Tashlumin. Nevertheless, Admur rules that the second day of Yom Tov is part of the tashlumin, and the same would apply here regarding Shavuos.

[12] Pashut! See Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach and 643:5 regarding Sukkos that one can make up the Shehechiyanu throughout the seven days of Pesach/Sukkos. However, Rosh Hashanah does not contain Chol Hamoed as does Pesach and Sukkos, and hence the above law would not extend to Shavuos. See also M”A 473:1; Chok Yaakov 473:1, Beir Heiytiv 473:1; P”M 473 A”A 1; Elya Raba 494:4; P”M 473 A”A 1; M”B 473:1 and in Shaar Hatziyon 473:5; Kaf Hachaim 473:11

[13] 599:1; 491:4 “When [the night of the Seder] falls on Motzei Shabbos one needs to say Havdala after Kiddush, and if he has a candle he is to say a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush” but prior to the blessing of Havdala. After Havdala one is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu”

[14] Hayom Yom 19th Nissan, p. 46 [in current print]; Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 142; Mateh Efraim 583:1; Likkutei Maharich 3:40; Kaf Hachaim 583:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; Custom of Vizhnitz, Belz, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 9

Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints [1943] of Hayom Yom p. 46, it stated that one does not say Shalom Aleichem or Eishes Chayil at all on Shabbos Yom Tov, or Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it, but this is not relevant for others. There is a reason of the Baal Shem Tov recorded regarding this matter. [Rebbe in Reshimos Hayoman 4:12 and 22, p. 173; See Hayom Yom Hamevuar p. 419] Practically, the final directive of the Rebbe was to say it quietly, as recorded in the updated printing of Hayom Yom.

[15] Admur 473:5; Michaber 473:1

[16] Siddur Admur; Admur 271:19

[17] The reason: This is said in order to fulfill the obligation of Vayechulu on behalf of one’s children and household who were not present in Shul and thus did not hear it being said by the congregation after the Davening. [Admur ibid]

[18] Siddur Admur; See Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh and the same applies regarding Kiddush, as brought in M”A 487:2 that Kiddush is even more severe, and M”B 487:2

[19] See Admur 487:3; M”B 487:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; 487:4

[20] Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush

[21] Admur 487:1 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush

[22] This is not considered as if he is adding to the four cups of wine, as he is obligated to say Kiddush, and has not fulfilled his obligation from the current Kiddush recited. [See Seder Hearuch 52 footnote 15]

[23] Admur 487:3 in parentheses; Rama 487:3; Beis Yosef 487 in name of Orchos Chaim

[24] 2nd opinion and conclusion of Admur 487:3 [that it is proper to not repeat the blessing due to Safek Brachos Levatala] regarding if did not mention Shabbos in concluding blessing but mentioned in middle of Shemoneh Esrei and the same applies for Kiddush; Kneses Hagedola 487; Chok Yaakov 487:4; M”A 487 regarding if mentioned in conclusion but not in middle

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not conclude Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, which mentions both Shabbos and Yom Tov, then he does not fulfill his obligation of Shemoneh Esrei [or Kiddush] even if he mentioned Shabbos in middle of the paragraph. [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Elya Raba; M”B 487:2;]

[25] Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun if he read the Shabbos Kiddush for the main paragraph, and then concluded Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, if he is Yotzei. Seemingly, however, according to the 2nd opinion ibid he would be Yotzei.

[26] Sefer Haminhagim p. 120 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 139-140

Other opinions: Some write that according to Admur in the Siddur which does not differentiate between R”H and other Holidays one is to recite Eileh Moadeiy also prior to the Kiddush of the day of R”H just like by any other Yom Tov. [Shaar Hakolel 40:18; Kuntrus Hasiddur p. 23; See Mateh Efraim 597:3]

[27] 600:6; Siddur; See Chapter 5 Halacha 24 for the background of this matter.

[28] In 600:6 Admur writes it is proper to place a new fruit. In the Siddur he writes it is the custom to place a new fruit. Piskeiy Hassidur [178] explains that Admur in the Siddur is following the opinion of the Shaar Hakavanos p. 90 and Mishnas Chassidim which rules there is no need to have a new fruit placed. He hence writes that it is merely the custom to do so and not that one should do so.

[29] See Q&A that one is not to use the Rimon as the new fruit being that one is required to eat it on the 1st night as part of the Simanim.

Using grape juice that requires Shehechiyanu: If one has grape juice that requires Shehechiyanu nevertheless it should not be used to make Kiddush unless one does not have wine available, as initially it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to recite Kiddush over wine. [ibid; 272:2; M”A 600:1]

[30] So is the wording in 600:6. However in the Siddur Admur writes “it is customary to place a new fruit in front of oneself when saying Kiddush” and he makes no mention of wearing a new garment.

[31] Siddur; second option in 600:6; M”A 60:1; Mateh Moshe 823; M”B 600:4; M”E 600:8

Must he hold the fruit in his hand when saying the blessing of Shehechiyanu? No. [Poskim ibid] In Admur 600:6 regarding the Shehechiyanu wine he gives two options: a) to hold the cup of grape juice in his hand while saying the blessing; b) To look at the grape juice while saying the blessing. So rules also M”B 600:4; In the Siddur Admur simply mentions to look at the fruit.

