This article is an excerpt from our Sefer
Chapter 10: Erev Sukkos
1. Increasing in charity:
One is to increase in Tzedakah on Erev Sukkos. This includes inviting over the poor for meals.
2. Purchasing Jewelry and clothing:
It is a Biblical positive command and obligation for one to rejoice and be of happy spirit on Yom Tov. This obligation applies to oneself, his wife, his children and his entire household [even non-relatives]. The head of the household is responsible for rejoicing his household during this time. One is to buy his wife [and adult female children and other adult female household members] jewelry or clothing in accordance with his affordability. ]If one cannot afford to purchase clothing or jewelry then he is to purchase them new shoes in order to fulfill this Mitzvah.]
3. Baking Challahs:
One is to bake Challahs for Yom Tov which will be used for Lechem Mishneh and is not to buy them at the bakery as is done during the week. This matter of baking one’s own Challah is included in the honoring of Yom Tov. One is not to divert from this custom.
How much is one to bake? One is to bake at least the amount that requires one to remove Challah from the dough.
4. Cutting the nails:
It is a Mitzvah to cut one’s nails on Erev Sukkos in honor of Yom Tov, just as is the law on Erev Shabbos. [One is to cut his nails prior to immersing.]
5. Getting a haircut on Erev Sukkos:
It is a Mitzvah upon each person [who did not get a haircut on Erev Rosh Hashanah] to get a haircut on Erev Sukkos in honor of Yom Tov, in order so one does not enter into the holiday looking not representable.
When may one get a haircut on Erev Sukkos?
It is permitted to get a haircut throughout the entire Erev Sukkos, even past the time of Mincha. This applies even to a professional haircut that is being done by a Jew in exchange for payment.
Midday: Some Poskim rule that [despite the above ruling] one is to beware to take a haircut prior to midday. Others however rule that doing so is not required, and so is implied to be the opinion of Admur. Furthermore some rule one is to try to have a haircut specifically past midday, so it be recognizable he is doing so in honor of Yom Tov. Even according to the above stringent opinion, if one did not take a haircut prior to midday, he may do so afterwards, although there are some that are stringent in such a case not to take a haircut.
May one get a haircut prior to Davening?
The Kavanos of a Haircut:
One is to intend upon getting a haircut that he is removing the powers of severity and is fulfilling the Mitzvah of having Peyos and the Mitzvah of paying a worker for his job on the same day and the Mitzvah of honoring Yom Tov. One can fulfill a total of fourteen Mitzvos when he gets a haircut.
6. Eating past the 10th hour of the day:
It is forbidden to eat [a meal] from Mincha and onwards [the 10th hour of the day] until the Yom Tov starts. [This is approximately three hours before sunset]. The above is only with regards to a set meal [i.e. 55 grams of bread] however it is permitted to eat a mere snack up until sunset and there is no need to refrain from doing so.
May one eat a meal past the 10th hour if he did not eat prior? If one transgressed or forgot and did not eat prior to the 10th hour, then on Erev Sukkos he may not eat a meal past the 10th hour.
A large feast and Seudas Mitzvah:
It is forbidden for one to establish a large feast on Erev Yom Tov, which one is not accustomed to eat during the week, if the feast involves drinking alcoholic beverages. It is forbidden to eat such a feast even on Friday morning.
Seudas Mitzvah: The above prohibition only applies with regards to an optional feast, or a Seudas Mitzvah which is optional in terms of the date in which one must set it for, and it is thus possible for one to delay it to a later date. However, a Seudas Mitzvah which has fallen out to be eaten specifically on Erev Yom Tov may be set on Erev Yom Tov. Nevertheless, even when the date of a Seudas Mitzvah falls on Erev Yom Tov one is to initially begin the meal prior to the 10th hour of the day and he should only invite ten people besides for close relatives and the Baalei Hasimcha. The following is the list of Seudas Mitzvah occasions which may be celebrated on Erev Yom Tov:
Bris Mila [whether it being the 8th day after birth or past the 8th day after birth]; Wedding feast; Pidyon Haben [if it is taking place on its proper time which is the 31st day after birth].
