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A. Within a single sound:
[The minimum required measurement of the Tekiah blow must be done in one breath.] The [minimum required] amount of the Yevavos [i.e. Terumatin] of the Teruos in the sound of Terua, as well as the three Shevarim in the sound of Shevarim, must be done in one breath. If one did not blow them in one breath, he does not fulfill his obligation. [Thus if he took a breath in the middle of the three/nine Terumatin of the Teruah or in middle of the three Shevarim he must restart the blowing of that Teruah or Shevarim. The above however is only if one did not blow a Kosher Tekiah or Kosher Teruah or Kosher Shevarim in either the sound before the breath or the sound after the breath, in which case they do not accumulate to make up minimum required measurement. If, however, one of the sounds were valid, either the one before the breath or the one after the breath, then this is considered that one blew an extra sound in middle of the set of which at times the ruling is that one may continue with the blows, and at times he must repeat from the first Tekiah of that set. See Halacha 12 regarding one who blew an extra sound for the full details of this subject [see 12D in particular].
If one did not take a breath in middle of the sound but made a silent break in middle and then continued what is the law?
Some Poskim rule that if the silent break in a sound is equivalent to the amount of time it takes for one to take a breath and begin to blow then it has the same law as one who took a breath in between. It requires further analysis as to the opinion of Admur in this matter.
The Tekiah: Seemingly by the Tekiah even the slightest break of silence in the sound invalidates the sound even if one did not take a breath, unless one of the parts of the sound, before or after the break of silence, contained the minimum measurement of length of a Tekiah.
B. Between each sound:
Between the Tekiah and Teruah and Tekiah of each set: One must take a breath between the sounds of each set. Hence in the set of Tashrat one must take a breath between the Tekiah and Shevarim-Teruah, and then between the Shevarim Teruah and Tekiah. In the set of Tashat one must take a breath between the Tekiah and Shevarim, and then between the Shevarim and Tekiah. In the set of Tarat one must take a breath between the Tekiah and Teruah, and then between the Teruah and Tekiah. If one did not take a breath between the Tekiah and Shevarim/Teruah or the Shevarim/Teruah and Tekiah he is to re-blow that set in order to fulfill his obligation according to all. This applies even if he made a small interval between the blows although he did not take a breath.
Between the Shevarim-Teruah of Tashrat: By תשר”ת of תקיעות מיושב [before Musaf] the Shevarim-Teruah is to be blown in one breath without breathing in between. Nevertheless one is to make a small break between the Shevarim and Teruah. By תקיעות מעומד [during Musaf] one is to blow it in two breaths, taking a breath between the Shevarim and Teruah. Nevertheless, one is not to delay more than the amount of a single breath between the two blows. [By the Tekios blown after Davening the Shevarim-Teruah is to be done in one breath. When blowing a single set of thirty blows for other Jews [i.e. Mivtzaim] one is to blow the Shevarim-Teruah in one breath.] In all areas that the custom is to always blow the Shevarim-Teruah in two breaths one is to do so and he may not swerve from the custom.
Between the Tekiahs of two sets: It does not suffice to blow a very long Tekiah in order for it to count as the last Tekiah of the current set and the first Tekiah of the coming set. [One must thus take a breath between the last Tekiah of one set and the first Tekiah of the next set] If one blew a long Tekiah with this intent that it be valid for both sets, then it is proper to re-blow the entire current set starting from the first Tekiah.
One must take a breath between each blow. Each individual blow must be done in one breath. The Shevarim- Teruah of Tashrat is to be done in one breath, although making a small break between the Shevarim and Teruah. In Musaf the Shevarim-Teruah of Tashrat is to be done in two breaths although one is not to delay more than the amount of a single breath between the two blows.
According to our custom if by Tekios Meyushav one blew the Shevarim-Teruah in two breaths must he repeat that set?
