Laws of detaching food from the ground, grinding, fixing food, working leather and kneading.
Using bundles of herbs on Shabbos:
Avoiding Muktzah: Bundles of madder, hyssop, and thyme which were collected in order to dry out and be used for fire wood, may not be used on Shabbos [because of Muktzah].
If they were collected to be used as animal fodder, or even if they were collected without any specific intent, then they are considered collected for animal fodder and it is permitted to use them.
Avoiding other prohibitions: [In such a case that the bundles are not Muktzah] one may cut off [a piece of the herbs] with ones hands in order to eat, although he may not [cut it] using a utensil as is done normally during the week.
One may rub the pods with the tips of his fingers in order to [free up and] eat internal seeds, although he may not use his entire hand as is normally done during the week, [being that doing so is a problem of threshing as explained in chapter 319 Halacha 9. However in the Siddur Admur rules that one may nor rub the pods off under any circumstance, see 319 there.]
The Tanning and Salting prohibition
The following chapter will deal with the laws of salting foods and items on Shabbos. Salting skins contains a prohibition of tanning. As an offshoot of this prohibition, some hold it was decreed as well not to pickle and salt food in certain ways. Others however hold that the decree against food has nothing to do with the tanning prohibition but rather was decreed due to that it appears like cooking.
The Biblical prohibition: One who tans skin is [transgressing one of] the principal prohibited actions being that in the [building process of the] Tabernacle they would tan the skins of the techashim and rams.
One who salts the skin is liable for [the prohibition of] tanning being that salting is one of the necessary components in the tanning [of leather].
However one who salts raw meat, even if he salts it increasingly in order so that it last for a long time and not get spoiled [in the interim], is not liable being that there is no Biblical prohibition of tanning foods.
The Rabbinical prohibition of salting meat: However there is a Rabbinical [prohibition of] tanning food and therefore it is forbidden to salt raw meat, even with intent to eat it raw on Shabbos (if it had still not yet been salted in order to kosher it from its blood).
The reason for this prohibition is: because salt helps raw meat (which has not been previously salted) to soften it and prepare it and make it ready to eat and is [thus] similar to tanning.
Salting for preservation: It goes without saying that it is forbidden to salt [meat] in order so it stay preserved and not spoil, even if [not doing so] will cause a great financial loss, and even if had been already salted and koshered from its blood.
This law as well applies for other items [and foods], that it is forbidden to salt them on Shabbos in order to preserve them even in a case of great financial loss.
Making salt water on Shabbos:
For pickling foods: Similarly it is forbidden to make heavy salt water [on Shabbos] or other liquids heavily salted in order to place [these liquids] into pickled foods, meaning [to place them in] vegetables or other foods which are pickled to be preserved (even if one plans to eat from them right away in which case he is not troubling himself for only a weekday purpose)
The reason for this is: ([as] nevertheless) since he is pickling them to preserve it is similar to tanning in which the salt preserves them.
Other opinions regarding the reason: [However] there are opinions which say that pickling is forbidden [not because of the tanning prohibition but] because it is Rabbinically considered cooking.
For dipping foods into: even to make salt water or other salted liquids not [in order to use] for pickling, but rather in order to dip ones bread into and to place it into a dish is forbidden to make a lot of it at a time, which is defined as making in one time enough for dipping for two meals, rather [one may] only [make] a small amount enough for dipping for one meal.
Their reason: (is because when one makes a lot [at one time] it appears that he is doing so for pickling)
The condition that it must be made to eat right away: [Furthermore] even when making it for [only] one meal one is only allowed to make it in close proximately to the meal [in which one plans to dip in it], however [it is] not [allowed to be made] from [before] one meal for the need of another meal.
The reason for this is: because it is forbidden to salt any item which one does not plans to eat right away as will be explained [in Halacha 4].
One who places oil in the dish prior to the salt: [Furthermore] even if one places oil into [the dish] in between the placing of the water and the placing of the salt into it [in which case] the salt will not mix in well with the water and [the oil thus] weakens its strength of being strong salt water, nevertheless it is forbidden.
Salt water made of 2/3rds salt: If one places 2/3rds salt and 1/3rd water or other liquid, then it is forbidden to make even a small amount of it for the purpose of dipping in the upcoming meal.
The reason for this is: being that it appears like one is making the Muryus gravy to pickle fish, as it is common to make Muryus in this way, [thus it is forbidden to make it as] it is forbidden to pickle on Shabbos due to the tanning or cooking prohibition as was explained.