On Erev Sukkos it is an obligation to refrain from beginning a meal past the 10th hour of the day. Snacks may be eaten throughout the day even past the 10th hour. If one transgressed or forgot and did not eat prior to the 10th hour, then he may not eat a meal.
Seudas Mitzvah: It is forbidden to eat a large meal any time on Yom Tov unless it is a Seudas Mitzvah which its date has fallen on Erev Yom Tov. In such a case one is to initially begin the meal prior to the 10th hour of the day and should only invite ten people besides for close relatives and the Baalei Hasimcha.
7. Bathing on Erev Sukkos:
It is a Mitzvah to bathe one’s body in hot water on Erev Sukkos in honor of Yom Tov.
8. Inviting the needy to one’s meal:
It is an obligation for one to invite orphans, widows and those which are in need to the Yom Tov meals. If one does not do so, then it is not considered a meal eaten in honor of the Mitzvah but rather for the satiation of his abdomen.
9. Eiruv Tavshilin:
Whenever the 2nd day of Sukkos falls on Erev Shabbos one must do Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Rosh Hashanah [Wednesday] in order to be allowed to cook on the 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah for Shabbos.
Cooking on the first day of Yom Tov for Shabbos: It is forbidden to cook foods on the first day of Yom Tov [i.e. Thursday] on behalf of Shabbos even if Eiruv Tavshilin was performed. The Eiruv Tavshilin only allows one to cook on the second day of Rosh Hashanah [i.e. Friday] on behalf of Shabbos.
Cooking with enough time so the food is ready before Shabbos: Even when Eiruv Tavshilin is performed it is only permitted to cook food for Shabbos if there is enough time for the food to be fully cooked and servable to guests on Rosh Hashanah, prior to sunset. It is Biblically forbidden to cook foods if there isn’t enough time left for the food to be served before sunset. Many are unaware of this matter.
The Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed on Erev Rosh Hashanah. It may be performed any time on Erev Rosh Hashanah. If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Rosh Hashanah then if it is still prior to nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may still do the Eiruv Tavshilin, even if it is already past sunset. If, however, one remembered only after nightfall then one may no longer do the Eiruv Tavshilin on Rosh Hashanah even through making a Tnaiy.
The foods: The owner of the house takes a [whole] loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeitza [which is to later be used on Shabbos for the meal] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread. Nevertheless initially it is best to use an honorable food, such as meat or fish.
Being Mizakeh on behalf of others: The custom is to acquire the food to all the other members of the city in order to merit them with the Mitzvah in case someone forgot to do so. This is done through placing the food into the hands of a non-family member or one’s married son, or any child above Bar/Bas Mitzvah which supports himself/herself. After the food is placed in their hands the owner of the house says, “I hereby acquire [this food] to all those that want to acquire and rely on this Eiruv”. The person then lifts up the food one Tefach from its current area, hence acquiring it for the townspeople. The owner then takes back the food and recites the blessing of “Al Mitzvas Eiruv” as explained next. If there is no non-family member or married son available then one may give it to one’s wife, or one’s child who is over Bar Mitzvah, to lift up one Tefach and acquire the Eiruv to the city members. However children under the age of Bar Mitzvah which are supported by the household may not be used for this acquisition.
The blessing: One says the following blessing upon making the Eiruv Tavshilin: “…Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Mitzvas Eiruv”. After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods and light candles and do all our needs for Yom Tov to Shabbos”.
If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Rosh Hashanah and it is already after nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may no longer do so even through making a Tnaiy, as explained above in B. One is to speak to a Rav in regard to how he may cook food on Erev Shabbos for the sake of Shabbos.
E. What does one do with the Eiruv Tavshilin food?
The bread and food used for the Eiruv Tavshilin must be put away in a secure area in order so it will not get eaten or destroyed prior to the completion of the Shabbos preparations on Friday. From the letter of the law, once the Shabbos preparations have been completed, one may eat the foods designated for the Eiruv Tavshilin. Nevertheless, if the bread is whole, and can hence be used for Lechem Mishneh, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to delay eating the bread until one of the Shabbos meals. Some have the custom to use the bread as Lechem Mishneh for the first and second Shabbos meal and then eat it only by the third Shabbos meal.
