Chanukah Halacha-Chapter 4: Shabbos Chanukah


Chapter 4: Shabbos Chanukah[1]

This chapter is a compilation of laws relating to Shabbos Chanukah that have been gathered from all the chapters of the book. Further details of the particular laws can be found in their main subject in the relevant chapter.

1. Mincha Erev Shabbos:[2]

Mincha is prayed [early] on Erev Shabbos, prior to lighting the Chanukah candles.[3] [In a time of need, however, one may light the candles prior to Mincha.[4] If one is unable to Daven Mincha with a Minyan prior to candle lighting, it is better to light before Mincha and then Daven Mincha with a Minyan.[5]]

*1. Shnayim Mikra-The Haftorah:[6]

Although from the letter of the law there is no obligation to read the weekly Haftorah to oneself each week, nevertheless the custom is to do so.[7] [On a Shabbos that there are two Haftoras for that week, such as Shabbos Chanukah, then one is to read both the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha and the Haftorah which will be read in Shul.[8] Accordingly, if Rosh Chodesh is two days and falls on Shabbos and Sunday, one is to read three Haftora’s; the weekly Parsah, the Haftorah of Hashamayim Kisi and the Haftorah of Machar Chodesh.[9] On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah in which Rosh Chodesh is on Shabbos and Sunday, one is to read four Haftoras, of the weekly Parsha, Rini Vesimchi, Hashamayim Kisi, and Machar Chodesh.]

2. Lighting the Chanukkah Candles on Erev Shabbos:[10]

A. When are the Chanukah candles lit?

Before the Shabbos candles:[11] On Erev Shabbos, the Chanukah candles are lit prior to the Shabbos candles.[12]

The earliest time of lighting:[13] The candles are lit with a blessing even though they are being lit while still day. [The earliest time one can begin to light the Chanukah candles is from Plag Hamincha.[14] Plag Hamincha is 11/4 Zmaniyos[15] hours [75 Zmaniyos minutes] prior to sunset.[16] Some Poskim[17], however, rule the candles are to be lit near sunset, within a half hour to sunset. Based on this, the custom in Jerusalem is to light the Chanukah candles 25 minutes before sunset, and then immediately afterwards to light Shabbos candles.[18]]


Q&A on when to light

May a wife light the Shabbos candles prior to the husband lighting the Chanukah candles?[19]

Initially, the wife is to only light the Shabbos candles once the Chanukah candles have been lit by her husband.[20] However, in a time of need, she may light the Chanukah candles prior to her husband lighting. She may certainly begin the lighting after her husband has lit one candle, if she is pressed for time.[21]

If a man already lit the Shabbos candles, may he still light the Chanukah candles?[22]

So long as he did not explicitly have in mind to accept Shabbos upon lighting the candles, he may still light the Chanukah candles. [However, he must make sure to accept Shabbos within ten minutes of the initial lighting of the Shabbos candles.[23]]

If a woman already lit Shabbos candles, may she still light the Chanukah candles if no one else is lighting for her?

No [unless she made a Tnaiy].[24] However, she may ask a Jew who has not yet accepted Shabbos to light the candles for her, having him say the first blessing in her presence while she recites the remaining blessings [of Sheasah Nissim, and Sheheciyanu if this occurred on the first night].[25]

If it is very close to Shabbos and one has not yet Davened Mincha or lit candles, what should he do?

One should first light candles and then Daven Mincha.

B. Remaining close to the candles:[26]

On Erev Shabbos, we are not particular to remain close to the burning candles for a half hour.

C. How much oil must the candle contain/How long must the candles last for?[27]

On Erev Shabbos one is to place enough oil in the candles for them to remain lit for at least 30 minutes after nightfall. [If one does not have enough oil to last for all the candles, then at least one candle should contain this amount of oil.[28] Preferably, this should be the added candle that corresponds to that night.[29] If one did not place enough oil for any of the candles to last 30 minutes past nightfall, he does not fulfill his obligation.[30]]

Wax candles:[31] One who is using wax candles, must verify that the candles are long enough for them to burn until 30 minutes after nightfall. Thus, practically the candles must be long enough to last a minimum of 70 minutes, if not more, depending on country.[32] If one does not have enough long candles available, then it suffices to have at least one candle which is long enough to last this amount of time.

D. If the candles extinguished before Shabbos:

If the Chanukah candles that were lit Erev Shabbos extinguished before Shabbos had begun, some Poskim[33] rule one is nevertheless not required to relight the candles. However, other Poskim[34] rule that in such a case one must relight the candle without a blessing. Practically, one should always relight candles that extinguished before their time, especially on Erev Shabbos. If one has already accepted Shabbos, he is to ask another person to relight the candles.[35]

E. The materials of the wicks, oil:[36]

[From the letter of the law] all oils and wicks may be used for the Chanukah candles.[37] Even on Erev Shabbos Chanukah, it is permitted to light the Chanukah candles using oils and wicks that are forbidden to use for Shabbos candles.[38] This however only applies if one only places enough oil to last a half hour after nightfall. If, however, there is enough oil to last more than a half hour after nightfall, it is forbidden to light Chanukah candles using oils and wicks that are forbidden to be used for the Shabbos candles.[39] Likewise, the Shamash must be made of oil/wax that is permitted to be used for the Shabbos candles.[40]

F. May one light the Shabbos candles from the flames of the Chanukah candles?[41]

Some opinions[42] rule that Shabbos candles, Shul candles, and Chanukah candles are all considered candles used for a Mitzvah, and one may hence light them from each other. [Practically, one is to use the Shamash for this purpose. This especially applies if one already lit a single Shabbos candle and desires to light a second candle from the Chanukah flames]

G. Where in the house to light:

The Menorah is initially to be placed within the doorway of a room [or entrance of the house for those who light outside][43], between the doorposts, and this applies on Shabbos as well.

Fear of fire hazard-Kids knocking down? In times of danger, it suffices to simply light the Menorah on one’s table.[44] Thus, if one fears to light the Menorah by the doorway due to children and the like, then he is to light it by the window or on a table.

Wind:[45] The candles may not be lit opposite or near a door or window which one plans to open and close on Shabbos while they are still lit, due to the that this may cause them to become extinguished due to the wind. Rather, they are to be lit elsewhere, or placed in a glass container to protect them from the wind.

H. May one move the Menorah on Shabbos?[46]

Moving the Menorah itself:[47] It is forbidden to move the actual Menorah even after it has extinguished, due to the Muktzah prohibition. It may be moved with an irregularity, just as is the law regarding all Muktzah.[48]

Moving a tray or chair that contains a Menorah: If the tray or chair has become a Basis [see below] then it is Muktzah, and may not be moved unless one uses an irregularity. If the tray or chair is not a Basis, then the tray or chair may be moved together with the Menorah even regularly [without touching the menorah], if one needs the space [as is usually the case when by a doorway].[49] The tray/chair however may not be moved in a regular fashion simply to prevent the Menorah from getting damaged.[50]

Moving the Menorah while still lit:[51] In the above case [that the tray or chair is not a Basis] one may move the tray or chair gently, even if the Menorah that is on it is still lit, even if it contains oil. However, by an oil candle, this is only allowed if one is able to do so very gently to the point that no oil swerves in the process.


I. Moving the table/chair/stool/tray that the Menorah was lit on-How does one effect that the tray/chair does not become a Basis?

An item which intentionally contains a Muktzah item on top of it, becomes Muktzah over Shabbos just like the item itself.[52] Thus, the chair and tray of the Menorah are Muktzah just as is the law of the Menorah.[53] This status of Muktzah is called a Basis. Nevertheless, there are ways to prevent the chair or tray from becoming a Basis as explained next: A tray or chair does not become a Basis if one places bread[54] [of the Shabbos meal[55]] or another non-Muktzah item [such as a Siddur or Tehillim] of more importance[56] than the flame resting on the tray/table during the entrance of Shabbos [sunset/ candle lighting][57], and the tray was not manufactured specifically for candles.[58] [Some say this means if the candle tray is not specifically manufactured to be used for candles[59], then it may have bread [of the Shabbos meal] or another permitted item of more value than the Muktzah items, placed on the tray. Others[60] say that even if the tray was not manufactured for this purpose, but was designated to now be used only for this purpose, then it is always a Basis.]