Salting foods which salt helps to change their natural state:
Not to salt more than one piece at a time: Any item which salt helps to change its natural state, [such as] to soften it or harden it or remove its bitterness and other [changes] of the like, such as for example radish or onion or garlic and the like of other spicy foods which when they are left in salt they secrete and remove their bitterness and become hard, as well as beans and lentils which were cooked with their peel of which salt softens their hardness which they have as a result of their peel, as well as species of raw cucumbers (called ugerkis) of which the salt helps them, as well as all other things which are commonly pickled, it is forbidden to salt more than one piece at a time in order to eat it right away.
The reason for this is because: as when one salts two pieces together and certainly [when he salts] more [than two pieces] it appears like one is pickling pickled foods.
Not to salt for a later use: [Furthermore] even one piece of radish and the like is forbidden to dip into salt and leave it [with the salt] for a long time in order so its sharpness dissipate through it secreting moisture, being that doing so is similar to tanning.
Dipping many pieces individually to eat right away: However it is permitted to dip even a few pieces [when dipping] each one individually and one places it in front of him in order to them eat right away, one after the other without much delay. Even if the [pieces] remain a small amount of time [in their salt prior to being eaten] and they [thus] secrete some moisture [nevertheless] this poses no problem so long as that they do not remain a long time [with their salt] even [when planning to eat them] within the same meal. [Meaning] for example [if] from the beginning of the meal to the end [of the meal there is enough time] for [the salted food] to secrete a lot of moisture [then it is forbidden to delay eating it until the end of the meal] because doing so is similar to tanning which is forbidden [to do] with even only one piece [of food].
Other Opinions: [However] there are opinions which say that it is forbidden to leave [the food] in salt at all even for a small amount of time, [and] even [when it is] only a single piece. Therefore [according to this view] it is forbidden to dip two pieces [in salt even] one after the other and then place them in front of him to eat immediately one after the other being that until one [finishes] eating the first piece the second piece remains in the salt. [Thus] it is only permitted to dip a single piece and then eat it right away.
The Final Ruling: The custom is like this latter opinion and so is the law with regards to any [food] which salt benefits.
The reason behind why one may not salt more than one piece at a time according to the 2nd opinion: According to the latter opinion the reason that [the Sages] prohibited to salt a few pieces at the same time is not because it appears like [one is] pickling pickled [foods], but rather is because that until one [finishes] eating the first [piece] the second piece remained in the salt, and since the salt benefits it this is similar to tanning.
Salting many pieces at the same time and then immediately adding vinegar or oil: Therefore [according to the latter opinion] that which [people are] accustomed [on Shabbos] to cut a radish very thin and then place it on a plate and salt it and then pour on it vinegar involves no prohibition even though that this is similar to salting many pieces together which [we said above] is forbidden [to be done] even to eat right away, [as] nevertheless since [the radish pieces] do not remain at all alone with the salt, as one immediately pours on it vinegar and other species, it is [therefore] not similar to tanning. Certainly [this allowance applies] if one pours oil on it being that oil weakens the strength of the salt.
Nevertheless one must beware to pour the oil or vinegar [on the salted pieces] immediately after salting it [and doing so may not be delayed]. However that which some [people] are accustomed to make a vegetable (called lettuce) in which they first salt the vegetable on its own and then leave it this way and drain the water that comes out from it and then [only] afterwards mix it with oil and vinegar, doing so is a complete prohibition and is more similar to tanning [than when it is not left at all alone its salt] being that he delays until [the food] absorbs the salt well.
Salting foods which salt only helps to give taste:
Any item [or food] which salt does not help to change its nature and rather only gives it taste, such as for example [salted] egg and [pre-salted] meat is [only] forbidden to salt when done in order to leave it for another meal.
Other opinion: [However] there is an opinion which says that if there is any reason that it is better to salt [the food] now as opposed to salting it later on in proximity to the meal, such as if now [the food] is slightly hot and will [thus] absorb the salt much better [if it were to be salted now] then there is no prohibition involved in doing so.
The Final Ruling: (One may rely on their words to be lenient in a [dispute over a] Rabbinical prohibition if one needs to do so).
Watering detached vegetables and meat on Shabbos/Preparing on Shabbos for after Shabbos
Edible vegetables: It is permitted to water detached vegetables in order so they do not shrivel, as since these vegetables are fit to be eaten today [on Shabbos] it is [therefore] allowed to water them just as it is [similarly] allowed to move them.