If the food was eaten or lost: If the cooked food was partially eaten or lost prior to completing the Shabbos preparations, then it is forbidden to cook or do any more preparation on behalf of Shabbos unless a Kezayis worth of the cooked food remains. If, however, only the bread was eaten or lost then it remains permitted to cook and prepare on Friday for Shabbos.
Reminding the public:
In those years that Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed it is proper to place signs by the public areas [i.e. Shul; Mikveh; Website] in order to remind the public of this matter. [It is suggested to also announce this in Shul at the conclusion of Shacharis and prior to Mincha.]
Whenever the 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Erev Shabbos one performs an Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Rosh Hashanah [Wednesday]. The owner of the house takes a whole loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeiytza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread. If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say:
“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”
The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach. The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing: [If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople then he is to simply hold the food and begin from here with the following blessing:]
ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות עירוב.
After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.
בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא
לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת
May one use bread and cooked meat that is frozen for the Eiruv Tavshilin?
10. Binding the Lulav:
One should bind the Lulav in the Sukkah. One should be meticulous to bind the Lulav himself as opposed to having someone else do it for him. See “Chapter 4 Halacha 5 for the full details of this subject!
11. Verifying the validity of the Sukkah:
Before leaving to Shul for Mincha on Erev Sukkos, one is to verify the validity of the Sukkah and confirm that everything is in order.
12. Candle lighting:
The Blessing: One first lights the candles and then says the blessing of “Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam Asher Kidishanu Bimitzvosav Vetzivanu Lehadlik Neir Shel Yom Tov”. This blessing is then followed by the blessing of Shehechiyanu.
When are the candles lit? The custom is to light the candles prior to sunset at the same time that they are lit on Erev Shabbos. [One who did not light the candles prior to sunset is to light the candles at night, on Yom Tov, from a preexisting flame. It is to be lit at the very least prior to the return of the men from Shul.]
Where are the candles to be lit: The candles are to be lit within the Sukkah. If this is not possible [such as due to safety reasons] then one is to light inside.
If a man is lighting candles, when is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu, by lighting or by Kiddush?
A man always says the blessing of Shehechiyanu by Kiddush, even in the event that he is lighting candles. However in such a case he is to light candles directly before Kiddush, hence having the blessing of Shehechiyanu also go on the candle lighting. If however he said the blessing by candle lighting he does not repeat the blessing by Kiddush. [However on the first night of Sukkos this only applies if he lit the candles in the Sukkah. Otherwise, he must repeat Shehechiyanu for the sake of the Mitzvah of Sukkah that he is now fulfilling by Kiddush.]
Does a woman who will be saying Kiddush say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting or by Kiddush?
If a man is lighting candles does he first light the candles and then say the blessing or vice versa?
Some Poskim rule men are to follow the same order as women and hence first light the candles and then say the blessing. Other Poskim however rule that men are to always first say the blessing and then light. [See footnote for opinion of Admur]
Preparing a 24-hour candle:
It is proper to prepare a 24-hour candle on Erev Sukkos in order to have a preexisting flame available to use on Yom Tov.
Those that have a Yartzite on Sukkos are to light the Yartzite candle before Yom Tov. One who did not do so before Yom Tov may light it on Yom Tov inside an active Shul by the room where the prayer takes place. However one may not light the candle in one’s home on Yom Tov. However there are opinions who allow lighting it even at home.
 Or Tzaddikim 38:1; Rabbi Chaim Vital would distribute money to the poor on this day. [ibid]
 Admur 529:6-7; 242:1 regarding eating on Yom Tov that it is Biblical due to the Mitzvah of Simcha; Michaber 529:2; Pesachim 109a
 The source: As the verse [Devarim 16:14] states “Vesamachta Bechagecha Ata Ubincha Ubitecha etc.” [Admur ibid]
 Implication of Admur ibid
 So is implied from Admur ibid as otherwise Admur omits how the other women of one’s household are to be rejoiced.