Some Poskim rule that in such a case he is to simply blow the Shevarim-Teruah of Tashrat of Tekios Meumad in one breath.
If one blew some of the Shevarim-Teruah in two breaths and some in one breath: If in Tekios Meyushav or Tekios Meumad one blew some of the Tashrat in one breath and some in two breaths then some Poskim rule that in such a case one must repeat from the first set of Tashrat.
According to our custom if by Tekias Meumad one blew the Shevarim-Teruah in one breath must he repeat that set?
This matter requires further analysis.
According to the custom to blow the Shevarim-Teruah of Tekios Meyushav in two breaths what is the law if they did all the sets in one breath?
They fulfill their obligation and are not required to repeat the Shevarim Teruah in two breaths.
In how many breaths is the Shevarim-Teruah of the blows of after Musaf to be sounded in?
The Shevarim-Teruah contained within the sounds that are blown after Musaf [i.e. ten in middle of Kaddish and thirty after Tehillim] are to be blown in one breath.
If one is blowing only 30 sounds [i.e. such as when blowing without a Minyan, or by Mivtzaim] is he to blow the Shevarim-Teruah in one or two breaths and what is the law if he did not do so?
According to the custom mentioned above to blow the Shevarim-Teruah of Meyushav in one breath, then the same applies in a case that he is only blowing one set of 30 blows, that he is to blow the Shevarim-Teruah in one breath. If one did not do so he is to repeat the sets of Tashrat properly. Those however that are accustomed to blow in two breaths and blew in one breath are not required to repeat the blows, as explained above. If, however, one blew some in two breaths and some in one breath then he must repeat the sets of Tashrat, as explained above.
 See Admur 590:8 and 15-17
 Pashut, as otherwise it is not considered a Tekia, and seemingly this is the reason that it was not explicitly mentioned in Poskim here
 Admur 590:8; Michaber ibid; Poskim ibid
The reason: As the three Shevarim is considered the Teruah of that set. [Admur ibid; Tur ibid; Kaf Hachaim 590:27]
 Admur 590:8; Michaber 590:4; Tur 590; Ramban Rosh Hashanah 34a; Rosh R”H 4:11; Rabbeinu Tam
 Admur ibid; Kneses Hagedola 590:7; Elya Zuta 590:7; Implication of Beis Yosef 590; Abudarham; Rabbeinu Yerucham Nesiv 6:2; Orchos Chaim; Mamar MordechaI 590:8; Nivei Shalom 590:5; Biur Hagr”a 590; Chayeh Adam 142:8; M”B 590:16; Kaf Hachaim 590:28
The reason: As the Torah stated that one must blow a single Teruah and not two Teruos. [Admur ibid; Levush 590:4; Ramban ibid; Kaf Hachaim 590:28]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Bedieved if one took a breath within a single sound, he still fulfills his obligation. [M”A 590:7; Taz 590:5; Derech HaChaim 7; Mateh Efraim 590:12; See Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Mateh Efraim 590:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:5 and 9 footnote 44
 Admur never mentions that a silent break has the same status as a breath. On the contrary from his wording in different Halachas it is implied that it is all one sound. [See 590:4; 590:16 and 590:17] So is also implied from M”B 590:34; Vetzaruch Iyun.
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 590 footnote 21 and so seems logical as if it is valid to make a break of silence within a Tekiah then what would differentiate a Tekiah from a Shevarim! Hence, one must say that the minimum length of the Tekiah, which is Lechatchila 9 Terumatin long in Tashat and Tarat and 18 in Tashrat, must be done without any break in between.