Inedible vegetables: However if they are not fit to be eaten today [on Shabbos] in which case they are forbidden to be moved [because of Muktzah] it is [also] forbidden to water them.
Rinsing raw meat in order to eat after Shabbos: Therefore it is forbidden to rinse meat which had not been [previously] salted which its third day [after being slaughtered] falls on Shabbos in order to prevent it from becoming forbidden to be cooked.
The reason for this is: because [the meat] is forbidden to be moved [is Muktzah] if it is hard meat that is not fit to be chewed [in its raw state] as was explained in chapter 308 [Halacha 68].
[Furthermore] even if [the meat] is soft and is fit to chew [in its raw state] one may not be lenient [to rinse it] as since he does not want to eat it today, rinsing it involves the prohibition of doing [an action which entails] effort on Shabbos for [the need of] a weekday.
The reason why watering the vegetables is not considered preparing for a weekday while rinsing meat is: [Rinsing the meat] is not similar to [watering] vegetables [which is allowed] being that they are fit today to be eaten by any person and it is thus not at all evident that one is [doing an action that entails] effort on Shabbos for the [need of a] weekday being that he may eat these [vegetables] today. However raw meat which is only fit to be chewed by a well minded person as well as that [even by these people] it is not common to chew it raw and it is rather cooked, it is [therefore] recognizable [that when one rinses it] one is doing [an action which entails] effort on Shabbos for the [need of a] weekday.
Having a gentile rinse the meat: [Furthermore] even [to rinse the meat] through a gentile one may not be lenient, as although [the Sages] allowed in a scenario of a great financial loss to do anything through a gentile which is only a Rabbinical prohibition, as explained in chapter 307, nevertheless here it does not entail such a great loss if one were to not rinse it, being that he is [still] able to eat it roasted.
The following section will deal with the laws of grinding on Shabbos. Grinding is one of the Biblical Shabbos prohibitions. Different foods contain different laws regarding if and how they may be grinded.
Crushing with a great variation: One who needs to crush peppers [or other spices] and the like in order to place them into food on Shabbos is allowed to crush them with a great variation from the way it is done during the week, such as [to crush it] with the handle of a knife and the like. [This is allowed] even if [crushing] a lot at a time.
However one may not crush the peppers using a pestle. [This applies] even if it is not made of stone as is [the] common [use] during the week, but rather is made of wood and the like.
Crushing in a plate: There are opinions which say that one is likewise required to crush the spices in a plate and the like, as opposed to a mortar even if one is grinding it with the handle of a knife and the like.
[As well] one may not place the pepper into a cloth and crush it with a knife [by pounding its handle] on top of it, as doing so creates a smell in the cloth [which is prohibited to do on Shabbos] even though one does not have any intent to do so as is written in chapter 511 [Halacha 7].
Other Opinions: [However] other opinions permit to crush spices inside a mortar.
The Final Ruling: (It is proper to be stringent in a situation that doing so is possible).
To cut spices with a knife: However it is forbidden to cut [the pepper] with a knife [into small pieces] even in order to eat immediately.
The above law applies for all spices which are commonly only eaten when mixed [with other foods].
Cutting foods which do not grow from the ground, into small pieces:
However any food which is fit to be eaten the way it is [without needing further preparation] and does not grow on the ground, in which case its species does not contain the concept of grinding at all, such as cooked or roasted meat or cheese and the like, then it is permitted to cut it very thin even [when done] not in order to eat right away, being that there is no grinding [prohibition] by [these] foods.
Hard Cheese: [Furthermore] even very hard cheese is allowed [to be cut small] being that it is [still] possible to be chewed, albeit with difficulty, and [thus] has a status of [a readily edible] food upon it.
If a person cannot chew: [Furthermore] it is allowed to be cut even by a person who cannot chew.
With what items may one cut it? [It is allowed to be cut] whether with a knife or with an ax or a chisel as although these are vessels designated for prohibited use it is allowed to move them in order to use [for a permitted purpose] as explained in chapter 308 [Halacha 12].
A Grater: However it is forbidden to grate it very thin with a dented grater which has sharp teeth (that is called Riv Eizin [grating iron] in Yiddish) even in order to eat right away.
The reason for this is: as since the vessel is designated for this use, doing so is considered a weekday action as is crushing spices with a pestle and mortar.
Other cutting vessels: This law applies for any other vessel that is designated for this use of cutting small.