 Drashos Maharil Yom Tov; Bear Heiytiv 529:4
 242:12; Rama 242:1; M”E 581:51; Kaf Hachaim 581:100
 The reason: The reason behind this custom of baking Challahs on Erev Shabbos is due to the Mitzvah to honor Yom Tov. [Admur ibid] The effort exerted in the kneading and baking for the sake of Yom Tov, rather than buying it from a store, honors Yom Tov. [M”B 242:6] Likewise having fresh and hot home baked bread also honors Yom Tov. [Siddur Yaavetz; Likkutei Mahrich]
 See also Shach Yoreh Deah 324:25 that the women are scrupulous to specifically bake enough to separate Shiur Challah on Erev Shabbos.
 Admur 529:2 regarding every Erev Yom Tov
 See Kaf Hachaim 260:1 and Mateh Efraim 625:13; Shlah 138 that the nails are to be cut prior to Mikveh.
 Michaber 581:4; Admur 529:2 regarding every Erev Yom Tov; 529:5 that this Mitzvah applies likewise on [Erev] Rosh Hashanah.
 Mateh Efrayim 625:11
 Admur 251:4 regarding Erev Shabbos and Erev Yom Tov [see 251:1 that includes Erev Yom Tov in these laws]; Mateh Efraim 625:11 “One may take a haircut throughout the entire day”; See “The Laws and Customs of Erev Shabbos” Chapter 2 for the full details of this subject!
 Custom of the Arizal brought in M”A 251:5; Gr”a brought in Aruch Hashulchan 251:3; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 128:15; Mateh Efraim 581:50; Mateh Efraim 625:11 “It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar…”; Alef Lamagen 581:108 “Is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar”; Kaf Hachaim 260:13; 581:80 [proper to be stringent]
 Aruch Hashulchan 251:3; Alef Lamagen 581:108 rules that the above ruling to take a haircut prior to midday is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar and if one did not do so beforehand then he may do so until Mincha Ketana. [Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on the wording “Mincha Ketana” as everyone agrees a haircut may be taken the entire day.
 Admur 251:4
The Magen Avraham 251:5 records that the Arizal would not get a haircut past the time of Mincha Gedola [midday], based on Kabalistic reasons. Admur omitted this custom of the Arizal in 251. See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:130 that the Rebbe concludes regarding the time of cutting nails, which is similar to the time of the cutting of the hair, that he did not receive a directive in how to follow. The Aruch Hashulchan ibid states that the Gra is stringent against allowing haircuts past midday, although this is not the worldly custom.
 Based on Aruch Hashulchan 260:6; See also 251:3
 Mateh Efraim 625:11 “It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar…”; Alef Lamagen 581:108
 Mateh Efraim ibid based on the Arizal who would refrain from cutting his hair after midday.
 Admur 70:5
 Admur 89:8
 Shaar Hamitzvos brought in Kaf Hachaim 232:15; 581:80
 Kaf Hachaim 232:15: 7 negative commands relating to the Peyos and beard; One negative command of Bechukoseihem Lo Seliechu; One negative command of Lo Yilbash Gever; One negative command of Lo Savo Alav Hashemesh; One negative command of Lo Salin; One positive command of Beyomo Titen Secharo; If the barber is poor he also fulfills the negative command of Lo Yikra Alecha; One Rabbinical Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos and Yom Tov.