 590:9; Michaber 590:5 [regarding Tarat-brings two opinions]
Background of Admur ibid:
First Opinion: If one blew Tarat or Tashat in a single breath then if one made a slight interval in a way that they appear like three sounds, he has fulfilled his obligation. [First opinion in Admur ibid; Yerushalmi; Tur in name of Rosh; First opinion in Michaber ibid; Admur novelizes that a) This rule applies even in Tashat and b) even according to this opinion one must make a break between the sounds. So rules also P”M 590 A”A 4; Alef Hamagen 590:28] The reason for this is because it is all considered a single Mitzvah. [Levush 590] This rule applies likewise in the set of Tashrat [Admur ibid “There are opinions who say if one did Tashrat in one breath he fulfills his obligation just like Tarat and Tashat”; Taz 590:6] However there are Poskim that rule that in the set of Tashrat everyone agrees a breath is required. [See Nivei Shalom 590:8; Kaf Hachaim 590:38]
Second Opinion: There are opinions [Riy in name of Rosh] who rule that one does not fulfill his obligation and he must thus repeat all three sounds [beginning from the Tekiah] as the first Tekiah is invalid as it did not have any interval or end. Likewise, the last Tekiah is invalid as it did not have a start and beginning being one blew it all in one breath. [Second opinion in Admur ibid; second opinion in Michaber ibid; Tur 590; reason mentioned in M”A 590:4; Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur does not mention that the Teruah has neither a beginning or an end!] Alternatively, the reason it is invalid is because the Tekiah is a sound of joy while the Teruah is a sound of sadness and hence they cannot join. [Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 590:40]
The Final Ruling: Although the main Halacha is like the first opinion nevertheless one is to suspect for the last opinion and hence repeat the blowing of all three sounds. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid as explained in Kaf Hachaim 590:39; Chayeh Adam 142:15; Kaf Hachaim 590:41]
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule the main opinion follows the first opinion and one is not required to suspect for the 2nd opinion. [Gr”a brought in M”B 590:22] Some Poskim rule that if one made a break between the sounds, even if he did not take a breath then he is not required to repeat the set as in such a case one can rely on the first opinion. [Mateh Efraim 590:19] Some Poskim rule one can rely on the 1st opinion on the 2nd day of R”H. [Daas Torah 590] Others rule the main opinion follows the 2nd opinion [and hence even Bedieved one does not fulfill his obligation]. [Levush 590; Tanya 109; Elya Raba 590:9]
 Although Admur ibid only states the dispute regarding not sounding the entire set in one breath. Nevertheless, form the reason of the second opinion it is understood that a breath must be taken between each individual blow as otherwise the first Tekiah won’t have an end and the last Tekiah won’t have a beginning. So rules also Levush 590 brought in Kaf Hachaim 590:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:8
 Admur ibid adds also the set of Tashrat to this dispute-see Background; Kaf Hachaim 590:38
 Vetzaruch Iyun if one must repeat the first Tekiah if he took a breath between the Tekiah and Shevarim but did not take a breath between the Shevarim:Teruah and the following Tekiah. Seemingly in such a case one would only have to repeat the Shevarim or Teruah and Tekiah, as the first Tekiah had a beginning and end and the invalid sound was similar to the sound needed to be blown in that set and is hence similar to the case of one who blew two Shevarim and a Teruah in Tashrat in which case the first Tekiah still remains valid. Vetzaruch Iyun.
