Changes in the prayers applicable to Aseres Yimei Teshuva [Halacha 2-3]:
- Saying Shir Hamaalos in Shacharis: It is customary to recite the psalm of Shir Hamaalos Mimamakim between Yishtabach and Barchu throughout the ten days of repentance. The purpose of reciting this psalm during Aseres Yimei Teshuvah is to sweeten the Gevuros. Each day one is to intend to sweeten the specific Gevura of that day.
- It is not the Chabad custom to open the ark when the psalm is recited, and we do not repeat each verse after the Chazan.
- If the Chazan forgot to say Shir Hamaalos and already began Kaddish then he is to finish the Kaddish and continue straight with Yotzer Or. The psalm of Shir Hamaalos is to be omitted.
- If one is holding in middle of Pesukei Dezimra he may say Shir Hamaalos together with the congregation. Furthermore, upon reaching Yishtabach he may repeat Shir Hamaalos, prior to Yotzer Or.
- Oseh Hashalom: At the conclusion of Kaddish one says “Oseh Hashalom” in place of “Oseh Shalom.”
- Ulieila: It is not the Chabad custom to add the word “Ulieila” in Kaddish of Aseres Yimei Teshuvah [with exception to the Kaddish said during Neila in which we say Lieila Ulieila Mikol Birchasa].
Changes in the Amidah applicable to the ten days of repentance:
- Hamelech Hakadosh: In Shemoneh Esrei of Aseres Yimei Teshuvah the third blessing concludes with the words “Hamelech Hakadosh” in place of “Hakel Hakadosh”. This begins
- If one did not say Hamelech Hakadosh, or is in doubt if he said it, then if he already began the next blessing, he must repeat Shemoneh Esrei.
- If he has not yet begun the next blessing, then if he has not passed the amount of time it takes to say “Shalom Alecha Rebbe” then he may say Hamelech Hakadosh and continue.
- If, however, he remembered only after this amount of time already passed, then he must repeat from the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei.
- If the Chazan forgot to say Hamelech Hakadosh he is required to repeat from the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei, just as is the law for an individual. In such a case Kedusha is to be repeated.
- Mieiyn Sheva: On Shabbos Teshuvah, as well as when Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur fall on Shabbos, the Chazan recites in the blessing of Mieiyn Sheva recited [after Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv] on Friday night, Hamelech Hakadosh in place of Hakeil Hakadosh.
- Likewise, when the congregation customarily recites the paragraph of Magen Avos they say the words Hamelech Hakadosh in place of Hakeil Hakadosh.
- Hamelech Hamishpat: In Shemoneh Esrei of Aseres Yimei Teshuvah the tenth blessing of Hashiva Shofteinu concludes with the words “Hamelech Hamishpat” in place of “Melech Ohave Tzedaka Umishpat”. This emphasizes that Hashem is the King that is currently in judgment at this time.
- If one did not conclude with ‘Hamelech Hamishpat’, or is in doubt as to how he concluded, then if he already began the next blessing, he is to continue Shemoneh Esrei and is not to go back to the blessing of Hashiva. In such a case it is proper to repeat Shemoneh Esrei from the beginning as a Toras Nidava after he concludes his prayers.
- If he remembered prior to beginning the next blessing, then if the amount of time to say “Shalom Alecha Rebbe” has not passed since he concluded the blessing, he is to correct himself and say “Hamelech Hamishpat.” He is then to continue regularly from there. If however this amount of time has already passed, then he is not to correct himself and is rather to continue Shemoneh Esrei as usual. After he concludes his Shemoneh Esrei it is proper to repeat Shemoneh Esrei as a Toras Nidava as stated above.
- Hamelech Hakodesh and Hamelech Hamishpat versus Melech Hakadosh and Melech Hamishpat: One must recite Hamelech Hakadosh and Hamelech Hamishpat with the letter Hei.
- If one did not do so then some Poskim rule one does not fulfill his obligation. However, most Poskim conclude one does fulfill his obligation and so is the final ruling.
- Zachreinu; Mi Chamocha; Ukesov; Ubisefer: The Geonim instituted that throughout Aseres Yimei Teshuvah one is to add the following prayers: Zachreinu Lechayim in the blessing of Avos [1st blessing], Mi Chamocha in the blessing of Gevuros [2nd blessing], Ukesov in the blessing of Hodaah [2nd to last blessing], and Ubisefer in the blessing of Sim Shalom.
- If one forgot to say any of the above additions, then if he already said Hashem’s name in that closing blessing, such as he said Baruch Ata Hashem in “Mechayeh Hameisim”, then he is to continue with the prayer. [In such a case some Poskim rule that one is to say the omitted part at the conclusion of the Amidah after saying the second Yehi Ratzon.]
- If one remembered to say it prior to saying Hashem’s name in the concluding blessing [even if he already said Baruch Ata, but not Hashem], he is to say it in the area that he remembers and then continue from where he left off.
- When the Chazan repeats Shemoneh Esrei, the Chabad custom is that the congregation recites aloud the verses of Ukesov and Ubisefer but not Zachreinu or Mi Chamocha. This applies equally on Shabbos and Yom Tov.
- Oseh Hashalom: At the conclusion of Shemoneh Esrei, after Elokaiy Netzor, one says “Oseh Hashalom” in place of “Oseh Shalom.” However, in Birchas Hamazon the Nussach is Oseh Shalom and not Hashalom.
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