Laws of foods which are prepared before Shabbos which will finish cooking on Shabbos.
The following chapter will continue to discuss the laws of Shehiyah which were explained in the beginning of the previous chapter. It will discuss the laws of placing food directly over a fire, as by a barbecue. In the previous chapter the discussion was only with regards to placing food in a pot, and then placing it on an oven. The laws of baking bread close to Shabbos will also be discussed.
Towards the end of the chapter the laws of placing completely raw legumes and cold water over a fire right before Shabbos will be discussed. In the previous chapter this was only discussed with regards to raw meat and vegetables.
Part 1: The laws of Shehiyah by roasting
Placing hard raw meat directly over a fire right before Shabbos: It was already explained in chapter 253 [Halacha 8] that raw meat is permitted to be placed [on an oven] right before Shabbos, even [if the overn is] a Tanur oven which was not swept or covered. However this only refers to when one is cooking [the meat] in a pot, being that [in a pot] the food does not cook quickly, and thus one removes his mind from it until tomorrow. [There is thus no worry that he may come to stir the coals] as it is able to [fully] cook by staying there the entire night [even] without stoking the coals. Similarly this is also the law with regards to roasting [the meat] in a pot.
However regarding roasting [meat] next to a fire, or on top of coals [such as a barbecue], it is forbidden to place the meat there [right before Shabbos], even if it is raw, and even if it is placed in an oven and one covered the opening of the oven.
The reason for this is: because when roasting in a way that there is no pot separating between it and the coals, it roasts quickly and can be ready to eat for the night meal. Thus we are worried that he may forget that it is Shabbos and will remove the covering of the oven and stoke the coals in order to [hasten the] completion of the roasting.
The law by an oven which is plastered shut and its reasoning: An exception to this [however] is if one plastered clay around the covering [of the oven] as in such a case we are not worried that he may trouble himself so much to break through the plaster and will not remember that it is Shabbos. Therefore it is permitted to leave [the meat] inside [this oven], whether it is roasting on coals, or whether it is cooking in a pot, whether it is completely raw, or whether it had already begun to roast or cook [before Shabbos] and it did not yet roast or cook to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy.
The law by soft meat: All the above is referring to meat of an ox or a goat or a mature ram and the like, of other species which have tough meat, and thus the wind does not damage it. However meat of a kid [young goat] or chicken, and the like of other species which have soft meat, of which [their meat] is damaged by wind, it is permitted to roast them on coals or next to the coals within a closed oven. [This applies] even if there isn’t plaster sealing it, whether it is completely raw, or whether it has begun to roast but has not yet roasted to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy.
How to remove on Shabbos meat that is roasting on top of actual coals: However [when leaving meat actually on top of coals] one needs to be careful to delay removing the meat on Shabbos, from on top of the coals, until after the coals have dimmed, in order so that one will not extinguish anything when removing the meat that is on them. This is not similar to a pot [that is on top of coals] in which case one is allowed to remove it from on top the coals on Shabbos, as explained in chapter 253/11, as the pot does not extinguish the coals at all [when it is removed], however meat extinguishes the coals a little bit (with the gravy that drips from it) when it is removed.
The law if one left roasted meat over the fire in a way that was prohibited to be done:
However when placed on top of the actual coals, then even kids meat, is forbidden according to all opinions, even after the fact if it was not roasted to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy from before Shabbos.
The reason for this is: because since one placed it on top of the actual coals [we see that] his main intention is that it roast quickly even though this will cause it to get scorched, and [thus we suspect] that he may come to stoke it. However once it has been roasted to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy, then since it is somewhat already fit to eat, [we do not suspect that he will stoke the coals as] why would he stoke it and damage the meat [if it can already be eaten]. Therefore [when already half roasted] it is permitted even according to those which initially prohibit this even by a pot.
The law by raw foods other then meat:
[Furthermore] even to place it near an oven prior to it being turned on, is forbidden, unless it was completely cooked before Shabbos as explained in chapter 253 [Halacha 20].
[Furthermore] even if one insulated it from before Shabbos near a hot pot which was wrapped with clothes or with other items which do not add heat, and on Shabbos the covering [of the fruits] fell off, it is forbidden to replace it onto the fruits, if they are not yet completely cooked and the area there is Yad Soledes. Furthermore it is also forbidden to add another clothing on Shabbos [to the insulation], being that this hastens it to finish cooking on Shabbos.