[32] Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; Sefer Hasichos 1945 p. 4 [“so was custom in Lubavitch”]; Machzor Chabad; Mateh Efraim 600:6; Ashel Avraham Butchach 600; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 707; Machatzis Hashekel 690:1 [regarding not making an interval] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 147-149 that in 1948 the Rebbe Rayatz questioned whether one is to eat it before or after washing and in conclusion he ate the fruit immediately after Kiddush.

Why is the drinking of the wine not considered an interval between the Shehechiyanu and eating of the fruit? See Ashel Avraham ibid

[33] Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:1; See Ashel Avraham ibid; Machatzis Hashekel ibid

[34] 27 grams [See Shiureiy Torah p. 193]

[35] Sefer Hasichos 1945 p. 4; Otzer 148

[36] M”E 600:10; Otzer Minhagei Chabad  p. 82; See Admur 174:6; Seder 4:13; Ketzos Hashulchan 31:3; See SSH”K 47 footnote 222 regarding having in mind to eat the fruit also during the meal in order to avoid an after blessing. See also Halacha 6 regarding this matter on the first night when eating the apple.

[37] M”E ibid

Avoiding eating a whole fruit: One is to avoid eating a whole fruit that is less than a Kezayis as it is questionable as to whether it requires an after blessing. [Seder 8:9; M”E ibid] Thus those that are eating Rimon as a new fruit are to avoid eating less than a Kezayis of whole Rimon seeds as this enters into doubt regarding the after blessing. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:1]

[38] 600:6; See Chapter 5 Halacha 24 for the full background of this matter.

[39] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1; Shevach Hamoadim-Kadesh

[40]  Har Tzevi 1:154; Mikraeiy Kodesh Pesach 2:38; Hagadah Moadim UzmanimBased on Shaareiy Teshuvah 167:11

[41] Shevet Halevi 3:69; Igros Moshe 4:21; 101; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182

[42] The reason: Some Poskim explain that on Sukkos and Pesach, since the Shehechiyanu by Kiddush includes the Mitzvos of that day [Sukkah, Matzah], therefore even women may answer Amen to be Yotzei, as the Shehchiyanu that they said by candle lighting was only on behalf of the holiday. [Shevet Halevi ibid] Other Poskim rule that one should leave the women to follow their custom to answer Amen and that doing so is not considered an interval, as since it is not an interval for the person saying the blessing, so too it is not considered an interval for those being Yotzei with him. [Igros Moshe ibid; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182]

[43] Sefer Hasichos 1945 p. 5; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 147-149 that so was custom of Rebbe Rayatz; Hiskashrus 898 writes that in Lubavitch, and so was the custom of the Rabbeim, they would intentionally eat a Kezayis and then say an after blessing. The Rebbe would eat two dates and then recite an after blessing prior to washing. [Otzer 149]

[44] Mateh Efraim 600:10

[45] M”E ibid

[46] 174:6; Seder 4:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 31:1-3

[47] Mateh Efraim 600:6

[48] The reason: Although from the letter of the law there is no need for any of the listeners to eat from the new fruit being that its entire purpose was to remove the doubtful blessing of Shehechiyanu that was said by the person saying Kiddush, nevertheless the custom is for everyone to eat it as a good omen for the new year. [M”E ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun as to why the blessing of Shehechiyanu of the Mikadesh does not exempt the blessing of Shehechiyanu said oiver the new fruit as well, on behalf of the listerners, that they be allowed to be repat it. Perhaps, however, for the listners the Shehechiyanu only covers the Holiday and does not cover the fruit at all, as they have no need for it to do so. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[49] Seder 11:12 based Halachos Ketanos

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one is to first say Haeitz and then Shehechiyanu and so is the custom of many. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 600; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:12 for different customs and Poskim regarding this matter.]

[50] Piskeiy Teshuvos 600 footnote 4

[51] See Ashel Avraham Butchach 600

[52] See Machatzis Hashekel 600:1; Ashel Avraham Butchach 600 “They may say the blessing upon eating it even though they heard Shehechiyanu while seeing the fruit by Kiddush”.

[53] Implication of M”E ibid that states the listeners are to say Shehechiyanu and does not mention any differentiation.

[54] Mahril Diskin Kuntrus Achron 81; Mikraeiy Kodesh 4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:2

[55] The person saying Kiddush then answers Amen hence being Yotzei the blessing of Shehechiyanu over the holiday. It however does not help for the person saying Kiddush to say Shehechiyanu and have in mind to exempt the household member with the blessing over the fruit as some Poskim rule that the blessing of Shehechiyanu, like all blessings of praise, can only be said for another if the person saying it is also obligated in the blessing. [See P”M 225 A”A 1; Ashel Avraham Butchach 600]

[56] See Halacha 7 and Q&A there!

[57] Moed Lekol Chaiy 12:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:1 [Accordingly they do not eat Rimonim on the 1st night as part of the Simanim.]

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