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Al Hanissim 
A. When is it recited?
One is to recite Al Hanissim both by the night and day of the 14th. It is recited in Birchas Hamazon, within the blessing of Birchas Haaretz, and in Shemoneh Esrei within the blessing of Modim. It is to be recited during Maariv of the 14th, even though the Megillah was not yet read. [The custom is to recite Veal Hanissim, with an additional Vav, by both Birchas Hamazon and Shemoneh Esrei.] If one did not recite Al Hanissim he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei [or Birchas Hamazon].
Shushan Purim: Al Hanissim is not recited on the 15th, which is Shushan Purim, [in areas that celebrated on the 14th]. Nevertheless if one accidently recited it on the 15th he is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei.
One who is Davening Maariv before sunset on the 13th: One who is Davening Maariv early [after Plag Hamincha] of the 13th, which is Erev Purim, is to recite Al Hanissim in Shemoneh Esrei. This is despite the fact that he not yet read the Megillah.
Jerusalem: The inhabitants of Jerusalem, which celebrate Purim on the 15th, are to recite Al Hanissim only on the 15th and not on the 14th.
Cities that celebrate on both the 14th and 15th: The inhabitants of a city which celebrates Purim on both the 14th and 15th due to doubt [see Chapter 5 Halacha 1C] are to say Al Hanissim on both days.
Is one who traveled to or from Jerusalem and is celebrating Purim on the 14th or 15th due to doubt, is he to say Al Hanissim?
B. What is one to do if he forgot to recite Al Hanissim in Shemoneh Esrei?
If one did not recite Al Hanissim he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. If he remembered before reciting Hashem’s name in the blessing of “Hatov Shimcha” then he is to return and recite Al Hanissim. This applies even if he already said Baruch Ata but did not yet say Hashem’s name. If however one has already recited Hashem’s name then he may not go back. Some opinions say that if he omitted Al Hanissim in its proper area, then if he has not yet concluded Shemoneh Esrei, he is to recite Al Hanissim prior to the last Yiyu Leratzon that is said prior to taking three steps back.
Q&A on Shemoneh Esrei
Is the Chazan to announce Al Hanissim prior to beginning Shemoneh Esrei?
Maariv: Some Poskim rule Al Hanissim may be announced prior to Shemoneh Esrei, after Kaddish. Others rule it may not be announced. Practically the custom is not to announce it, and so is the final ruling of Admur and the Chabad custom. Rather upon the Chazan reaching Al Hanissim he is to recite the first words aloud.
Shacharis: Al Hanissim may not be announced prior to Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis.
Mincha: There is no prohibition involved in announcing Al Hanissim prior to Mincha.
What is the law if one recited Al Hanissim by Birchas Avoda of Shemoneh Esrei, instead of Birchas Hodaah?
He fulfills his obligation and is continue with the prayer.
Is one to skip Al Hanissim in order to say Kedusha with the congregation?
No. One is to say Al Hanissim even if doing so will come at the expense of him saying Kedusha with the congregation.
What is the law if one accidently said Al Hanissim in Shemoneh Esrei on the 15th, Shushan Purim?
If one accidently recited Al Hanissim on the 15th he is not required to repeat the prayer.
What is the law if one who celebrates in Jerusalem accidently said Al Hanissim in Shemoneh Esrei on the 14th?
He is not required to repeat the prayer.
C. What is one to do if he forgot to recite Al Hanissim in Bentching?
If one forgot to say Al Hanissim and has finished Bentching he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and does not need to repeat Birchas Hamazon.
Remembered before finishing blessing: If he remembered before reciting Hashem’s name in the blessing of “Al Haaretz Veal Hamazon”, even if he already said Baruch Ata, then he is to go back to Al Hanissim.
Remembered after the blessing-add in Harachaman: If one has already recited Hashem’s name [he is to continue Birchas Hamazon as usual without saying Al Hanissim, however] there are opinions which rule that in such a case, if one has not yet concluded Birchas Hamazon, then he is to recite “Harachaman [Hu] Yaaseh Lanu Nissim [Kemo Sheasa] Laavoseinu Bayamim Haheim Bezman…Bimeiy Mordechai”, in the orders of Harachmans which are recited. Practically one is to follow this opinion. [It is to be recited prior to the Harachaman of “Hu Yizakeinu”.]
D. Started a meal on Erev Purim and is Bentching on Purim:
If one began eating a meal during the day of Erev Purim and ended the meal at night, after Purim has begun, then if he ate a Kezayis of bread after nightfall he is to recite Al Hanissim in Birchas Hamazon.