Foods which are not eaten raw: However fruits which are not eaten when they are raw, including even an onion which is at times eaten raw, nevertheless [since] it is not good to eat them raw as [opposed to what is done with] apples and the like, [therefore it is forbidden to roast them too close to Shabbos]. This law applies to any food which is not good to eat raw, in which case it is forbidden to roast it close to Shabbos, unless there is enough time left before Shabbos for it to roast to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy. However if it was not roasted to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy from before Shabbos, it is forbidden to leave it in all areas where its forbidden to leave meat of an ox and goat that were not roasted to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy.
Part 2: The laws of Shehiyha by baking bread, and the laws of removing bread from the oven
The laws of placing bread in an oven close to Shabbos:
It is forbidden to place bread close to Shabbos into the ovens of those days, even if it was swept or covered. Likewise [it is forbidden to place it] into our ovens if they are not swept or covered. Likewise [one may] not [place] a biscuit on top of coals. This is with exception to if there is enough time left in the day to crisp the outside part of the bread which is stuck to the [walls of the] oven and [to crisp] the outside part of the bread which is facing the vacuum of the oven. This as well applies to a biscuit [placed on the coals, that if it crisps before Shabbos then it is allowed].
The reason for why it suffices if the bread crisps before Shabbos is because: Then we are not worried that one may come to stoke [the coals], as [if one were to do so] it will ruin the bread.
The laws by Burakus/Dough with filling: Dough which has a filling of meat or fish (or cheese) is required [in order to be allowed to be left on the fire from before Shabbos] to be crisp on its top and bottom, and [it needs] its stuffing to cook to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy.
Placing the dough in the oven right before Shabbos: [Furthermore] even if one placed the dough very close to Shabbos, in which case if this were raw meat that was placed in a pot then it would permitted to do so even initially being that it is completely raw before Shabbos, nevertheless by bread and the like, such as cakes and types of dough that are baked in a pot, it does not help at all [and thus remains prohibited]. [The reason for this is] being that they do not need a long time to bake, as [opposed to meat, as a long time] is needed to cook meat, and thus the bread can be ready to be eaten for the [Friday] night meal, and there is thus worry that one may come to stoke the coals in order to complete its baking in time for the meal at night.
The law if one inadvertently transgressed and left dough in the oven before Shabbos: However the above [prohibition to eat the bread on Shabbos] only refers to if one advertently [with prior knowledge of the prohibition] placed the bread there. However if this was done inadvertently [without prior knowledge of the prohibition] then it is permitted for him to remove [from the fire] enough bread for the three meals of Shabbos if he does not have any other bread for Shabbos. [As well] he can tell other people which do not have bread for Shabbos ‘Come and take for yourselves enough bread for the 3 meals’.
How to remove the bread: When one removes the bread it should not be done with a Mardah, but rather with a knife and the like, in order so it not be done in the normal way that he does it during the week. [However] if he can not remove it differently [then during the week], then he may remove it with the Mardah as is normally done.
The reason for the above leniency by bread: Why did [the Sages] not fine [one who left bread on the oven] inadvertently as they did fine by one who left food [on the oven] inadvertently even when he has no other food? [The reason for this is] because there is not so much of an obligation to eat cooked foods on Shabbos, however without bread one can not fulfill the Mitzvah [to eat] three meals on Shabbos, as explained in chapter 274.
One who does not have anything to eat other then cooked food which was left on the oven in a prohibited way: Nevertheless if one does not have anything else at all to eat on Shabbos besides for this food alone which he inadvertently left on the flame [before Shabbos in a prohibited way], then he is allowed to eat it due to the respect [which is required to be shown] on Shabbos, being that it is forbidden to fast on Shabbos as will be explained in chapter 288.
One who has enough bread besides for the bread that was inadvertently left in the oven but does not have Lechem Mishnah: If one has a large piece of bread [leftover] big enough for all three meals, then it is forbidden for him to eat on Shabbos from the bread [in the oven] which was baked through a prohibition, [even if he wants to do so] in order to make a blessing on two whole loafs, as the main Mitzvah of eating three meals on Shabbos can be fulfilled without this bread.
Removing bread from an oven on Shabbos when it was allowed to be left there: It was only required to remove the bread in an irregular way if it was baked in a prohibited way. However if it was baked in a permissible way, such as that its outside was crisp from before Shabbos, or it [did not crisp, but] was placed in a Tanur of today which was swept or covered, or [that the Tanur was not swept or covered, but] the opening of the oven was covered and sealed with clay, in which case we are not worried that one may come to stoke it, as explained above [in Halacha 1], then it is permitted to remove the bread using the Mardah as is usually done, being that it is for the need of Shabbos since he has no other bread.