What is one to do if the tray has become a Basis?[61] One may only move it with an irregularity [Shinuiy].

J. Shabbos guests-Where to light:

If one is traveling for Shabbos, where is he to light the candles on Erev Shabbos?[62] If one is traveling on Erev Shabbos to go away for Shabbos, then if he is leaving his home prior to Plag Hamincha, he must light candles at the area that he will be staying for Shabbos. If, however, he will be leaving after Plag Hamincha, then he may choose to light candles either at home, or by his destination.[63] However, some[64] say that those who are accustomed to light inside their homes, should only light the candles at home if there will be family members who will remain to watch the candles, and to whom the miracle can be publicized to. Otherwise, one is to light the candles specifically by his destination, even if he travels after Plag Hamincha.

On Erev Shabbos, where is one to light the Chanukah candles if he and his family will be eating out for the Friday night meal? Example: One will be leaving his apartment with his entire family for a Shabbos meal on Erev Shabbos. Where is he to light? What if he will only return home very late when the candles are already extinguished. He is to light the candles at home after Plag Hamincha, prior to leaving, and secure them in a safe area to avoid a fire hazard.[65] However, in a time of need that one cannot light the candles at home [such as if a secure area against fire cannot be secured, or if his entire family must leave the home before Plag Hamincha[66]] then he may light the candles in the area that he will eat the Friday night meal, in the presence of his family.[67]

If one is traveling back home on Motzei Shabbos, where should he light the candles?[68]  Some[69] say that one is to delay lighting the candles until he returns home, and he is thus to try and return home right away. Others[70] however say that he may light the candles at his current location where he stayed for Shabbos, and does not have to wait until he returns home. This especially applies if he will be returning home very late at night, in which case he should specifically light by his current location.

K. Laws of precedence for pauper:

Precedence-Shabbos candles versus Chanukah candles: One who is unable to afford to purchase both Shabbos candles and Chanukah candles, Shabbos candles receive precedence.[71] He is to purchase only one Shabbos candle for the dining table [to last until after the meal[72]], and if any money remains, he is to use it to purchase Chanukah candles.[73] [This however only refers to the candles of Erev Shabbos, if however one has enough money to either purchase candles for Thursday’s lighting, or save the money to purchase candles for Shabbos, then the Chanukah candles receive precedence.[74] Furthermore, some Poskim[75] rule that possibly in today’s times that we anyways light the Chanukah candles inside the house, the Chanukah candles always receives precedence.[76] Other Poskim[77] however argue that this law that the Shabbos candles receive precedence applies even today. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, that even in today’s times the Shabbos candles receive precedence.[78]]

Precedence-Wine for Kiddush/Havdala versus Chanukah candles: If one has Shabbos candles, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush, Chanukah candles receive precedence.[79] He is to purchase only one Chanukah candle and use any leftover money towards wine for Kiddush.[80] Likewise, if one has Shabbos candles and wine for Kiddush, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Havdala, Chanukah candles receive precedence.[81] [If, however, one does not have money to afford both Chanukah candles and bread for the meal, then some Poskim[82] rule that the bread receives precedence.[83] Other Poskim[84] however rule the Chanukah candles receive precedence.[85] If a roommate cannot afford to purchase both wine for Shabbos and Chanukah candles, he/she is to ask the other roommate to acquire him/her some of the oil and wicks as a present, and be included in their lighting. He/she may then use the leftover money to purchase wine for Kiddush.[86]]

Shalom Bayis precedes Chanukah candles-The lesson in Divine Service:[87]

The Shabbos candles represent Shalom Bayis, bringing peace into one’s home. The Chanukah candles represent bringing peace to the world. The above law states that if one is unable to enter the energy into both spreading peace in his home and into the world, then his home takes precedence. One is to precede his efforts in making his home a dwelling place for Hashem. This especially to one’s wife, who can at times be a Knegdo [adversary] and needs to be reversed to become an Eizer.

L. Saying the blessing of Sheasa Nissim if one did not light candles before Shabbos:[88]

One who did not light Chanukah candles and will not be able to do so that night[89], and was not Yotzei with the lighting of his wife or household[90], is to say the blessing of “Sheasah Nissim” upon seeing the lit Chanukah candles of another Jew.[91] On the first night of Chanukah, he is to also recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles of another Jew.[92] In such a case, he does not repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon lighting candles on any subsequent night.[93] [Some Poskim[94] however rule that regarding Erev Shabbos, if one did not light the Chanukah candles on Erev Shabbos then he may not say the blessing upon seeing the candles on Shabbos. However, before Shabbos, the blessings may be recited.[95]]

3. Lighting Chanukah candles in Shul on Erev Shabbos:[96]

When to light: It is customary to light the Menorah in Shul between Mincha and Maariv [in the presence of a Minyan[97]].[98] However, on Erev Shabbos some are accustomed to light the Menorah in Shul prior to Mincha. It is not necessary for the congregation to wait until all the candles are lit, and rather as soon as one candle is lit the Chazan may begin Shemoneh Esrei.[99] [Others[100] are accustomed to light the Menorah on Erev Shabbos between Mincha and Maariv, as is usually done during the week.[101] Practically, the Chabad custom is to light the Menorah after Mincha and then return home and light the Chanukah candles and Shabbos candles.[102] It is customary to Daven an early Mincha on Erev Shabbos for this purpose.]

What to do if no Minyan by lighting:[103] On Erev Shabbos it is lit with a blessing in Shul even if a Minyan is not yet present.


May the blessing of Shehechiyanu be recited in Shul if one already lit candles at home and recited Shehechiyanu?

If all the people present by the lighting already lit candles and recited Shehechiyanu, such as when lighting in Shul before sunset of Erev Shabbos, then some Poskim[104] rule the blessing of Shehechiyanu is not to be repeated. Other Poskim[105] however rule the blessing is to be repeated even in such a case.

4. The Davening:

A. Al Hanissim:[106]

Al Hanissim is recited on Shabbos Chanukah within the Shabbos Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv Shacharis, and Mincha.

Musaf:[107] Al Hanissim is recited also within the Musaf Shemoneh Esrei.[108]

B. Tzidkasecha:[109]

Tzidkasecha is omitted on Shabbos Chanukah by Mincha.

C. Bameh Madlikin:

Some Poskim[110] rule that the Mishnayos of Perek Bameh Madlikin which are customarily recited on Friday night are not to be recited on Shabbos Chanuka, and so is the Sephardic custom. Other Poskim[111], however, rule that it is to be recited as usual, and so is the Ashkenazi custom. [The Chabad custom is not to recite it even during a regular Friday night.]

5. Kerias Hatorah for Shabbos Chanukkah:

Shabbos Chanukah-not Rosh Chodesh:[112] On Shabbos Chanukah, two Sifrei Torah are removed from the ark. The weekly portion is read from the first scroll, while the portion of Chanukah is read as Maftir from the second Torah scroll. [On all days that Chanukah falls on Shabbos, one only reads that days Karban and not also the next day’s Karban.[113] When the first day of Chanukah falls on Shabbos, one reads from Beyom Kalos Moshe until the end of the first Karban.[114]] The Haftorah of “Rini Vesimchi” is read. In the event that there are two Shabbos Chanukah’s that year, then on the second Shabbos, the Haftorah of “Neiros Shlomo” is read.