 If however one blew the set in one breath and did not make a break between each blow, it is invalid according to all and hence must be repeated. [so is implied from Admur ibid]
 590:8-9; So rule also: Michaber 590:4 [that every G-d fearing Jew should follow this arbitration]; Mishmeres Shalom 41:7 [that so is the custom]; M”B in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:18 [that this is the best arbitration]; Sefer Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukichinsky [that so is the custom in all Eretz Yisrael]; Chazon Ish 136 [That so is the proper custom to follow]
Background of Admur ibid:
First Opinion [Rabbeinu Tam]-Two breaths: The Shevarim Teruah of Tashrat is not required to be done in one breath. Now, although the three Shevarim and Teruah of Tashrat are both together considered the single Biblical Teruah of that set, as perhaps the Biblical Teruah is a Genicha and Yelila together one after the other, nevertheless one is not required to blow it in one breath as it is not common for a person to sound both the Geniacha and Yelila in a single breath. Rather one takes a break in-between which consists of one breath. Thus, the blower must also take a breath in-between the two sounds. Nevertheless, one is not to delay more than the amount of a single breath between the two blows. Likewise, the blower is not to wait for the Makri to say the word Teruah [or motion him to blow the Teruah] and rather he is to begin blowing on his own immediately after taking a single breath following the Shevarim. [590:8] It is disputed whether [according to this opinion] one fulfills his obligation Bedieved if he blew it in one breath. Practically the main opinion follows the opinion who holds the blows are valid even if he did the entire Tashrat in a single breath as explained in the previous part of this Halacha. [590:9]
Second Opinion [Ramban; Rosh]-One breath: There are those that say that although it is not common to cry a Genicha and Yelil within a single breath, nevertheless since the entire reason for blowing a Shevarim-Teruah is merely due to the doubt that perhaps this is the Biblical Teruah sound referred to in the Torah, therefore one is not to make an interval between the sounds as the Torah states a single Teruah and not a Teruah that is split to two Teruos. Therefore, if one blew the sounds in two breaths, he has not fulfilled his obligation and it is thus to be blown in one breath. Nevertheless, one is to take a small break between the two sounds in order so it is evident that they are two different sounds. [590:9; See other opinions below.]
Final Ruling: The custom in these countries is like the first opinion and one may not swerve from this custom due to the need to avoid quarrel. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid] However all areas that do not have a set custom one should practice as follows: By תשר”ת of תקיעות מיושב [before Musaf] the Shevarim-Teruah is to be done in a single breath [with a small break between the Shevarim and Teruah]. The reason for this is because in this way one justifies the saying of the blessing [without suspicion of it being a blessing in vain] according to all opinions, as even according to the first opinion there are Poskim that rule that if one blew the Shevarim-Teruah in a single breath he fulfills his obligation, just like is the law regarding one who blew the entire set of Tarat or Tashat in a single breath in which case he has fulfilled his obligation [according to this opinion]. The above is only regarding the Tekios before Musaf [Meyushav] however the תקיעות מעומד [within Musaf] are to be done in two breaths. The reason for this is because no blessing is said over these Tekios and [thus there is no worry of a blessing in vain] and since some rule that according to the first opinion if one blew the Shevarim-Teruah in one breath he has not fulfilled his obligation, therefore to suspect for this opinion one should do so in two breaths. [590:9; final ruling of Michaber ibid] It seems from the above explanation that our main worry is not for one to fulfill his obligation according to both opinions but to avoid a blessing in vain. Vetzaruch Iyun.
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one is always to blow the Shevarim Teruah in two breaths, both in Meyushav and Meumad. [Rama 590:4; Bach 590; Avnei Nezer 444; Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:109] This applies in all areas unless their custom is explicitly otherwise. [Alef Hamagen 590:20] Some Poskim rule one is to blow Meyushav in two breaths and Meumad in one breath. [Alef Hamagen 590:20] Some Poskim rule that if one will blow 30 blows in Musaf then he may even initially choose to blow the set of Meyushav in two breaths and the set of Meumad in one breath. [Mateh Efraim 590:15]
The Chabad custom: The custom of the Rebbe Rashab was to blow the Shevarim Teruah in two breaths, even in the set of Meyushav. Nevertheless, the Rebbe stated that he does not know if this was due to health reasons or because that is the way he held according to Halacha. [Hamelech Bemisibo 1:236] Likewise when the Rebbe Rayatz was the Makri he would not remove his finger from the word Shevarim until the Baal Tokeia stopped and took a breath even in the set of Meyushav. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 122]
 This silent break may not be more than the amount of time it takes for one to take a breath, even though in actuality he is doing it all in one breath. [Based on Admur and Michaber in the first opinion that requires two breaths and certainly this would apply according to this opinion] If one does delay this amount even without taking a breath it is questionable whether one fulfills his obligation according to any opinion. [Alef Hamagen 590:17 in name of Eish Daas]
 Admur 590:9; M”B 590:18; Ashel Avraham Butchach 590
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that according to the 2nd opinion one is required to blow the Shevarim Teruah in a single sound without any break in between. [Avnei Nezer 443; Chazon Ish 136:1]
 Some Poskim write that those who blow the Shofar in the silent Musaf prayer are to do so in one breath and only by the blows of the repetition is one to do so in two breaths. [Ashel Avraham Butchach] However the widespread custom is to blow it in two breaths.