Nevertheless one should not remove it with the Resech [a rod with a flat end which is designated for the use of removing bread from ovens], in order it not be done the way it is usually done during the week. Rather one should stick a knife and the like [into the loaf] or remove it with a stick.
Removing the bread when one does not have intention to eat it on Shabbos: However the above [allowance to always remove bread from todays ovens] only apply when one has intention to eat from the bread that he is removing, even though he does not [technically] need it being that he has other [bread available]. However if one does not intend to eat from it, then it is forbidden to remove it, even through doing so in an irregular way.
The reason for this is because: it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for a weekday, even in a situation that [doing so] does not involve even a remote similarity to a Shabbos prohibition, but rather only [to simply] move an object, such as [for example when one wants] to bring wine from the cellar to the house on Shabbos to use for Havdalah after Shabbos, [this is nevertheless prohibited,] and [so too] anything similar to this [is also prohibited], as will be explained in chapter 503, with regards to Yom Tov, see there.
The laws of Shehiyah by bread when he does not plan to eat it until after Shabbos: Even when one does not have intention to eat from the bread on Shabbos, it is forbidden to place it inside our ovens, when they are not swept or covered, so close to Shabbos that there is not enough time for the outside part of the bread to become crispy before Shabbos.
The reason: [Now,] even though he is baking it to be eaten after Shabbos, and it can thus bake [completely] throughout the entire Shabbos without [the oven] needing to be stoked, [and thus the worry that one may come to stoke the oven does not apply] nevertheless [it is still forbidden]. [The reason for this is because] we are worried that he may change his mind afterwards and decide to eat it on Shabbos, being that it is permitted for him to remove it from our ovens, as there is no [prohibition of] removing [by our ovens]. Thus since he will now have intention to eat it, he may come to forget and stoke the coals to [speed up the] finishing [of] the baking. It is for this reason as well that it is forbidden to leave food for the morning meal [on the oven before Shabbos], in any scenario that it is forbidden to leave it for the night meal, due to the decree that one may come to stoke it, as explained in chapter 253 [Halacha 1], even though that until the morning meal it is able to [fully] cook without stoking it.
The law of removing bread from an oven when transgressed and placed there on Shabbos itself: One who [transgressed and] placed bread in an oven on Shabbos itself, whether it was done inadvertently or advertently, and then afterwards he changed his mind and decided to remove it from the oven before it getting baked, then it is permitted to remove it, even though that [doing so] does not serve any need of Shabbos, being that it is not yet edible [since he wants to remove it now prior to baking].
[Furthermore] even by the ovens of those days which [also] have a [prohibition] to remove bread [on Shabbos], [it is nevertheless permitted to be removed].
The reason that this is allowed is because: The Sages permitted one to transgress the Rabinical prohibition [involved in removing the bread], in order so that he would not come to do a [Biblical] prohibition which carries with it a punishment of stoning [when placed purposely], or [when placed inadvertently, without prior knowledge of the prohibition,] so he not come to be liable for a Chatas offering.
The reason for this is: because we do not tell a person to sin in order to benefit his friend, being that his friend was neglegent in placing the bread into oven on Shabbos. See the end of chapter 306 [Halacha 29, where it is explained that it was his negligence which later caused him to be forced to transgress the prohibition, as he should not have placed it there to begin with].
Part 3: The laws of Shehiyah by raw legumes and water
Water: The same law applies regarding placing water into a pot to heat in our Tanur that is not swept or covered, (for the purpose of drinking or even) for the purpose of cleaning vessels with it on Shabbos. [Its law is] that one needs to place the pot there from before Shabbos with enough time left during the day for it to be able to heat up at least half its [desired] heat initially, according to the custom, or enough time for it to fully heat up according to those which prohibit to leave food on an oven if the food is only cooked to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy or even [if the food] is fully cooked unless it is cooked to the point that further condensing will damage it. [This applies also to water] as hot water also condenses in a way that can be damaging to it.
Now, although water can be drunk even cold [and thus it should be permitted as explained regarding raw fruits in Halacha 4], nevertheless [since] it is not as good [to drink cold] as is to eat fruits raw as explained above [therefore it is not allowed].