However [soft] raw meat, since it is only fit for the strong minded which are willing to chew it in an irregular way [meaning while still raw], [therefore] it does not have the status of food on it for this matter and [the] grinding [prohibition] is applicable to it. Therefore it is forbidden to cut it very thin to [feed] the birds.
The reason that it being fit for dog does not render it the status of food: Now, although it is fit for dogs [to eat, nevertheless] it does not receive the status of food due to this being that it is not designated [to be given] to dogs but rather for people or for birds due to its value, and for them [the meat] is not fit [to be chewed] without this cutting [and is thus not considered to be food yet at this stage].
Grinding foods that grow from the ground
All the above refers to food that does not grow from the ground, however any food that grows from the ground, even if it is food that can be readily eaten has [the] grinding [prohibition] apply to it.
The reason for this is: because amongst these species [of foods are] foods that are ground, which refers to grains and legumes.
Vegetables and Fruits: Therefore it is forbidden to cut a vegetable very small in order to eat it, and so too [it is forbidden to cut very small] dried dates and carobs for old people. If one does cut them very small he is liable for grinding.
Crumbling bread: However it is permitted to crumble bread very small for chickens and doing so does not involve the grinding prohibition.
The reason for this is: because the grain from which the bread was made had already been previously ground and there is no [prohibition to] grind a previously ground [food].
Cutting small with intent to eat right away: [However] all this refers to when one cuts [the food] and leaves it [there] not planning to eat it right away but rather to eat later on. However it is permitted to [even initially] cut [food] very small in order to eat it right away or for others to eat right away or for chickens to eat right away.
The reason for this allowance is: because [the Torah] did not forbid a person to eat his food in big or small pieces and thus [we see that] it is the way of eating to eat also small pieces and anything that is done in a way of eating carries no prohibition as was explained in chapter 319 [Halacha 1] regarding separating food from its waste in order to eat it right away that it does not contain any prohibition since this is the way of eating. It is allowed to do so even initially.
Other Opinions: There are opinions which question this allowance [to cut small when intending to eat it right away].
The Final Ruling: It is proper to suspect for this latter opinion and be careful to cut the vegetable (which is called lettuce) into slightly large pieces as then according to all opinion there is no grinding prohibition involved. However in our provinces it is the custom to cut radish very very small, as well as onion, and they have upon whom to [Halachicly] rely. Nevertheless, at the very least they must beware to not begin to cut them until after [the men] leave the Shul being that it may only be done in actual proximity to the meal as was explained in chapter 319 [Halacha 4] regarding separating [food from its waste].
Grinding food with a grinder
All the above [allowance] is only with regards to cutting [food] very small using a knife, however to grind [the food] with a pestle, even if made of wood, is forbidden even if done to eat immediately.
[Furthermore] even food that is readily able to be eaten [in its current state] such as dry figs and carobs for old people, as well as garlic and lepidium and the like of foods which are [commonly] ground are forbidden to be ground even in order to eat immediately.
Crushing with an irregularity: However it is permitted to crush them with a great irregularity such as with using a wooden pot ladle or with the handle of a knife and the like as was explained [above in Halacha 7] regarding spices.
Grinding salt with a grinder and cutting it with a knife
One may not grind salt with a pestle even if it is made of wood and rather it is required for him to grind with a great irregularity such as to grind it with the handle of a knife or a wooden pot ladle.
Cutting it with a knife: However it is forbidden to cut it very small with a knife.
The reason for this is: (because since [salt] is only fit to be eaten when mixed into other foods it therefore has the same laws as do spices and is not comparable to meat and cheese even though it too does not grow on the ground just as they do not.)
Thick pieces of cooked salt: However this [prohibition to cut small] only applies with salt that is initially thick. However salt which was initially thin which was then cooked and became [thick] pieces is permitted to be cut very thin with a knife just as is permitted by bread being that there is no [prohibition to] grind a previously ground [food].
Grinding food with ones teeth for later use
Food [that has a grinding prohibition] which one does not wish to eat [himself] (or to feed to a child) right away is forbidden for him to chew with his teeth due to the grinding prohibition.
Laws dealing with honeycombs
Removing honey from honeycomb
Honeycomb which has been detached from the hive from before Shabbos is forbidden to be crushed in order to remove their honey as doing so is separating food from waste, meaning [that he is separating] the honey which is edible from the wax which is inedible, and contains the “Mifarek” [detaching] prohibition, as well as the separating of food from waste [prohibition].
This applies even if one is removing the honey in order to eat right away as explained in chapter 320 [Halacha 8].