Shabbos Chanukah with Rosh Chodesh:[115] When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, three Sifrei Torah are removed. Six Aliyos are read from the weekly Parsha, from the first Torah scroll. [By the 6th Aliyah, the remainder of the Parsha is read from Shishi until the end of the Parsha.[116] One then places the second scroll on the Bima for the seventh Aliyah, and does Hagba to the first Sefer Torah.[117] [Half Kaddish is recited only after the reading of the portion of Rosh Chodesh.[118] One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[119]] From the second Torah scroll, one Aliyah is read from the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh. One begins from the words “Ubiyom Hashabbos.” [One then places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll, and one says half Kaddish.[120] Hagba is then done to the second scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagba.] From the third Torah scroll, Maftir is read from the Parsha of Chanukah [of that day’s Karban[121]]. The Haftorah of “Rini Vesimchi” of Chanukah is read.[122] This reading is then followed by the first and last verse of the Haftorah of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. [When adding the verses of Hashamayim Kisiy on Rosh Chodesh the custom is to add the first verse of the Haftorah and verses 23-24 and then again verse 23.[123]] If Rosh Chodesh Teves is two days, and falls on Shabbos-Sunday, then one also recites the first and last verse of Machar Chodesh. One first says the first and last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy and then of Machar Chodesh.[124]


On Shabbos Chanukah, does one place the 2nd Sefer Torah on the Bimah prior to Hagbah of the 1st Sefer Torah?[125]



On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah, does one place the first Sefer Torah back on the Bimah when half Kaddish is said after the reading?[126]


What is one to do if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one only has two scrolls available?

If there are only two Torah scrolls available, then one is to read the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh from the second scroll, and read the Parsha of Chanukah from the first scroll.[128] This, however, only applies if the first scroll is rolled to the Parsha of Chanukah prior to its Hagba. If, however, the first scroll was not rolled to the Parsha of Chanukah prior to its Hagba, then it is better to read the Chanukah portion from the second scroll.[129]

Q&A on mistake in reading

What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one read the portion of Chanukah from the second scroll?[130]

One is to read the portion of Rosh Chodesh from the third scroll. Even in such a case, the Haftorah of Chanukah is read and not the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh.

Remembered prior to saying after blessing: If one remembered prior to completing the Chanukah reading, or prior to saying the after blessing of the Aliyah, some Poskim[131] rule he is to roll the Sefer Torah to the Rosh Chodesh reading, and repeat the first blessing and then read again the Chanukah reading from the third Sefer Torah. Practically, if one chooses to complete the Chanukah reading in the second scroll and read the Rosh Chodesh reading from the third scroll, he may do so.[132]

What is the law if the Baal Korei did not read until the end of Shevi’i by the 6th Aliyah on a day that three Sifrei Torah are removed?

A seventh Aliyah is to be called up for Shevi, and then an eighth Aliyah for the reading of the second scroll and then a ninth Aliyah for the reading of the third scroll.[133]

Q&A on mistakes in Haftorah

What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh?[134]

If one accidentally read the Rosh Chodesh portion in the 3rd scroll, and then read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. [However, if one read the portion of Chanukah from the third scroll, and then read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh, seemingly, this follows the same law as the next Q&A. He is thus to stop and read the correct Haftorah. If one only remembered after the blessings, then he is to read the Haftorah without its blessings.]

What is the law if the weekly Haftorah was read instead of the Haftorah of Chanukah?[135] Remembered prior to the blessings: If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered prior to reciting the concluding blessings over the Haftorah, then he is to now read the correct Haftorah of Chanukah and then continue with the concluding blessings.

Remembered after concluding the blessings: If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered after the concluding blessings over the Haftorah, then he is to read the correct Haftorah of Chanukah without a blessing.

Remembered in middle of the concluding blessings:[136] If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered in the midst of the concluding blessings that he needed to read the Haftorah of Chanukah, it requires further analysis as to whether one is to stop to read the correct Haftorah and then conclude the remaining blessings, or is to conclude the remaining blessings and then recite the correct Haftorah.

6. The meal:

A. The menu-Increasing in food:

The custom is to increase in meals and festivities during Chanukah.[137] Thus, on Shabbos Chanukah, one is to increase in foods more than a regular Shabbos.[138] [When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, then one is to increase in foods even more, on behalf of both Shabbos Chanukah and on behalf of Rosh Chodesh.[139]]

B. Heating up Sufganiyot on Shabbos:[140]

A typical Sufganiya which contains jam inside of it is not to be heated up on Shabbos, due to the possible cooking prohibition relevant to the jam. [If the Sufganiya does not contain jam inside, then if it is completely dry, it may be heated up on top of another hot pot.[141]]

C. Birchas Hamazon:

Al Hanissim:[142] Al Hanissim is recited on Shabbos Chanukah within Birchas Hamazon, [hence making it the longest Bentching of the year].

Forgot Ritzei on Shabbos Chanukah:[143] On Shabbos Chanukah, if one recited Al Hanissim but forgot to say Ritzei in Birchas Hamazon, and is thus repeating Birchas Hamazon from the beginning, he is not required to repeat the saying of Al Hanissim in the second Birchas Hamazon.[144] If Rosh Chodesh Teves fell on Shabbos, and he forgot to say Ritzei but said Al Hanissim and Yaleh Veyavo, then although he is not required to repeat Al Hanissim in his second Birchas Hamazon, he is initially required to repeat Yaleh Veyavo in his repetition.[145]

D. Eating near the Chanukah candles if there is a blackout:[146]

It is forbidden to use the light of the Chanukah candles to perform any mundane activity. Some Poskim[147] rule that the above prohibition only applies if one is close to the candle, and desires to discern an item. However, to perform an activity that does not require much discerning near the light, such as to eat near it, is permitted to be performed. Other Poskim[148], however, rule it is forbidden to do any activity in face of the candlelight even if it does not require much discerning, and one is a distance from the light. It is therefore forbidden to eat in face of the light. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, and it is thus forbidden to eat even one’s Shabbos meals near the candles.[149] [The above however applies only if there is no other light in the room, if however, one has other light in the room, and does not need to use the light of the candles, then it is permitted to eat and do activities near the Chanukah candles.]

7. Entertainment:

A. Chanukah gelt:[150]

Parents are to give Chanukah Gelt to their children every day of Chanukah, with exception to Shabbos. On Friday or Sunday, one is to give a double portion on behalf of Shabbos. One is not to give Chanukah Gelt on Shabbos, even in the form of non-Muktzah items.[151]

B. May one sing Haneiros Halalu on Shabbos?

The beginning of Haneiros Halalu is not sung on Shabbos[152], however its continuation of “Al Nisecha” is sung.[153]

C. May one play Dreidel on Shabbos?[154]

Playing Dreidel for the sake of winning and losing items of value/food: It is forbidden to play Dreidel on Shabbos for the sake of meriting something with each spin. Thus, it is forbidden on Shabbos to play Dreidel in the typical way that it is played during the week even if money is not used,  such as to use chocolate coins or chocolate lentils or any food or other item of the like in which there is a benefit for the players to win. This applies even to children, and the father is therefore obligated to educate them not to play Dreidel in this fashion on Shabbos.

Playing Dreidel without any item to win or lose: It is permitted for children below the age of Bar/Bas Mitzvah to play Dreidel without any purpose of gain or loss simply to spin it and see who gets what.[155] Accordingly, it is permitted to play Dreidel using items that have no value or importance if gained, or if there will be no gain or loss, such as if the children will have to return everything they won back into the pile when they are done playing, and they will not gain or lose any more or less than any other child due to the game. Thus, they may play using almonds even if they are in their shell if at the end of the game, they will return it back to the bag and no one will keep what they won. It is proper to designate a special beautiful Shabbos dreidel for this purpose in order to avoid any question of Muktzah or Uvdin Dechol that may be relevant to a Dreidel that is commonly only used for playing for gain and loss which is forbidden on Shabbos, as explained above. Regarding adults: It is best for them to avoid playing Dreidel on Shabbos both due to the general negation of playing games on Shabbos, as well as the stringency against playing games that involve luck.

May one play Dreidel with beans?[156] It is permitted for children to play Dreidel on Shabbos using beans that have been predesignated for this purpose to be used annually for Dreidel playing. Here too, a special Shabbos dreidel should be designated for this purpose as explained above. If the beans are not designated to be put away for annual use on Shabbos Chanukah and will be thrown out right after Shabbos, then it is best to avoid doing so, although those who do so have upon whom to rely. Even when playing with beans in which there is no true gain or loss for the players, there’s a stringency to avoid doing so as explained above, and thus it should only be done by children below the age of Bar/Bas Mitzvah.