Purim that falls on Motzei Shabbos: If one began eating a meal on Shabbos, such as Shalosh Seudos, and the meal ended after nightfall, when Purim has already begun, then he is to say only Ritzei and not Al Hanissim in Bentching. This applies even if he ate a Kezayis of bread past nightfall. [Nevertheless, in such a case, one is to recite Al Hanissim within the Harachamans.] If however one Davened Maariv prior to Bentching then Ritzei is not to be said, and hence if one ate a Kezayis after nightfall he is to recite Al Hanissim. If one said Havdala, or even said Baruch Hamavdil, prior to Bentching it receives the same law as one who Davened Maariv and hence Ritzei may not be recited.
E. Started meal on Purim and is reciting Birchas Hamazon at night after Purim:
If the meal extended into the night one is to nevertheless recite Al Hanissim in his Bentching. If one Davened Maariv prior to Bentching he no longer says Al Hanissim in Bentching.  [Thus one is to avoid Davening Maariv prior to Bentching in order so he is able to Al Hanissim.]
Purim fell on Friday and the Purim meal continued into Shabbos: One is to say both Al Hanissim and Ritzei if one ate a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush. If one Davened Maariv before Bentching, Al Hanissim is not said, and thus only Ritzei is said if one ate a Kezayis after Kiddush. [However some Poskim rule Al Hanissim is never to be said together with Ritzei, even if one did not Daven Maariv. However it is proper to say Al Hanissim within Harachaman.] Regarding the laws of Pores Mapa Umikadesh-See Chapter 10 Halacha 6!
One is to recite Al Hanissim both by the night and day of the 14th. It is recited within Birchas Hamazon and within Shemoneh Esrei. If one did not recite it he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei or Birchas Hamazon. Al Hanissim is not recited on the 15th, which is Shushan Purim [in areas that celebrated on the 14th]. Nevertheless if one accidently recited it on the 15th he is not required to repeat the prayer. The inhabitants of Jerusalem which celebrate Purim on the 15th are to recite Al Hanissim only on the 15th and not on the 14th. The inhabitants of a city which celebrates Purim on both the 14th and 15th due to doubt, are to say Al Hanissim on both days.
Q&A on Birchas Hamazon
Is Al Hanissim mentioned in the after blessing of Meiyn Shalosh?
No. One does not mention Al Hanissim in the after blessing of Meiyn Shalosh.
What is the law if one became mixed up after Al Hanissim of Birchas Hamazon and began saying the continuation of Shemoneh Esrei?
One is to return to the words Al Hakol and continue from there.
Is one to say Migdol rather than Magdil in Birchas Hamazon on Purim?
One is to recite the regular weekday Nussach of Magdil. However there are some that are accustomed to say Migdol, just like on Shabbos and Yom Tov.
What is the law if one accidently said Al Hanissim in Birchas Hamazon on Shushan Purim?
If one accidently recited Al Hanissim on the 15th then if he did not yet complete the blessing he is to return to the beginning of the blessing. If however he already finished the blessing he is continue as usual.
 Michaber ibid
 Nevertheless this is not an obligation as Purim does not contain a Musaf sacrifice. [Admur 188/17]
 682/1 regarding Chanukah; The reason it is recited within Birchas Modim is because the entire festival of Chanukah [and Purim] is for praise. [Taz 682/1; M”B 682/2]
 Rama ibid
 M”B 682/1
 Rama ibid
 Rama ibid; Bach; Beis Yosef in name of Orchos Chaim
The reason: As the miracle did not occur on the 15th and hence the prayer of Al Hanissim is not relevant to this day and is considered an interval. [M”B 693/6]
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one desires he may say Al Hanissim also on the 15th. [Nemukei Orach Chaim 693/1; Mor Uketzia; Maharil Hilchos Purim; Rav of Komrana and other Tzaddikim] The Divrei Yatziv negates his opinion. [2/299] Nevertheless one who is keeping Purim on the 15th due to doubt may be lenient to say Al Hanissim. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/4]
 Taz 693/3; M”A 693/1; Elya Raba 693/ 2; P”M 693 A”A 1; Birkeiy Yosef 693/ 2; Nehar Shalom 693/3; Erech Hashulchan 693/3; M”B 693/6; Kaf Hachaim 693/15; See Derech Hachaim 33/29, 46, 52, 72 and Ketzos Hashulchan 21/4 that this applies anytime of the year that if one accidently said Al Hanissim he is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei being that he did not say an absolute lie but simply added to his prayer. So is also implied from Admur 108/18 which does not mention Al Hanissim in the dispute mentioned regarding one who accidently said Yaleh Veyavo in Shemoneh Esrei. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid footnote 8]
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule if one recited Al Hanissim on the 15th he is required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei. [Bach; Peri Chadash brought in Poskim ibid]
 M”B 693/4; Kaf Hachaim 693/13