If the honey seeped out from the comb on Shabbos: [Furthermore] even if the honey seeped out on its own it is forbidden [to be eaten] until evening [after Shabbos] due to a decree that one may come to crush it with ones hands in order to eat it today [on Shabbos].
However if the combs had been crushed from before Shabbos then the honey which seeps out from it on Shabbos is permitted as is the law with grapes and olives which had been crushed from before Shabbos [and had liquid flow from them on Shabbos] as was explained there [in Chapter 320 Halacha 4] and in chapter 252 [Halacha 14].
Eating the honey that is on the surface of the combs: However it is permitted to eat the honey which is stuck around the surface of the combs even if the [combs] had not been crushed from before Shabbos.
Removing honeycombs from their hives:
It is Rabbinically forbidden to remove honey from a hive on Shabbos being that doing so resembles the prohibition of “Toleish” [detaching items from the ground].
If the comb was detached from before Shabbos: However this only refers to when the combs are [still] attached to the hive as then [removing the honey] appears like one is detaching an item from its source of growth. However if [the combs] were detached from the hive from before Shabbos and were left this way [loose] inside [the hive] then it is permitted to remove the [comb] and eat the honey that is attached around its surface.
If the comb was crushed from before Shabbos: Furthermore even if the comb is attached to the hive but was crushed within the hive from before Shabbos and the honey is floating inside the hive then it is permitted to remove it and eat it.
Kneading is one of the principal Shabbos prohibited actions.
[Two opinions exist regarding the definition of kneading, and the mixtures which are considered kneaded.]
The first opinion:
The Biblical definition of kneading: One does not Biblically transgress kneading by placing water into flour alone, but rather must knead them together as is done during the week.
Mixtures that are not allowed to be kneaded Biblically: One only Biblically transgresses kneading with materials which are kneadable, such as [adding water to] flour or earth used for bricks of a building. However ash and course sand and crushed grain and parched flour and the like are not kneadable materials, and thus one who kneads them [with water] does not transgress a Biblical prohibition.
Roasted flour: Nevertheless it is Rabinically forbidden to knead a lot of roasted flour [into a thick batter], as this may lead one to come to knead non-roasted flour and he will transgress a Biblical prohibition.
However one is allowed to knead the roasted flour little by little as this is considered a change from the way it is normally done during the week [and one will thus not come to forget and also knead regular flour]. (Furthermore even if he kneads it into a thick and course mixture and thus appears like kneading [nevertheless] it is permitted being that he is kneading with an irregularity.)
Thick flour/Shesisa: However grains which have not yet grown a third [of their growth] and have been roasted, and then ground thickly, having structure like sand, being called shetisa, may be kneaded with vinegar and the like even a lot at a time so long as one kneads it into a thin batter.
However [to knead it into] a thick batter is forbidden [to do a lot at a time even if one does so with an irregularity] as it appears like kneading. (However if kneaded a little at a time it is permitted [to be made even into a thick batter] as was explained by roasted [flour]).
Even [when kneading] a thin batter, when making a lot at a time, one must do so slightly differently than the way it is normally done [as will be explained now].
The definition of a “different way than usual” when making a lot at a time: [This depends on how the mixture is normally made in ones area]. If in ones areas during the week the custom is that the vinegar is placed first [and then the flour is placed], then [on Shabbos] one first places the flour/shesisa [in the bowl] and then afterwards places the vinegar.
In a place they are accustomed to place the flour first [and then the vinegar], on Shabbos one first places the vinegar in [and then the flour].
The second opinion:
There are those which argue on all the above and hold that:
Mixtures that are Biblically not allowed to be kneaded: There is no difference between materials which are kneadable and materials which are not kneadable, and by all the materials one is Biblically liable by simply placing water into them or one of the other liquids and fruits juices [when making a thick batter as will be explained below].
The Biblical definition of kneading: [One Biblically transgresses kneading by even just placing water or another liquid or fruit juice into any material] even if one does not knead them at all, as the placing of the water is itself the kneading. However [this only applies if the amount of liquid placed will make a thick batter of the material, however] by a thin batter there is no Biblical Prohibition of kneading at all.
Rabinically Forbidden and Totally permitted: However Rabbinically [even a thin batter is forbidden from being made] unless it is done differently than the way it is normally done as was explained above, in which case the sages permitted it to be done if it is needed on Shabbos, whether the material is kneadable and whether the material is not kneadable.
