- Question: [Sunday, 30th Nisan, 5782]
If one has just reached Hallel after his private Shemoneh Esrei and the congregation has reached Musaf, what is he to do? Should he first recite Hallel and miss Davening Musaf with the Minyan in order not to mess up the order of the prayers, or should he skip Hallel and first Daven Musaf with the Minyan and make up Hallel afterwards?
If one already finished Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis, then he is to [quickly put on Rabbeinu Tam Tefillin and], recite Musaf with the congregation and then Daven Hallel afterwards. If, however, one has not yet Davened Shacharis then he is not to Daven Musaf. Furthermore, even one who has already finished Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis, if he chooses to first recite Hallel even in expense of Musaf with the Minyan in order not to mix up the order of Davening, as upon whom to rely.
The Halachic time of Hallel is throughout the entire day, and it is not required to be said specifically after Shacharis, before Musaf, even though this is what is initially accustomed due to Zerizin Makdimim Lemitzvos. Accordingly, when faced with either the ability to Daven Musaf with a Minyan or say Hallel before Musaf, it is Halachically better to Daven Musaf with a Minyan and make up Hallel afterwards. Now, regarding the custom of not confusing the channels of prayer and mixing up the order, even in expense of missing Davening Shemoneh Esrei with a Minyan, we do not explicitly find this recorded regarding saying Hallel before Musaf, even though it is recorded regarding saying Hallel before Shacharis, and hence perhaps there is no issue even according to Kabbalah to make it up post Musaf. However, since it is possible to understand that according to Kabbalah, Hallel is to be recited specifically before Musaf, therefore one who is lenient in such a case to first say Hallel has upon whom to rely. In all cases, one is to put on his Tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam prior to doing so.
Sources: Ruling of Rav A”ch Naah in Yagdil Torah 4:1676 that one should first Daven Musaf with the Minyan but; See regarding when Hallel is to be recited and if you may be recited before Musaf: Admur 488:3; 131:5 in parentheses; Mishneh Megillah 20b; Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38