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/4
 Peri Megadim 693 M”Z 3; M”B 693/6; Har Tzevi 2/128; and so concludes Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/6; See Minchas Yitzchak 8/54
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that one does not say Al Hanissim on the 15th, and that so was the custom of the Arizal, due to worry of it being an interval in prayer and Birchas Hamazon. [Kaf Hachaim 688/23; 693/16; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 14; Sefer Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukichinsky; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos Purim 1] However see Nemukei Orach Chaim 693/1 that explains it was only during Chazaras Hashatz that the Arizal did not want to say Al Hanissim, however by the private Shemoneh Esrei one can assume that he said it. At the very least one cannot state for certain he did not say it, being that certainly the Arizal did not pray the private Shemoneh Esrei aloud. [ibid]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/4
 Michaber ibid
The Reason: As the holiday of Purim is not Biblical [M”B 682/3] and does not contain a Musaf sacrifice. [P”M 682 M”Z 2; Admur 188/17]
May one repeat the prayer as a Tefilas Reshus/Nedava if he chooses? Some Poskim rule one may not repeat Shemoneh Esrei even as a Nedava in order to recite Al Hanissim. [Rosh; Kneses Hagedola; brought in Kaf Hachaim 682/5] Others however rule one may repeat the prayer as a Nedava if he knows that he is able to concentrate properly. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 682]
 Some say that if he remembered prior to reciting Hakeil Yeshuaseinu then he is to say Al Hanissim and return to Vial Kulam. If however he already said Hakeil Yeshuaseinu then he is to say it in the area that he remembers and then continue from where he left off. [Hiskashrus 1025; See Admur 582/6 regarding Zachreinu; however according to the M”B and other Poskim there who argue, in this case as well one would always return to the words of Veal Kulam.]
 Michaber ibid
 This applies even if he did not yet begin the next blessing. [Kaf Hachaim 682/9]
What is the law if one went back to recite it? He is to stop in middle and continue from where he left off in Shemoneh Esrei. [Michtam Ledavid 22; Birkeiy Yosef 682/2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 682; Mamar Mordechai 682/2; Kaf Hachaim 682/6]
 Elya Raba 682/2; Mamar Mordechai 682/3; M”B 682/4; Kaf Hachaim 682/12
 Abudarham; M”A 236/1 [that so is the custom]; M”B 236/7
The Michaber 236/2 [based on Rashba 293] rules one may announce Yaleh Veyavo between Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei and it is not considered an interval being it is done for a need of the prayer. So rules also Bach and Levush. The M”A ibid questions whether this would likewise apply to Al Hanissim which is not an obligation to be said in the prayer and hence if one skipped it the prayer is not required to be repeated. He concludes that the custom is to say it and so rules M”B ibid.
 Mamar Mordechai 236/2; Rashal brought in Kaf Hachaim 236/16; Siddur Admur
The Rashal argues on the entire ruling of the Michaber based on Rashba and says it is never allowed to announce anything before Shemoneh Esrei. The Mamar Mordechai ibid rules that although one may announce Yaleh Veyavo and Vesen Tal Umatar one may not announce Al Hanissim.
 Likkutei Mahrich; Kaf Hachaim 236/16 that so is custom of Jerusalem; Piskeiy Teshuvos 682/2;
 Siddur Admur and Sefer Haminhagim p. 69 [English] regarding Yaleh Veyavo and certainly this would apply to Al Hanissim
 Kaf Hachaim ibid; See also Rashal ibid
 Taz 114; P”M 236; Shaar Hatziyon 236/4
 Yosef Ometz 682/8; Ikarei Hadaat 35/35; Shaar Hatziyon 682/2; Kaf Hachaim 682/8
 Tzemach Tzedek Choshen Mishpat 11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 682/2
 See sources brought above in A under “Shushan Purim”!
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/4
 682/1 regarding Chanukah; Admur 187/8; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/7
 Michaber ibid; Admur in Siddur and 187/8 and so rules: Terumas Hadeshen 38; Maharal of Prague; Elya Raba 695/3; Birkeiy Yosef 695/3; Mamar Mordechai 695/3; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 10; Aruch Hashulchan 695/12; M”B 695/15 [brings both opinions and concludes Safek Brachos Lihakel]; Kaf Hachaim 695/32-see there for list of more Poskim; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/7; See regarding Chanukah: Michaber ibid as explained in M”B 682/3; Peri Chadash; Kneses Hagedola; Kaf Hachaim 682/7
Other Opinions: The Rashal and Shlah rule one must repeat Birchas Hamazon if he forgot to say Al Hanissim. [M”A 695/9] So rules also Taz 693 and Mateh Moshe. The M”A ibid rules that if one already ate one meal that day he is not required to repeat Birchas Hamazon if he forgot Al Hanissim in the Purim meal. The Bach 682 rules one is always required to repeat Birchas Hamazon, even by Chanukah.