Thus both roasted flour and Shesisa are forbidden to have liquid placed in them on Shabbos even if one does so in a different way than is normally done, unless it is made into a thin batter. In such a case the thin batter may be done in a different way than normal, such as to first places the flour/shesisa in the bowl and then place the vinegar in an area that this is different than usual, or the opposite in a place that the opposite is considered a different way [as explained above].
Kneading a lot at a time: When placing the [material] in an irregular way it is permitted to knead even a lot at a time being that it is being made into a thin batter.
If water was placed in the mixture from before Shabbos: However a thick batter is forbidden [to be made] in all circumstances due to it is considered kneading, unless one already placed the liquid [in the flour and the like] from before Shabbos in which case it is permitted [according to this opinion] to knead it on Shabbos [little by little] whether with roasted flour or with Shesisa.
If water was kneaded into the mixture from before Shabbos: [Even] according to the first opinion mustard which one kneaded from before Shabbos is allowed to be mixed with liquids the next day [on Shabbos] whether by hand or with a spoon. One may have honey placed in it so long as one does not mix it strongly and rather mixes it little by little [I.e. slowly].
The remainder of this Halacha was lost from the text. The following is the Final Ruling of Admur in Chapter 324 Halacha 3
The Final Ruling: One should be stringent like the second opinion, and so is the custom [to not place water into even un-kneadable material in a way that if mixed will knead into a thick mixture, even with an irregularity. Although to make a thin batter is permitted to make even with kneadable materials as long as one does so with an irregularity.]
Supplement to the smearing prohibition
Rama Chapter 321 Halacha 19
It is permitted to smoothen food on Shabbos and doing so does not contain the smearing prohibition because it is possible to eat [the food] without [spreading it].
Nevertheless one who is stringent regarding foods made of apples and the like of which is common to [smear] will be blessed. [However to spread foods on bread, as well as butter and fat is definable permitted.]
[However if one cannot eat the food without spreading it then it contains a Rabbinical smearing prohibition, just like foods contain a Rabbinical salting prohibition.
 A perennial plant with a fleshy red root.
 These are all different types of herbs.
 The Mishneh Berurah explains that the food is partially edible also for humans.
 Tzaruch Iyun why cutting it using a vessel is prohibited and what difference is there in cutting these foods and cutting other foods which is allowed with a vessel!
 This follows the ruling of the Magen Avraham. However the Mishneh Berurah  based on other Poskim rules that it is allowed to be made even for later on.
 Meaning that prior to placing salt into the dish one places oil into it.
 However the Mishneh Berurah  rules that one may be lenient if the oil is placed in prior to placing in the salt.
 Meaning meat that had been already salted to remove its blood, as otherwise it is forbidden even when done to eat right away as explained in Halacha 2
 Perhaps Admur mentions only slightly hot as if it were Yad Soledes than it is proper to not place salt on it at all, even in a Keli Sheiyni. [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 7]
 From the Ketzos Hashulchan [128/4] it seems that he learned this “need so” to mean that it will soften the meat. However this does not seem to be the simple meaning of Admur, as if so then saying “needs so” is superfluous being that the arguing opinion itself only holds that when one needs so it is allowed.
 Meat which has not been salted or rinsed for three days becomes prohibited in being cooked even if one were to later salt it being that after three days the blood no longer comes out fully through salting, and is thus only permitted to be roasted. Thus the scenario here is that one desires to rinse the meat in order to prevent this law of taking affect.
 Meaning that the thought of eating it does not bother him.
 A pestle is an object made for crushing and grinding
 This refers to a grinding bowl.
 Lit. Good
 Mishneh Berurah 25 and Ketzos Hashulchan 129/2. Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur did not write this.
 However in the Sharreiy Tziyon he permits even cutting it small when done to eat right away.
 Lit. well. Meaning that the thought does not disgust them.
 Lit. importance
 Lit. complete food
 Lepidium is a genus of plants in the mustard family  Ketzos Hashulchan 130/2. However when kneading it to a thin mixture it is allowed, as stated in the second opinion below.
 However when making it little by little, then this itself is considered an irregularity, as explained above.
 However the Ketzos Hashulchan brings from the Mishneh
 This is required because even further kneading a material that was kneaded before Shabbos is Rabbinically forbidden unless done with an irregularity. [Ketzos Hashulchan 130 footnote 13]
 Based on Ketzos Hashulchan 130/2
 The end of this chapter does not appear in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch and we have thus brought the rulings of the Rama and Mishneh Berurah as a supplement for those omissions.
 Mishneh Berurah 82
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