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Mateh Efraim 593:2
Bedieved: If one delayed more than the amount of time it takes to take a breath than he is to repeat from the first Tekiah. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:6; See M”E ibid]
 See Q&A!
 Based on the final ruling of Admur ibid that whenever one blows with a blessing, he is to blow in one breath and hence fulfill his obligation according to all.
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid
First Opinion: If one lengthened the last Tekiah of a certain set (this refers to the last Tekiah of a single set of Tashrat or a single set of Tashat or a single set of Tarat) of one of the sets of Tashrat or Tashat or Tarat, the length of two Tekios in order for this Tekiah to count as two Tekiahs, the last Tekiah of the current set and the first Tekiah of the following set, nevertheless the Tekiah only counts for one set which is the last Tekiah of the current set. The reason for this is because every Tekiah must have a beginning and end and if this Tekiah were to be split to two Tekias as was the original intent of the blower then the second Tekiah would not have a beginning and the first Tekiah would not have an end. Therefore, we do not follow the blowers intent and rather we consider this Tekiah as one long Tekiah and it thus counts as the last Tekiah of the current set. [590:10]
Second Opinion: There are those that argue on the above and say that everything follows one’s intent and thus since he intended that the Tekiah count as two blows we therefore consider it as two Tekiahs and they are hence both invalid for the reason explained above that it must have a beginning and end. Thus, it does not even count as a single Tekiah. One must thus re-blow the first Tekiah of the current set and continue with the remaining sounds just as is the law regarding one who made a mistake in middle of a set in which case he must begin from the start of that set.
The final ruling: The final ruling follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, it is proper to suspect for the latter opinion. [590:11]
 Meaning if one is holding in the second set of Tashrat and by the last Tekiah of the second set he had intent that this Tekiah count as the last Tekiah of the second set and the first Tekiah of the third set then he is to repeat from the first Tekiah of the second set.
 Mateh Efraim 590:15
Vetzrauch Iyun as perhaps according to Admur in order to save oneself from a possible blessing in vain he must repeat the Shevarim-Teruah of the Tashrat in a single breath, as he explains in his reasoning behind his arbitration.
 Alef Hamagen 590:23 in name of Eish Das; Tashbatz 3:209; Eishel Avraham 590; Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:6
 Seemingly he should not be required to repeat as a) The main opinion follows the opinion that rules even if one blew the entire set in one breath, he fulfilled his obligation. And b) Some Poskim rule that even initially one is to do so in one breath. Vetzaruch Iyun as perhaps by a Biblical command one is to suspect for all opinions.
 Admur ibid; M”B 590:17; As the main opinion follows that Bedieved it is valid even if the entire Tashrat was done in a single breath.
 Shevach Hamoadim p. 30; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 339; Hiskashrus footnote 78; Heard from Rav Tenebaum, the Baal Tokeia in 770 in those years that the Rebbe did not blow, that so was the custom in Otvotz by the Rebbe Rayatz and so is the custom in the Rebbe’s Shul in 770. [Shevach Hamoadim ibid] However see Otzer 281-282 that the Rabbeim blew even the Shevarim Teruah of Meyushav in two breaths. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:6
 A) In order so the blessing is not in vain according to the second opinion and b) in order to fulfill his obligation according to all.