 Admur 639:20; 529:2 regarding all Erev Yomim Tovim
 Admur 639:20 writes “Min Hamincha Ulimalah”; This seemingly means the 10th hour, as rules Admur 249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos; 471:1-2 regarding Erev Pesach and 529:2 regarding Erev Yom Tov, and there is no reason in Admur to assume that Erev Sukkos is any different, since he makes no explicit differentiation and so rules Kaf Hachaim 639:60 in opinion of Admur ibid. So also rule regarding Erev Sukkos: Implication of M”A 639:12 who questions Rama and so concludes Kaf Hachaim ibid that so is ruling of Admur and M”A ibid; Gr”a 639; Mishneh Berurah 639:27; See background and other opinions
Background of ruling of Admur regarding Erev Sukkos: Regarding Erev Sukkos, Admur 639:20 writes one is to abstain from eating “Min Hamincha Ulimalah.” This seemingly refers to Mincha Ketana or “Samuch Limincha” which refers to the 10th hour of the day. This explanation that “Min Hamincha” refers to 10th hour is found in Rama 529 who rules that it is forbidden to eat Erev Yom Tov from “Hamincha Ulimala” and the Magen Avraham 529:1 explains this to refer to the 10th hour of the day, and so rules Admur in 529:2. However, Tzaruch Iyun as for why Admur here did not also just simply state the 10th hour, as he wrote in 529:2, and especially in light of fact that in all the Halachas mentioned of not eating on Erev Chag/Shabbos Admur mentions specifically the 10th hour. [249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos; 471:1-2 regarding Erev Pesach, and 529:2 regarding Erev Yom Tov] As well, the question intensifies over the fact that the Rama 639:3 rules it is forbidden to eat a meal on Erev Sukkos from Chatzos and seemingly if Admur were trying to argue on the Rama he should have stated clearly without doubt of its meaning that he holds its from the 10th hour. Thus, although we find a source for ruling that Min Hamincha refers to 10th hour, it is puzzling why Admur did not just state this explicitly. Vetzaruch Iyun.
Other opinions regarding Erev Sukkos: Some Poskim rules it is forbidden to eat a meal from midday of Erev Sukkos just as is the law on Erev Pesach. [Rama 639:3] Some Poskim question this ruling of the Rama. [M”A 639:12; Gr”a] Other Poskim rule that bread may not be eaten from midday of Erev Sukkos while other foods are to be abstained from 10th hour. [Chayeh Adam 147:17; P”M 639 A”A 12; Kitzur SHU”A; Kaf Hachaim ibid] Other Poskim rule one is to eat his meal prior to midday, although if one did not yet eat he may nevertheless eat a meal until the 10th hour. [Mateh Efraim 625:7]
Question on ruling of Rama ibid: The M”A 639:12 questions the Rama ibid that on Erev Pesach it is only forbidden to start a meal from the 10th hour. He answers that bread [which one cannot eat on Erev Pesach] is more filling than other foods, and thus bread which can be eaten on Erev Sukkos we are more stringent and forbid it from midday. However, he concludes with asking a) what is the source for such a differentiation, and b) why does the Rama conclude as explained in the laws of Pesach. He thus concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. Some Poskim learn the Magen Avraham’s final stance is to be arguing on the Rama that even bread is only forbidden from after the 10th hour. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] Other Poskim learn him to accept the differentiation that he made between bread and other foods. [Chayeh Adam ibid; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch] The Gr”a explains that the Rama holds like the Rishonim who forbid eating form midday, but that is not how we rule as explained in Hilchos Pesach that we rule it may be eaten until 10th. The Chok Yaakov argues on differentiation of Magen Avraham and rather explains that Rama always holds even by Pesach that the prohibition to eat Mezonos or Hamotzi foods begin from midday, and it is just because that eating Mezonos/Hamotzi on Erev Pesach is not done being that we do not eat Matza Ashira anymore, that the Rama did not say so in Hilchos Pesach. [Based on this explanation it is evident that Admur clearly does not rule like Rama being that he clearly states in 471:1-2 that Matzah Ashirah may be eaten on Erev Pesach until the 10th hour, which according to the Chok Yaakovs explanation of the Rama is incorrect.]
 The reason: This is due to juxtaposition made from Sukkos to Pesach in which we learn that just like on Pesach one may not eat a meal past the 10th hour similarly on Sukkos one may not eat a meal past the 10th hour. [639:20] This is aside for the ruling that one should never eat a meal on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov past the 10th hour in order to eat the night meal with an appetite. [249:9; 529:2]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 69 footnote 11; See Shiureiy Torah p. 177: 57.6 grams
 249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos
 See Admur 471:1 regarding Erev Pesach; Mateh Efraim 625:7
 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos
 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos; M”A 581:11 regarding a Bris Mila on Erev Rosh Hashanah.