8. Motzei Shabbos-Lighting the Chanukah candles on Motzei Shabbos:[157]

In Shul?[158] On Motzei Shabbos, in Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit after Maariv [before Aleinu[159]], prior to Havdala.[160]

At home:[161] Certainly, at home, one is to first light the Chanukah candles and then recite Havdala, as one has already heard Havdala in Shul.[162] [However, some Poskim[163] rule that the Chanukah candles are to be lit only after Havdala.[164] Practically, the worldly custom, as well as the Chabad custom, at home, is to first to say Havdalah and only then to light the Chanukah candles.[165]]

Using the Chanukah candles for Havdala:[166] On Motzei Shabbos, one may not use the Chanukah candle to recite the blessing of the Havdala candle, and rather a separate Havdala candle must be used.[167] [This however only applies if one already lit the Chanukah candle and recited the blessing of “Lehadlik Ner Chanukah” over it. If, however, one has not yet lit the candle for the sake of the Mitzvah of Chanukah, then one may light this candle for Havdala, recite the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish, and then extinguish the candle and relight it for the sake of the Chanukah candle.[168] Furthermore, it is even proper to do so.[169]]



In Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit prior to Havdala. In one’s home, the Chanukah candles are lit after Havdala.



When does one recite Vayiten Lecha; after Havdala or after the Chanukah lighting?[170]

The prayer of Vayiten Lecha is recited only after the Chanukah lighting. 

What time is one to take leave of Shabbos in order to light the Chanukah candles after Shabbos?

Some are accustomed to Daven Maariv as early as possible on Motzei Shabbos, in order to facilitate the lighting of the candles within a half hour after nightfall.[171] Nonetheless, doing so has led to people desecrating Shabbos, and lighting the candles prior to the exit of Shabbos.[172] Accordingly, it is best to not change from the regular time of Maariv on Motzei Shabbos which is followed during the rest of the year, and so is the custom.[173] This applies whether one lights inside or outside the home.[174]

One who takes leave of Shabbos by Rabbeinu Tam:[175] One who takes leave of Shabbos by the time of Rabbeinu Tam, is to do so as well on Shabbos Chanukah, and only light the candles after the time of Rabbeinu Tam.


[1] See Nitei Gavriel Chapter 44-47

[2] P”M 671 A”A 10; Birkeiy Yosef 679:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671; Moed Lekol Chaiy 27:45; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 20; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other customs: Many are accustomed to Daven Mincha after the Chanukah lighting, as it is difficult to arrange a Minyan prior to the Chanukah lighting. [Tzur Yaakov 1:136; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:2; Tzur Yaakov 1:136]

[3] The reason: As the allowance to light the Chanukah candles prior to sunset follows the opinion that from Plag Hamincha is considered night, and thus if one were to afterwards pray Mincha it would contradict to the lighting of the Chanukah candles. [P”M 671 A”A 10; Shaar Hatziyon 679:7; Kaf Hachaim 671:79] Alternatively, the reason is because in the Mikdash, the Karban Tamid was offered prior to lighting the Menorah. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid] See however Tzur Yaakov ibid who answers how these reasons do not contradict the above custom.

[4] Shaar Hatziyon ibid

[5] Kitzur Shlah Chanukah; Elya Raba 679; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; There were times that the Rebbe lit Chanukah candles, and then Shabbos candles and only then Davened Mincha with the Minyan. [Hiskashrus 908 footnote 77] See Dvar Moshe 1:15

[6] Admur 285:10

[7] In order so one be familiar with the Haftorah in case he is called up for Maftir. [Admur ibid] This custom is likewise recorded in Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan.

Nevertheless from the fact that it is our custom to read all the Haftoras of a coming week, even the one which will not be read in Shul such as when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, makes it evident that this reason alone cannot be the full reason behind reading the Haftorah. This would likewise apply even in accordance to the ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch [see next footnote] that only the Haftorah which will be read in Shul is to be read, as in conclusion Admur rules that when Sos Asis will be read as Haftorah many consecutive weeks one is to read to himself on the second and onward Shabbosim, the weekly Haftorah rather than Sos Asis.

Custom to read also the Haftorah with Targum: Some have the custom to read the Haftorah Echad Mikra Vetargum. [M”A 285:11] Others are not accustomed to do so. [Mateh Yehuda 285:8; Kaf Hachaim 285:38] This is not the Chabad custom.

[8] Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan

The ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch and other opinions: In the Shulchan Aruch 285:10 Admur rules that in a week that there are two applicable Haftoras, one is to read only the Haftorah which will be read in public and not the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha. Accordingly, on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh or Erev Rosh Chdoesh one only reads the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh and not of the weekly Parsha. [Admur ibid; M”A 285:12]  The simple reason behind this ruling is as Admur ibid explains that the entire custom to read the weekly Haftorah is only in order so one be prepared in case he is called up to read it. Hence in a week that it is not being read there is no custom to review it. [Admur ibid] Some Poskim rule one is to only read the weekly Haftorah and not the additional Haftorah that is read in public. [Kneses Hagedola 285; Moreh Baetzba 4:132; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 11; Kaf Hachaim 285:36 that so is custom.] Our custom is to review all the applicable Haftoras.

[9] Likkut Dinei Rosh Chodesh 10:12 based on Sefer Haminhagim ibid

[10] 679:1

[11] Michaber ibid; Tur 679; Bahag; Darkei Moshe 679; Bach 679; Birkeiy Yosef 679:1; Radbaz 757; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Bigdei Yesha; Kaf Hachaim 679:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

[12] The reason: As there are opinions who hold that after one has lit the Shabbos candles he has fully accepted Shabbos and thus may no longer light the Chanukah candles. Now, although most Poskim argue on this ruling [regarding men] it is nevertheless proper to first light the Chanukah candles in order to fulfill one’s obligation in accordance to all opinions. [M”B 679:1] Also, according to Kabala, the Chanukah candles are to be lit first. [Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev]

Other opinions: Some rule one may light the Shabbos candles first and then light the Chanukah candles. [Tosafus, brought in Tur ibid]

[13] Rama ibid; Terumos Hadeshen 102; M”A 679:5

[14] M”A 679:1; Bach; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Peri Chadash 679; Derech Hachaim 1; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:5

[15] M”B 672:3

This means that one calculates the amount of day hours in the day and then divides that by 12. One then times that by 1.25 hours, which is the number of hours in Plag Hamincha [1 hour and 15 minutes]. Thus, if there are 14 day hours in the day, then each hour when divided into 12 contains 70 minutes, and thus Plag Hamincha would be 1.25 hours times 70 minutes which equals 87.5 minutes prior to sunset. 

[16] Admur in Siddur Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4; Gr”a; Ketzos Hashulchan 76:1

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 263:6 Admur rules that Plag Hamincha is1 hour and 15 minutes before nightfall. This is based on 58:3; 89:1 in which Admur rules the day is from Alos until Tzeis. Likewise, in 261:5 where Admur rules that although one may be stringent to accept Shabbos from 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, he may not be lenient to light candles until 1 and ¼ hours prior to nightfall. However, in Admur 443:4 he rules it is counted from sunrise until sunset and so rules Admur in the Siddur.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Plag Hamincha is 1.25 Zmaniyos hours prior to nightfall. [M”B 672:3; 679:2; 692:13; Kaf Hachaim 692:29]

[17] Moadim Uzmanim 2:152 based on Rishonim and Biur Hagra 679

[18] Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Mivakshei Torah ; Moadim Uzmanim 6:84; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679 footnote 3

[19] Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1

[20] Binyan Shlomo 53; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev based on Kaballah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1

[21] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev

[22] Elya Raba 679:2; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a man may not light the Chanukah candles after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Taz 679:1]

[23] Kuntrus Achron 263:2 [brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 26] “a lot less than 15 minutes”; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 17 “This is approximately 10 minutes” and so writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32 and Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 4:10 and 15; Eretz Tzevi 1:113 says it’s about 8 minutes

[24] M”A 679:1; Taz 679:1; Chayeh Adam 154:35; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3; See Admur 263:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a woman may light the Chanukah candles even after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Levush, brought in M”A ibid]

[25] P”M 679 A”A 1; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:4

[26] Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv that on Erev Shabbos the Rebbe Rashab would not do so; See Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; Toras Menachem 2:618; Shulchan Menachem 3:281; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair “The main Mitzvah is to remain near the candles for a half hour”; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:394; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:5

[27] Michaber 672:1; P”M 679 A”A 2; Mamar Mordechai 67:2 Machatzis Hashekel 679:2; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Derech Hachaim 4; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6

[28] M”B 672:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6

[29] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[30] Chayeh Adam ibid

[31] M”B 679:2

[32] As one begins to light the Chanukah candles prior to the Shabbos candles which are lit 18 minutes before sunset, and following sunset until nightfall is approximately 20 minutes, depending on country. In some places the candles must last much longer due to a longer twilight period. Likewise, the earlier one lights the candles before Shabbos, the longer they must last.