The reason behind the dispute: The source of the dispute is with regard to whether one is obligated to eat bread on Purim. The above lenient Poskim rule one is not required to eat bread and hence is not required to repeat Birchas Hamazon. [See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2/291] Those that are stringent either rule one is obligated to eat bread, or that one must mention Purim in the after blessing since the entire eating of the feast is in honor of Purim. [See M”A; Aruch Hashulchan ibid]
 Michaber ibid; Admur 187/8
 From where is one to continue after Al Hanissim? Some say that he is not to return to the beginning of the paragraph of Vial Hakol, but is rather to continue with the sentence that he left off. If he remembers in middle of a verse he is to first finish the verse and then say Al Hanissim and continue from there. If he remembers in the last verse, then he is to repeat the verse of Viachalta Vesavata. [Hiskashrus 1025; See Admur 582/6 regarding Zachreinu; however according to the M”B 582/16 and other Poskim there who argue that one may repeat from the original area that Zachreinu is recited, in this case as well one would always return to the words of Veal Hakol.]
 Rama ibid regarding Chanukah; Admur 187/8; Siddur Admur; Levush brought in M”B 682/5 that this applies likewise on Purim.
 He is not to recite Al Hanissim even after finishing the blessing of Al Hamazon prior to beginning the next blessing. [See Kaf Hachaim 682/9; M”B 114/32; See Ashel Avraham Butchach 695 and Shaar Hatziyon 682/1]
May one say Lamdeini Chukecha and then return and say Al Hanissim? No. [Shaar Hatziyon 188/18]
 Kol Bo
 Admur ibid; Siddur Admur
 The word “Veniflaos”: In the Shulchan Aruch [Rama ibid; Admur ibid] the word “Nissim Veniflaos” is added. This word Veniflaos is omitted by Admur in the Siddur. [See Koveitz Haaros Ubiurim 1033 p. 50]
 Admur ibid in Shulchan Aruch and Siddur; The Rama ibid writes “Kisheim Sheasisa”
 Rama ibid; Admur 187/8; Siddur Admur; Levush brought in M”B 682/5 that this applies likewise on Purim.
 Admur ibid; Siddur Admur
 Siddur Yaavetz; Aruch Hashulchan 682/3; Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 18 that so is the custom of the world.
Other Opinions: In Luach Eretz Yisrael he writes that one is to say the Harachaman immediately after “Al Yechasreinu”
 188/17; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/9
Admur ibid records a dispute in this matter. Some opinions rule, as stated above, that one only recites Al Hanissim if he ate a Kezayis of bread after nightfall. Others rule that even if he did not eat a Kezayis after nightfall he is to recite Al Hanissim. Practically the custom is like the 1st opinion.
 188/17; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/11 footnote 23; M”B 188/33; Piskeiy Teshuvos 682/1
Admur ibid records a dispute regarding whether one may say both the previous days and current day’s extra prayer within Bentching if he began a meal during the day and it continued into the night, with him eating a Kezayis of bread at night. [M”A 188/18 prohibits; Taz 188/7 permits] He concludes that one may do so if the order in the Bentching is that he first recites the previous day’s event and then recites the current night’s event. [Such as one who had a meal on Shabbos afternoon and Motzei Shabbos is Rosh Chodesh in which Ritzei precedes Yaleh Veyavo.] If however the night’s event precedes the previous day’s event then one may not say both prayers even according to the lenient opinion, as it is a contradiction. One is thus to only say the current nights event or the more obligatory event, and Ritzei is more obligatory than Al Hanissim. [Admur ibid; Taz 188/7; M”A 188/18 419/1; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid that this applies according to all; M”B ibid]
Ruling of the Chabad Rabbeim: Practically regarding Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo the Rebbe ruled, and so is the Chabad custom, to say both the prayer of the night and of the previous day even if the night prayer is said first [i.e. Yom Tov which continues into Shabbos]. This is unlike either opinion brought in Admur ibid, and is unlike the final ruling of Ketzos Hashulchan ibid. [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 211; Sichah of Simchas Torah 1957; Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 40] Nevertheless regarding Al Hanissim, there is no precedent to say the Rabbeim would hold that one is to say both prayers even though they form a contradiction, as Al Hanissim is not an obligation to mention as is Yaleh Veyavo and Ritzei. [See Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 22; M”B ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 23; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 695 [Alternatively the Ashel Avraham ibid suggests to think the Al Hanissim in his mind]
 Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/8; As it is a contradiction to have prayed the prayer of the next day and then mention the previous day.
 Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/8
Background of Admur ibid: Admur ibid leaves this matter in question and concludes that Shev Veal Taaseh Adif-that it is better not to say it. Vetzaruch Iyun as to the intent of the parentheses there that state “According to what is written here there is no doubt, as it is not better than mentioning Rosh Chodesh”. Perhaps this means to say that when one says Baruch Hamavdil it is like he has mentioned Yaleh Veyavo and hence he certainly can no longer say Ritzei. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/8
 Rama 695/3; Admur 188/17; Ketzos Hashulchan 47/8
The Michaber 695/3 records a dispute regarding if Al Hanissim is said in Birchas Hamazon, when one is reciting it after Purim is already over. The Rama rules the custom is like the first opinion to say Al Hanissim. Admur ibid records this dispute and concludes like the Rama that the custom is like the opinion that states one is to say Al Hanissim.
Other Opinions: Kaf Hachaim 695/33 rules one does not mention Al Hanissim at night.
 So rules Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid
Other Opinions: The M”B 695/16 records a dispute on this matter and rules one is to initially avoid Davening Maariv before Birchas Hamazon in order to avoid the dispute.
 M”B ibid [Now, although he writes this in order to avoid the dispute, and Admur does not mention any dispute in this matter. Nevertheless seemingly even according to Admur it is proper to initially say Al Hanissim within Bentching and avoid Davening Maariv.
 Based on 188/17 that we say both prayers if a Kezayis was eaten at night and the previous days prayer is said first; The simple wording of Admur implies that we follow the ruling of the Taz 188 even regarding Al Hanissim. So rules also Meiri [brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 695/6] based on that Shabbos is the 15th on which the miracle of Purim also occurred.
Why Kiddush is not considered like one Davened Maariv? See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 211; Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 40 which explains that even if one said Kiddush he may still say the previous days prayer and it is not considered like he Davened Maariv.
 If one did not eat a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush then only Al Hanissim is said. In such a case one must still eat a Friday night meal. If this is not possible one is to eat three meals the next day. Once sunset has arrived one is to do Pores Mapah and is not to bentch prior to eating Kezayis. [See Chapter 10 Halacha 6 for the full details of this matter!]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 22; M”B 695/15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 695/6 [However from the simple wording of Admur in 188/17 it is implied that we follow the ruling of the Taz 188 even regarding Al Hanissim. Vetzaruch Iyun.]
 The reason: As in such a case it is proper to suspect for the opinion of the M”A that both prayers are never said, being that Al Hanissim is not an obligation to mention [see Admur 188/17], as well as that there are opinions which hold we never say the Al Hanissim for the previous day even when there is no contradiction. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 23; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 695
 Michaber 208/12; Mahrahm Merutenberg 70; Elya Raba 682/2; P”M 682 A”A 1; M”B 682/2; Machatzis Hashekel 208/18; Taamei Haminhagim 858; Kaf Hachaim 682/3
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to mention Al Hanissim within the after blessing of Meiyn Shalosh. [Yad Neeman 5a; Yifei Laleiv 2/1; 5/1]
 The reason: As it is merely of Rabbinical origin. [Lechem Chamudos brought in Machatzis Hashekel ibid] Alternatively, it is because Al Hanissim is to be said in middle of the blessing of Modim, and the blessing of Meiyn Shalosh does not contain the blessing of Modim. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Levush] See also Nemukeiy Orach Chaim 682.
Bedieved: If one mentioned Al Hanissim within Mieiyn Shalosh he nevertheless is not required to repeat the after blessing. [Kaf Hachaim 682/3]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47/12; See there footnote 24
 Admur in Siddur does not include Purim; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 168 that so recited the Rebbe.
 Mishneh Sachir 2/220
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47/13 based on M”A 271/14 that this applies any day of the year and not just on the 15th. This follows the same ruling as one who said Al Hanissim in Shemoneh Esrei on the 15th. See Taz 693/3; M”A 693/1; Elya Raba 693/2; P”M 693 A”A 1; Birkeiy Yosef 693/ 2; Nehar Shalom 693/3; Erech Hashulchan 693/3; M”B 693/6; Kaf Hachaim 693/15; sources brought above in A under “Shushan Purim”!
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