 Admur ibid
Other Opinions: The Mishneh Berurah 249:13 [and so rules Kaf Hachaim 249:14; 581:66] rules that the meal should be eaten in the morning [prior to midday]. He basis this ruling on the ruling of the Rama in 695:2 that when Purim falls on Erev Shabbos one is to start the meal prior to midday. The Ketzos Hashulchan [69 footnote 8] however argues that one cannot learn from the Purim feast laws that all meals of a Seudas Mitzvah are to be eaten prior to midday as there is much greater of a chance of becoming drunk by a Purim meal, and hence it was initially set to be eaten before midday. However other feast of a Seudas Mitzvah can be eaten even initially up to the 10th hour.
 Admur 529:2 regarding every Erev Yom Tov
 Admur 529:11; Zohar regarding Sukkos
 See Hiskashrus 896
 It is not possible for the 1st day of Sukkos to ever fall on Erev Shabbos. [See 428:1]
 Admur 527:23
 Admur 527:8; M”B 527:3; See Aruch Hashulchan 527:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 527:3 for other opinions in this matter
 Initially one may not do the Eiruv Tavshilin before Erev Rosh Hashanah. [527:2-see there for a dispute on this matter and that initially we are stringent]
 Admur 527:9; Biur Halacha 261 “Mearvin”
The reason: As the time of Bein Hashmashos is doubtful whether it is day or night, and since Eiruv Tavshilin is a Rabbinical in junction one may be lenient. [Admur ibid]
 Admur 527:22; By a regular Yom Tov that falls on Thursday, Friday one may [Bedieved] make an Eiruv Tavshilin on Thursday using a Tnaiy that “if today is Yom Tov tomorrow is a weekday etc.”. [527:21] However on R”H one cannot make an Eiruv Tavshilin being that it is all considered one long day. [527:22] See Mateh Efraim 581:56
 Siddur Admur; 527:3
 In order to be able to say Lechem Mishneh over it on Shabbos as rules Admur 527:25
 57.6 grams [Shiureiy Torah p. 177]
 Siddur Admur
 Admur 527:25; “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183
 27 grams [See Shiureiy Torah p. 193]
 Admur 527:3; 527:12; It is valid whether it is cooked or roasted. [ibid] If the food is raw it is invalid.
 Admur mentions meat, fish or egg. [527:11]
 Admur 527:11
 Admur in Siddur; Shlah brought in Beir Heiytiv 527:2; See Admur 527:13 regarding negating the use of leftovers
 Siddur Admur; 527:17; See also 366:13
 Siddur Admur writes this directive to the general public as does the Shlah Miseches Sukkah 246; however in 527:14 this is only mentioned regarding the Rav and leaders of the city.
 This is allowed even if the non-family member is a member of one’s household. [527:17]
 This applies even if he is supported by his parents in all matters. [527:17]
 Siddur Admur; In 527:17 Admur writes a slightly different wording
The reason: By doing so the owner officially appoints the person holding the food as a messenger to acquire the food. [Admur 527:17]
 If however he does not lift it one Tefach then he does not acquire it at all for others as less than a Tefach does not acquire. [ibid] This order [to first say the statement and then have the acquirer lift a Tefach] follows the wording in the Siddur. However, in 527:17 Admur writes the opposite order, to first to lift it up a Tefach and then to say the statement.
 Admur 527:17 and 366:13 that there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to whether a wife and children above Bar and Bas Mitzvah may perform the acquisition. Admur ibid concludes that Lechatchila one should not do so although Bedieved if one did so through them it is valid.