If one transgressed and placed water on the fire before Shabbos: If one transgressed and placed water there, whether inadvertently or whether advertently, and it was not heated to a 1/3 of its [desired] heat from before Shabbos, then it is forbidden until enough time has passed after Shabbos to be able to heat it.
 The difference between roasting in a pot and cooking is that with cooking water is added while by roasting no extra liquid is added, and rather it savers in its own gravy. Nevertheless regarding the slowness of the cooking, they are both similar and therefore have the same law in regards to being allowed to place it on the stove right before Shabbos.
 This latter part of when the meat is in a closed oven is subject to exceptions as will be explained in the next Halacha.
 However the Rambam [Hilchos Shabbos 3/13] mentions a different reason; that opening up the door of the oven will allow air to enter and harden the meat by cooling off the oven.
 Lit. Vacant part of the body. This refers to the chest and stomach enclave of the animal, which makes up the main part of the body in terms of mass.
 In which case according to the second opinion mentioned in 253/9 it would be forbidden to leave food which is not fully cooked to the point that further cooking is detrimental.
 Meaning since they are eaten raw, they have the same logistics as do foods that have been ½ cooked, in which we rule that they may be left on the fire Erev Shabbos without restriction.
 See 257/8; 318/14 which rules it is permitted to place uncooked foods that are Yad Soledes on top of an insulated pot; Tehila Ledavid 254/4 establishes the case here to be referring to a pot that is on the fire and is insulated in a permitted way, such as with a board over the top of the pot, and the insulation is thus not touching the walls of the pot.
 The Michaber defines this as “That the top of the bread has raised a crispy peel due to the fire”. However see continuation of Halacha [based on Rama] that it suffices even if there are no longer any strings of dough when one breaks the loaf.
 Meaning sitting on the floor or the wall of the oven. Back in the day bread would be made by sticking it to the ovens walls. Thus here it is saying that the part sticking to the wall must also crisp.
 There this law is explained with regards to how baked ones Matzas need to be.
 Meaning the reason for mentioning the side that is touching the oven over either side is only because normally that side crisps first. Thus in a case that only the side facing the vacuum of the oven crisped, then it is still permitted after the fact, based on this latter opinion.
 A type of vessel which is made specifically for removing bread from ovens
 Meaning why by foods other than bread is the fine active even when done inadvertently and even when the person has no other food to eat.
 Meaning since without Lechem Mishnah one still fulfills the main Mitzvah of Seudas Shabbos, if he eats bread, therefore he is not allowed to partake in the bread left in the oven.
 As opposed to a Tanur of back then, as explained in the beginning of the previous chapter.
 The reason for this prohibition is: The removing of bread from the ovens of back then, in which the breads were actually stuck to the walls of the oven, required skill. Thus it was forbid by the Sages.
The definition of this prohibition however is disputed: Rashi Shabbos 3b: Doing so is considered a Shvus [A Rabbinical form of Melacha on Shabbos]. Ran Shabbos 3b: Doing so is forbidden not because it is a Shvus but rather because it is a mundane act. [Uvdin Dichol]. In 688/4 Admur rules similarly to the Ran stating that Tekias Shofar on Shabbos is forbidden due to it being a mundane act, and that removing bread is as well the same prohibition. [Both blowing Shofar and removing of bread are considered skillful tasks, and were thus excluded from being a Biblical Melacha on Shabbos [See Shabbos 117b] but were nevertheless made forbidden Rabbinically.]
 This implies that this law is only effective today since we are allowed to remove the bread from the oven in order to eat. However back then, it was allowed to place bread right before Shabbos if one planned to only eat it after Shabbos, being that one has other bread for Shabbos, as in such a case it is forbidden for him to remove the bread and there is thus no suspicion that he may come to stoke the coals.
 Lupin is a plant which contains yellow seeds. These seeds are known as lupine beans and are a legume eaten in many Mediterranean countries.
 Meaning this alone suffices according to our custom, as opposed to other opinions which require it to be fully cooked, as explained in the previous chapter Halacha 9.
 Meaning half of its boiling point [100 Celsius], which is thus 50 Celsius. See Q&A1
 Meaning that according to the stringent opinion, [as opposed to our custom] the water must be heated to the point that further cooking damages it, such as that it causes it to evaporate.
 Tzaruch Iyun why the Alter Rebbe here uses the term 1/3 cooked as opposed to Ben Drusaiy.
 Tzaruch Iyun why the Alter Rebbe here uses the term 1/3 cooked as opposed to Ben Drusaiy.
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