[33] Michaber 673:2; Terumos Hadeshen

[34] Taz 673:9; Rashal; P”M 673 A”A 9; M”B 672:26; Kaf Hachaim 673:57

[35] M”B 672:27; 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 673:57; See Admur 263:25

[36] 672:1

[37] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

The reason: The novelty of this ruling is that one would think that bad quality oils should not be used due to fear that the candle may extinguish prior to the half hour. The reason it is nevertheless permitted is because the law is that even if the candle extinguishes one still fulfills his obligation, as the lighting fulfills the Mitzvah. [M”B 673:1]

[38] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

The reason: This is because it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights either during the week or on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid] There is thus no reason to prohibit the forbidden wicks and oils being that the entire reason behind the prohibition was to prevent one from fixing the flame in the process of using it. [Tur 673; Kaf Hachaim 673:1

[39] Rama ibid; Rashba 170

[40] M”A 673:1; Bach 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:2; Elya Raba 673:4

[41] Michaber 674:2

[42] Tur in name of Sefer Hateruma

[43] Rama 671:7; Ohel Moed Shaar Moed Katan; Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65; Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Likkutei Maharich p. 106; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; The Rama ibid writes as follows “Today since we all light inside the house and there is no publication of the Mitzvah to the public, it is not of so much importance to light within a Tefach near the doorpost [of an inner room of the house]. Nevertheless, the custom is to light within a Tefach of the doorpost just as was done in previous times [when the Menorah was lit outside the house]. One is not to swerve from this custom.”

[44] Michaber 671:5; Shabbos 21b

[45] See Michaber 680:1; 277; Admur 277 and Kuntrus Achron 277:2

[46] Admur 277:5-6; See Admur 279:8 regarding the law by candelabra made of assembled parts

[47] Admur 279:1; Michaber 279:1

[48] See Tehila Ledavid 308:22 that this allowance applies even for candelabras which are made of assembled parts. Vetzaruch Iyun as moving with a Shinuiy still contains the suspicion, and even more so, that it may fall and one may come to reassemble it.

[49] Admur 311:14; 308:661-62; Michaber 308:27; 309:3-4; 310:8; 311:8

[50] Admur 311:14; Michaber 311:8

[51] Admur 277:3 “A door with an oil candle attached to it may be moved slowly in a way that will not cause the oil to extinguish the flame. 277:5 “If one needs to use the space under the tray then he may move the tray together with the candle which is on it, even if it is made of oil, to any place of his desire.”; Elya Raba 277:14; Elya Zuta 277:3 “It is possible to carry the table slowly in a way that the oil will not swerve, and it is hence not a Pesik Reishei”; Ketzos Hashulchan 112:14

[52] Admur 309:4; Michaber 309:4; Shabbos 142b

[53] Admur 277:6; Michaber 277:3

[54] Admur 277:6; M”A 277:8; M”B 277:18

[55] Admur ibid; M”B 277:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; Seemingly this is coming to teach that only the Shabbos Challahs are considered to oneself of more importance then the candles. This contrasts with weekday bread, to which the candles hold more importance in relation to, and thus the table would still remain a basis. This can seemingly answer why in the end of this Halacha Admur mentions that bread also must be of more importance then the flame, as if it is weekday bread then it is not of more importance. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24; Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 279 footnote 16]

[56] One follows whichever is of more importance to oneself, whether due to its value or its necessity. Thus, when Shabbos candles are on one’s table the permitted item placed on one’s table must be of more importance to oneself then is having the light on the table. [Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24

[57] Admur 309:4; Based on Michaber 310:8; brought in Admur 310:16

[58] Admur 279:4; Michaber 279:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the bread overrides the candle even in such a case. [Kol Bo, brought in Michaber ibid]

[59] Such as a simple metal or silver tray, or deposable baking pan. Now, although these have been designated to be used for the candles, nevertheless, since they were not specifically made for this use, they can become nullified to the permitted object over the Muktzah object. So is implied from the term used in Admur 279:5 “since the candle is made for the sake of the flame”, and not simply designated. So rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 279:2, however see the new Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10 brought below.

[60] P”M 279 A”A 14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; M”B Dirshu; Igros Moshe 5:22-11

[61] Admur 308:15; 311:15; 276:9-10; 266:19; 301:39 KU”A 10; So also rules: Mishneh Shabbos 141a; Rosh 3:19 in name of Rabbeinu Yonah; Michaber 311:8; Michaber 308:43; Rama 308:3 regarding blowing; M”A 308:7 regarding kicking Muktzah and 308:41 regarding his question on Michaber regarding sitting on Muktzah; M”B 276:31; 308:13 and 81 and 88; 311:30; 1st opinion in Chayeh Adam; Derech Hachayim; 1st opinion in Aruch Hashulchan 311:20; Kaf Hachaim 311:68 [although brings strict opinion in 69].

[62] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[63] See Shevet Halevi 8:158

[64] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 33 as one is required to perform the Pirsumei Nissa until a half hour after nightfall, and if no one remains at home, one is unable to perform the Mitzvah properly.

[65] As one who happens to be eating out on one of the nights of Chanukah, must return home to his family to light, and cannot light where he is eating [M”A 677:7; Taz 677:2; Kneses Hagedola 677; Bach 677; Elya Raba 677:3; M”B 677:12; Kaf Hachaim 677:21; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:]  and perhaps this applies even if he comes with his entire family, as explained in the previous Q&A.

[66] Otherwise, whatever adult family member who can remain is to do so and light there even if the husband/father must leave the home before Plag.

[67] In a time of need one may rely on the implication of the Bach that when one is with his family, he may light in the area that he eats. To note that even the Taz ibid, from whom we implied that one may not light where he eats, he does not mention that doping so is a blessing in vain. [See Bach 677; Taz 677:2 and M”A 677:7; Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17; Kinyan Torah 5:72; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4 footnote 25 and 29-30; Az Nidvaru 7:69]

[68] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[69] Chovas Hadar 2 footnote 65

[70] Koveitz Darcheiy Horah; See Shevet Halevi 8:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 35 in name of Rav SZ”A

[71] Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23b

The reason: As the purpose of Shabbos candles is to bring peace to one’s home [Michaber ibid] as one needs to eat near light, and the light prevents him from stumbling upon walking in the room. [See Rashi ibid; Taz 678:1; M”A 678:2] The Shabbos candle receives precedence even if he can afford to buy both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush with that money. [Radbaz 108; Erech Hashulchan 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:4] The entire Torah was given for the sake of peace, and hence if one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah of Chanukah due to a Mitzvah that brings peace, then even from the perspective of Chanukah, one should forgo its Mitzvah for the sake of the Mitzvah that brings peace. [See Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]]

[72] See Kaf Hachaim 678:4

[73] M”A 678:1; Elya Raba 678:1; M”B 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:1

The reason: As one is only obligated to light one Shabbos candle to fulfill the Mitzvah of Ner Shabbos. The concept of lighting two candles for Shabbos is merely a proper act, and it is thus better to be Mihadeir in the Chanukah lighting [and light many Chanukah candles] rather than be Mihadeir in Shabbos candles. [P”M 678 A”A 1; M”B 678:1; See also Biur Halacha 263 “Shtei Pesilos”] As the concept of Mehadrin by Chanukah candles is brought in the Talmud, as opposed to the concept of lighting more than one Shabbos candle. [Shaar Hatziyon 678:3]