 Admur 527:25
 The reason: As every item which had one Mitzvah done with it should have an additional Mitzvah performed with it as well. [ibid]
 Admur 527:25 “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183
The reason: As it is proper to do many Mitzvos with an item that was already used for a Mitzvah. [ibid]
 Admur 527:24
 Aruch Hashulchan 527:14
 Alef Lamagen 581:131
 Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 2 88:19
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 141 [English]
 First candles and then the blessing: Admur 263:8 as rules M”A 263
The reason: This applies even on Yom Tov despite that on Yom Tov extending a flame is permitted, as the Sages did not wish to differentiate between the lightings of Shabbos and Yom Tov. [ibid]
At night: This ruling applies even if one is lighting the candles at night. [Hiskashrus]
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that on Erev Yom Tov one is to first recite the blessing and then light the candles. [Mateh Efraim 625:33] Some rule that this especially applies when one is lighting the candles at night as at that time no one would mistakenly think one can also do so on Shabbos. [Mateh Efraim ibid; Alef Lamateh 625:50]
 Siddur Tehillas Hashem; Mateh Efraim 581:54; 599:9
The source for reciting Shehechiyanu by Hadlakas Neiros as opposed to Kiddush: The Shulchan Aruch and earlier Poskim never mention that Shehechiyanu is to be recited during candle lighting. Nevertheless the women are accustomed to do so. Some Poskim negate this custom due to it not having any source in previous Poskim and due to other reasons. [Sheilas Yaavetz 107; Shaareiy Teshuvah 263:4; Birkeiy Yosef 263:1; Chesed Lealafim; Kaf Hachaim 263:40; See however Elya Raba 600:3 that mentions this custom] Nevertheless those women that are accustomed to do so are not to abort their custom, as this tradition dates back to previous generations. [Poskim ibid; Mateh Efraim 581:54; 599:9; Sheilas Yaavetz ibid “My wife herself would say the blessing by candle lighting and I desired to protest against her doing so although I held myself back as it does not contain a blessing in vain and it is a tradition of previous generations.”]
 Mateh Efraim 599:11; 625:33; Shevach Hamoadim p. 13 [4:1] in name of Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin and the Toras Chesed of Lublin; Hakdama of the son of the Derisha to Tur Yoreh Deah 1; See Likkutei Sichos 24 p. 792 footnote 96.
 The reason: As the Mitzvah of lighting candles begins with the entrance of Yom Tov and it is hence improper for them to delay this Mitzvah. [Alef Lamateh 625:51]
 See Alef Lamateh 625:51; In order so they return from Shul with a set table that contains lit candles. [ibid]
 Mateh Efraim 599:9; Vayagel Yaakov 39; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 896
The reason: As even by women there is no source in Poskim to say the blessing by candle lighting, and it is only because of the time honored custom of women to do so that we allow them to say it then. [See Poskim in previous footnotes] However men who never accepted such a custom certainly are to say the blessing by Kiddush. [Vayagel Yaakov ibid]
 Mateh Efraim ibid
 Mateh Efraim 619:12; Sefer Haminhagim p. 128 [English]
 As this was their accepted custom. However, Piskeiy Teshuvos 518:21 rules that they are to say the blessing by Kiddush. However after looking in his sources one clearly sees that the cases discussed there are regarding men and not women. Hence seemingly by women the custom should remain as always to say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting.
 See 263:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263 footnote 168
 Derech Hachaim 50:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 19; Customs in new Siddur Tehillas Hashem; Maharam Shick 119; Birchas Habayis 45:4
 Aruch Hashulchan 263:13; Toras Yekusiel 61; Ashel Avraham Butchach; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:18
The reason: As men do not accept Shabbos right away upon lighting. [See 263:7]
 Some rule based on Admur [which does not differentiate between men and women] that men follow the same order as women and light before the blessing. [Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 19; Customs in new Siddur Tehillas Hashem; To note the Nesiv Hachaim also did not argue on the ruling of Derech Hachaim ibid] Others however rule that according to [the M”A and] Admur [which states the above custom to first light in Lashon Nikeiva, in contrast to the wording of the Rama] men are to first say the blessing and then light. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun on the above Poskim that did not infer differently from Admur as seems clear from his wording and as writes Piskeiy Teshuvos.
 See Admur 514:14; Biur Halacha 514 “Ner”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:14
 Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 70; See SSH”K 13 footnote 27
 Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
The reason: As one may light any candle in Shul as it is considered a Neir Shel Mitzvah. [514:14]
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may never light a Yartzite candle on Yom Tov, even in Shul. [Daas Torah 514 in name of Imrei Eish] Some rule one may only do so through a gentile. [Kitzur SHU”A 98:1]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
The reason: As it does not add any light to the house even at night being that we have electricity. Thus it may not be lit as it is considered a light that serves no purpose which is forbidden to be lit on Yom Tov. [514:13]
 Biur Halacha 514 “Neir”
 Initially one is to light it near ones dining room table, thus giving it a use. However, if this is not possible then one may light it in any area as it is considered a Ner Shel Mitzvah. [ibid]