[74] Radbaz 13; Erech Hashulchan 678:2; Kaf Hachaim 678:5

The reason: As we do not delay the performance of a Mitzvah for the sake of performing a later Mitzvah. [ibid] Furthermore, Hashem could arrange that he make money the next day and hence afford to buy the candles. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[75] M”A 678:2; Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[76] The reason: As in upon lighting the Chanukah candles at home one will automatically achieve the Shalom Bayis affected by the Shabbos candles, as the Chanukah candle will give light to the room. Now, although it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights and eat near it, nevertheless, this is similar to a time of danger in which we rule the candles may be lit on the table, and due to lack of choice one is likewise allowed to eat near it. This law likewise applies during the week, if one only has one candle available. [M”A ibid]

[77] Elya Raba 678:2; Bigdei Yesha 678; Derech Hachaim; P”M 678 A”A 2 that so is implied from Michaber and Rama ibid; M”B 678:2; Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Shaar Hakavanos

[78] M”B 678:2

[79] Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23

The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa. [Michaber ibid] Now, although the Mitzvah of Kiddush is Biblical, nevertheless, since one can make Kiddush on bread, the wine does not receive precedence. [Beis Yosef; Ran; Levush; Taz 678:2; M”B 678:6]

[80] M”A 678:3; M”B 678:5

[81] Rama 678:1

The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa [Michaber ibid] and it is possible to recite Havdala in Davening. [Kaf Hachaim 678:10]

[82] Taz 678:2; Erech Hashulchan 678:4; M”B 678:4; See Kaf Hachaim 678:9

[83] The reason: As eating bread and Lechem Mishneh on Shabbos is a Biblical precept according to all, as well as that making Kiddush on bread [when wine is not available] is a Biblical command, while the Chanukah candles is merely Rabbinical. [Taz ibid;]

[84] Bach 678, brought in Beir Heiytiv 678:1; Peri Chadash 678; Ateres Zekeinim 678

[85] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Kiddush is only Rabbinical, and there is no Biblical command to eat Lechem Mishneh. [Ateres Zekeinim ibid; P”M 678 M”Z 2]

[86] P”M 678 A”A 2; Kaf Hachaim 678:8

[87] Likkutei Sichos 3:67 [Lashon Hakodesh]; See also Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]

[88] Michaber 676:3; Shabbos 23a

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that today the custom is to no longer say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing candles. [Tzafnas Paneiach Chanukah 3:3]

[89] If, however, he plans to light the candles later on that night, then he should not recite the blessing upon seeing it. Taz 676:3; M”B 676:5]

[90] Michaber ibid; Rashi ibid

If one was not present at the lighting of the household: The above law applies even if one was not present at the time of their lighting. [Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu is to be recited by the household members that were not present at the time of the lighting, upon seeing the candles. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Practically, the blessing is not to be recited as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190] However some Poskim rule that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is to be recited by one who was not present at that time. [Ashel Avraham Tinyana 675 “even a girl over Chinuch who did not hear the blessing must say it upon seeing the candles.”]

[91] The reason: The Sages established for the blessing to be recited by one who did not light candles, as they knew that not everyone owns a home and has ability to light candles, and therefore they initially established when they made their decree for everyone to say a blessing upon seeing candles, if they did not light. [Tosafus Sukkah 46a] Alternatively, it is because the main purpose of the candle lighting is to publicize the miracle, and thus one who sees the lit candles is considered to be participating in the Mitzvah. [Sdei Chemed Chanukah 9:3]

[92] If he did not recite Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles on the first night, he is to recite it on the second night. [Rashal 85; Kaf Hachaim 676:17]

[93] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the second night. [Mor Uketzia 676] Practically, we do not rule this way. [Machazik Bracha 676:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:27]

[94] Pnei Meivin 227; Brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:10

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may recite the blessing even on Shabbos itself. [Shraga Hameir 5:19]

[95] P”M 679 A”A 1 implies there is no difference between Shabbos and other days; Shearim Hametzuyanim ibid establishes this to be referring to before sunset.

[96] Rama 671:7; Rashal 85; Kol Bo; Abudarham

[97] M”B 671:46

[98] Rama ibid

[99] Rama ibid; Maharil

[100] Darkei Moshe 671:5; M”B 671:47; ; Implication of Levush and Chayeh Adam

[101] The reason: This custom is followed also on Erev Shabbos, in order to publicize the miracle to the public. Nevertheless, if there is not enough time left after Mincha to light the candles, then it is certainly to be lit prior to Mincha, even if there is no one around, as the miracle will be publicized when people come to Shul for the Minyan. [ibid]

[102] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

[103] M”A 5671:10; M”B 671:47; Drashos Maharil Chanukah; Chayeh Adam 154:17; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:78

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing if the Minyan is not present. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[104] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 11; Kaf Hachaim 671:75; Yalkut Yosef p. 202; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:341

[105] Mishneh Sachir 1:201; Tzitz Eliezer 13:69; Kinyan Torah 4:83; Lehoros Nassan 7:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14

[106] Michaber 682:1; Admur 187:8

[107] Michaber 682:2; Rebbe Yochanan in Shabbos 24a

[108] The reason: This applies despite the fact that there is no Musaf sacrifice or prayer on Chanukah in it of itself [Michaber ibid] as this day is obligated in four prayers. [M”A 682:1; Taz 682:4; M”B 682:6]

[109] Admur 292:7

[110] Michaber 270:1; Birkeiy Yosef 270:2; Rav Poaslim 5:34; Kaf Hachaim 270:9

[111] Rama 270:1

[112] Michaber 684:2-3

[113] Tzemach Tzedek 68; Kitzur SHU”A 139:24; Kaf Hachaim 684:10; Sefer Haminhagim p. 161; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 11 based on Tzemach Tzedek 68

[114] Levush; Kaf Hachaim 684:13

[115] Michaber 684:3

[116] M”B 685:4

[117] Hagba is only done after the second scroll is placed on the Bima. [Rama 147:8] Some [Rav M. Harlig] say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. Others say it is to be placed on the left side. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 36; Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[118] Rivash 59; Kneses Hagedola 684; Kaf Hachaim 684:17

The Sefaradi custom: The Sefaradi custom is to say two Kaddeishim, one after the second scroll, and one after the third scroll [Kaf Hachaim 147:42; 684:19; See Yabia Omer 4:22]

[119] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[120] M”B 685:5; See Levush and Kaf Hachaim 684:19 for the reason behind this

[121] Tzemach Tzedek 68; Kitzur SHU”A 139:24; Kaf Hachaim 684:10; Sefer Haminhagim p. 161; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 11 based on Tzemach Tzedek 68

[122] The reason: As Chanukah contains Persumei Nissa, and is hence said over the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh. In addition, Chanukah was the last portion that was read from the Torah. [Levush; Kaf Hachaim 684:20]

[123] Custom of Rebbe Rayatz, as brought in glosses of Rebbe to the Seder Haftoras in Siddur Torah Or, printed in Sefer Haftoras Chabad, and mentioned in Likkutei Sichos 35:187 footnote 34

The reason: In order to begin and end the last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy with a verse of good tiding. [verse 24 talks of negative matters] [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[124] Likkutei Sichos 35:27; Igros Kodesh 5:108 [letter to Rav A.C. Naah printed in Shulchan Menachem p. 96-105]; See Igros Kodesh 2:308 of Rebbe Rayatz in a letter to Rav Yaakov Landau that he was in doubt as to whether the verses of Rosh Chodesh are to be mentioned in this instance; See Background ibid and other opinions brought next

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to the ruling of the Michaber ibid and Chabad custom of the Rebbe Maharash, one is not to recite the verses of Rosh Chodesh after the Haftorah of Chanukah. The reason for this is because we only mention Rosh Chodesh in cases in which there are opinions that require it to be read that Shabbos. However, all the Poskim agree that the Haftorah of Chanukah is to be read instead of Rosh Chodesh and there is thus no reason to mention it. [Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 16] The Rebbe ibid disputes his ruling

[125] M”B 684:9

[126] M”A 147; Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 684:19; P”M 684 A”A 5; M”B 147:27 in name of Shaareiy Efraim

Other customs: Some are accustomed to place the 1st Sefer Torah near the other scrolls for the saying of Kaddish. [Luach Eretz Yisrael, that so did Rav Shmuel Salant]

[127] This is only done when Kaddish is said after the 1st Sefer prior to the 2nd, and not when Kaddish is said after the 2nd.

[128] Rama 669:1; Peri Chadash 684; Shulchan Gavoa 684:11; Kaf Hachaim 684:16

[129] Chemed Moshe 669; Kaf Hachaim 669:41; Biur Halacha 669:1 “Vechozrim”

[130] Chayeh Adam 139:24; Shaareiy Efraim 8:76; M”B 684:3 in Biur Halacha “Veim Taah”; Kaf Hachaim 684:27

[131] Shaareiy Efraim 8:76

[132] Shaareiy Efraim ibid; See Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[133] As the custom is to permit to add more than seven Aliyos on Shabbos [Admur 282:1] Now, although there are Poskim who forbid doing so [Tashbatz 2:70, brought in Hagahos Harif and Kaf Hachaim 282:10] and so is our custom not to add any more Aliyos [Tzemach Tzedek 35:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1] nevertheless, in a case of need one may do so [Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]. This especially applies in such a case that one must read another three Aliyos being that they involve three different Sefer Torahs, and hence all remaining three Aliyos are considered an obligation. See also Kaf Hachaim 684:17 in name of Peri Chadash, Levush, Birkeiy Yosef 282:3. A further proof for this can be brought from Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] that even if one skipped one word or one letter one must go back and read it even if it means adding an Aliya, and hence certainly here one must add a seventh Aliya to Shevi and then read another two Aliyos.

Delaying Shevi until next Shabbos: One cannot delay Shevii until next Shabbos, and thus only have 8 Aliyos, as even a missed letter from the Parsha must be read that Shabbos, as brought in Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] and certainly if the entire Shevi was missed.

[134] Chayeh Adam 139:24; M”B 684:3 in Biur Halacha “Veim Taah”; Kaf Hachaim 684:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 684:3

[135] The following Poskim record this ruling regarding Rosh Chodesh, and the same would seemingly apply regarding Chanukah: Dvar Moshe 25:3; Shaareiy Efraim 9:19; Kaf Hachaim 425:18; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:5; Ashel Avraham, in name of Devar Moshe brought in Otzer Hamifarshim 425; Kaf Hachaim 423:9

[136] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid footnote 16

[137] Rama 670:2; Hashlama of Rav Nechemiah that it is an old custom and so is the custom today; Biur Halacha 670; Rebbe in Toras Menachem 49 2:34 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:287 and Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:282] “One is to be Mehader in the Mitzvos of Chanukah like all opinions… Rav Nechmia writes the custom in these countries is to increase in meals in these days”; See Michaber and Rama 670:2; Maharal of Prague; Megillas Taanis [and Megillas Antiochus] which states explicitly that “It was established for festivities and joy like all the festivals written in the Torah”; Rashal Yam Shel Shlomo Bava Kama 7:37 that so is proven to be the opinion of Rambam Chanukah 3:3 who writes “The days of Chanukah are days of joy and praise”; Bach 670 that so is implies from Rambam ibid; M”A 670:3; Elya Raba 670:16; Mordechai Haruch, brought in Darkei Moshe 670 “They established it for Mishteh and Simcha”; See Likkutei Sichos 10:142

[138] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 28; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[139] When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, one is to prepare an extra dish for the Shabbos day meal in honor of Rosh Chodesh. [Elya Raba 419:1; Kneses Hagedola 419; Beir Heiytiv 419:1; Chayeh Adam 117:2; M”B 419:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayikra 2:10; Mishmeres Shalom 30:4] Accordingly, when Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos Chanukah, one should increase in double fold on behalf of both Rosh Chodesh and Chanukah.

[140] See Igros Moshe 4:74 regarding ketchup and the same would apply here; See Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 95 and p. 144, p. 147 that if the jam is not made of pure fruit then according to all it has the status of a liquid. If it is made from pure fruit, it is subject to the dispute mentioned below.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may heat it up on Shabbos on top of a hot pot that is on the Blech, being that the jelly is considered a solid. [Halichos Shlomo Chanukah 17:11; Chazon Ovadia Chanukah 19 in name of Rav SZ”A; See also Shabbos Kehalacha p. 147 that Rav SZ”A rules that ketchup has the status of Yaveish being that it derives from tomato paste, and something which was originally a solid remains a solid even when its turned into a flowing paste.]

[141] See “A Semicha Aid for the laws of Shabbos” Volume 1 in the sections of Chazarah and Bishul

[142] Michaber 682:1; Admur 187:8

[143] Admur 188:14; M”A 188:13; Beir Heiytiv 188:4; Elya Raba 188:8; Peri Chadash 682:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim question whether one is to repeat Al Hanissim in his second Birchas Hamazon [P”M 188 A”A 13] and some Poskim conclude that one is to repeat it. [Shaar Hatziyon 188:21; Siddur Yaavetz p. 295; Pischeiy Olam 188:27; Toras Chaim Sofer 188:15; Chayeh Adam 154:39; Nitei Gavriel 48:6]

[144] The reason: As the saying of Al Hanissim in Birchas Hamazon is not an obligation at all, [but rather a mere custom]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; See Shabbos 24a “One does not need to mention it, and if he wants to mention it he could.”]

May one repeat Al Hanissim if he so chooses? Admur ibid writes “one is not required to say it” which implies that it may be said. However the M”A ibid writes that “he is not to say it” which implies it may not be said even if he desires to do so. See Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 14 who concludes it may be repeated if one chooses.

[145] Admur 188:14; M”A 188:13; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:7; M”B 188:29

The reason: As one is required to mention Rosh Chodesh in every Birchas Hamazon on Rosh Chodesh. Thus, one is required to recite Yaleh Veyavo even though he is not repeating the Birchas Hamazon due to Rosh Chodesh. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] As his first Birchas Hamazon is not considered valid at all, and it is hence considered as if he never yet recited Birchas Hamazon. [Levusheu Serud ibid; M”B ibid]

[146] 673:1

[147] Beis Yosef, Darkei Moshe and Rashal, brought in M”A 673:2; The M”A 678:2 seems to conclude like this opinion as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights, and so rules Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[148] Bach; Smak and Sefer Haterumah, brought in M”A 673:2; Conclusion of M”A ibid that so is the custom and so is proven from 678:1 from the fact we rule one cannot light the Chanukah candles in one’s house as Shabbos candles, if one only has one candle available; However see M”A 678:2 that seems to conclude like the previous opinion, as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights; See P”M 678 A”A 2

[149] M”B 673:9-10; 678:2

[150] Toras Menachem 5748 2:65; Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 452; Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:283; Shulchan Menachem 3 p. 288-289; Sefer Haminhagim P. 161

[151] Toras Menachem ibid, due to a decree [that one not come to give out Muktzah items]

[152] Sichas Shabbos Chanukah 1982; Hiskashrus 908

[153] Hiskashrus 908, as Rebbe himself would start to sing it may times on Shabbos.

[154] Regarding the prohibition of playing games for the sake of gain and loss and against doing a lottery: See Admur 338:6; Rama 338:5; Rambam Shabbos 23:17; Shabbos 23 and 148; Beis Yosef 338 in name of Igor 521; Bach 338; Michaber 322:6; M”A 322:9; Mur Uketzia 338 [forbids even for food]; Aruch Hashulchan 338:13; SSH”K 16:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:11 [old] 14 [new]; Chayeh Halevi 10:58; Mishnas Yosef 7:128; Avnei Yashpei 126-2; Metziyon Teitzei Torah 117; Akeidas Moshe 4:33-3; Maaglei Eliyahu 3:30; Emes Leyaakov 679 footnote 593; Mishnas Aaron Leiberman Muktzha 88; Avnei Derech 13: 83; Chevel Nachalaso 20:10

Regarding the prohibition of playing luck games, see: Bach 338; Olas Shabbos 338:5; Kaf Hachaim 338:41; omitted from the majority of Poskim, including Admur;

Regarding the prohibition of playing rolling games on a floor see: Admur 338:6; Aruch Hashulchan 338:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 60; Shevisas Hashabbos; SSH”K 16:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:9

Regarding if the above prohibition applies to children see: Admur 338:6; Rama 338:5 and Darkei Moshe 338; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:14 footnote 123 Regarding having a special designated Dreidel just for Shabbos see: Igros Moshe 5:22-10 [not Muktzah]; Mikdash Yisrael  274-275; Chayeh Halevi 10:58

Background: The sages decreed against playing “gambling” games on Shabbos which refers to all games that involve a gain and loss of items of the players, even if it is not money but rather food, if the items gained and lost retain a monetary value. This is due to their general decree against doing business on Shabbos. Now, although in the case of children the items that will be won by the players belongs to the father of the home and is hence not exactly similar to business, nonetheless, this would still seemingly fall under the lottery prohibition applicable on Shabbos which is itself forbidden due to the gambling prohibition which is similar to business. Now, if there is no gain or loss at all achieved through playing the game then seemingly it would be permitted. When permitted to be played, seemingly it may be played even on a tiled floor and not just specifically on a table, being that it is never common to play Dreidel on a dirt floor, and hence it is not similar to the prohibition recorded in the Poskim against playing rolling games on even tiled floors. Now, although there are Poskim who prohibit playing any luck game on Shabbos, practically we do not rule this way, and therefore certainly children may be lenient to do so. However, since there are Poskim who rule that using a regular weekday Dreidel can transgress the prohibition of Muktzah and Uvdin Dechol, therefore, to avoid all issues one should designate a special Shabbos dreidel for playing on Shabbos. Likewise, it is best for adults and as well all children above bar/bas mitzvah to avoid playing it in order to avoid all the halachic issues and use one’s time properly on Shabbos.

[155] See Divrei Yatziv ibid that son was done in the times of the Greeks on Shabbos to fool them to thinking that they were not gathering to learn Torah.

[156] Regarding designating beans so they are no longer considered Muktzah see: Admur 308:8; 53; Michaber 308:22; Ketzos Hashulchan 110:5; Regarding the prohibition of wasting food see: Admur Shemiras Haguf 14; Michaber 171:1, 4, 5; Torah Lishma 401; Mayan Omer 11:5; M”A 171 in Hakdama; M”B 171:4 and Biur Halacha 171:1 “Lo”; Setimas Kol Haposkim who discuss placing oil on the body and never stipulated that it must be inedible – See Admur 160:15; 327:1-2; Mishneh Shabbos 111a; Ma’aser Sheiyni 2:1-2; Shevi’is 8:2; Rambam Ma’aser Sheiyni 2:6; Terumos 11:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 171:5

Explanation regarding using beans-Muktzah: Any item that is Muktzah Machmas Gufo because it doesn’t have the status of a vessel may receive the status of a vessel- before Shabbos if we designated to be used forever for this purpose. This applies even if it is not common to designate the item for this purpose, although in such a case a permanent designation must be done in a temporary one does not suffice. Now regarding our question of designating beans for Dreidel playing on Shabbos: Although beans are not commonly designated for such use, and hence a mere temporary designation does not suffice, nevertheless, if one designates it for this purpose alone and then throws it in the garbage when done playing, then this itself can be considered permanent use. It goes without saying that designating it for annual Dreidal playing would suffice to remove its Muktzah state and practically this is the best option to be done rather than designate it only for one Shabbos. Likewise, this option of annual designation should be done in order to avoid a prohibition of Bizuiy Ochlin.

Explanation regarding using beans-Bizuiy Ochlin: Although using beans for Dreidal playing will cause them to not be used anymore for eating being that they must be permanently designated for Dreidal playing as explained above, as well as become dirty, nonetheless this does not transgress the prohibition of Bizuiy Ochlin being that is being done for a meaningful purpose to be able to create this game of entertainment. It is no different than the allowance that was followed throughout history to use flour for various nonfood purposes, such as to make playdoh, dolls, and to stuff up holes in the wall, which created a discussion in the laws of Passover regarding Chametz. It is likewise similar to the allowance to smear edible oil on the body.

[157] 681:2


On Motzei Shabbos, there are two Mitzvos which need to be fulfilled with the exit of Shabbos; 1) Havdalah and 2) Chanukah candles. The question arises as to which Mitzvah one is to perform first. On the one hand, the Mitzvah of Havdala is more common, and hence should receive precedence based on the rule of Tadir. On the other hand, the Mitzvah of Chanukah candles contains Pirsumei Nissa. There is another advantage involved in lighting the Chanukah candles first, as it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos, and Havdala as much as possible. Practically, there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to the order that should be followed, as will be explained in the coming footnotes. Nonetheless, the final ruling is a compromise of the opinions, that in Shul one precedes the Chanukah candles, while at home one precedes Havdalah, for reasons to be explained.

[158] Michaber ibid; M”B 681:3; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to first recite Havdala and then light the Chanukah candles, as Havdala is a more frequent Mitzvah, and thus takes precedence. [Taz 681:1] The custom of the world is not like this opinion regarding the Shul lighting and hence one should not change the custom. [M”B ibid]

[159] So is the custom in Beis Chayeinu. [Shevach Hamoadim 7:3]; See Beir Heiytiv 681:1 regarding saying it before Vayiten Lecha; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:336 regarding saying it before Kaddish Tiskabel, in order so it be considered part of the communal prayers. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[160] The reason: As it is a Mitzvah to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, as well as that the lighting of the candles contains the Mitzvah of publicizing the miracle. [M”B 681:2]

[161] 681:2

[162] Rama ibid; Mor Uketzia 681; Chayeh Adam 154:37; Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 235; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Minhag Yishuv Hayashan in Yerushalayim; See M”B 681:3

The reason: As the lighting contains the Mitzvah of “Pirsumei Nissa” which takes priority over Havdalah. Alternatively, the reason is because it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, and thus Havdalah is delayed. [M”B 681:2]

[163] Taz 681:1; Birkeiy Yosef 681:1 that many are accustomed like the Taz; Makor Chaim 681; Derech Hachaim; Kitzur SHU”A 139:17; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 19 in name of many Poskim and that so is the custom of Yerushalayim; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 25; Aruch Hashulchan 681:2 that so is the custom; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 820; Nimukei Orach Cham 681; Maor Vashemesh Parshas Mikeitz in name of the Chozeh Melublin, in name of Rav Shmelka Minikulsburg that regarding this matter the ruling follows the Taz ibid; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2; See Biur Halacha 681:2 “Madlikin”

Ruling of Mishneh Berurah: The M”B 681:3 and Biur Halacha “Madlikin” records both opinions and concludes that that in a Shul one first lights the Chanukah candles while at home one may do as he chooses.

[164] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Havdalah is more Tadir. [Taz ibid]

[165] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Poskim ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid that so is the custom; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2

[166] Michaber 681:1; Tur in name of Yerushalmi

[167] The reason: As it is forbidden to benefit from the Chanukah candle, and one may not recite a blessing over the Havdalah candle until one benefits from its light. [Michaber ibid]

[168] Bach; Ateres Zekeinim; M”B 681:1; Kaf Hachaim 681:1

[169] Poskim ibid

The reason: As it is proper to perform two Mitzvos with the same candle.

[170] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

The reason: In order to precede the lighting of the Chanukah candles as much as possible. [Luach ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Vayiten Lecha is recited prior to Havdalah. [M”B 681:2]

[171] Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 237

[172] Biur Halacha 293 “Gimel Kochavim”

[173] Moadim Uzmanim 2:155; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[174] See Moadim Uzmanim ibid that in today’s times, even those who light outside the home, have a number of hours until the time of “Tichleh Regel Min Hashuk” passes.

[175] Igros Moshe 4:62

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