May a woman use powdered makeup [i.e. Shabbos makeup] on Shabbos?
It is forbidden for a woman to apply makeup on Shabbos due to the dyeing [prohibition]. Nonetheless, the Poskim debate whether this prohibition applies to all forms of coloring that one places on their face, or if it only applies to makeup that sticks to the face. This dispute created a debate regarding using powdered makeup on Shabbos. The following are the opinions in Poskim: Many Poskim rule that one may apply white powder [foundation] to the face, so long as it does not stick on to one’s skin [as does a paste], as in such a case it is not defined as a dye. Furthermore, some Poskim add that all powdered makeup may be used, irrelevant of color, so long as it does not stick to the face, as explained above. Practically, this means that there isn’t any makeup on the face, and one’s face is not wet or oily, and that the powder does not contain oil and hence will not stick to the face. If the powder contains oil, or other sticking substance which makes it last on the face, then it is forbidden according to all to be used on Shabbos. Other Poskim however rule that colored powder is forbidden in use in all cases, even if it will not stick to the face, and only white powdered makeup is allowed, when it does not stick to the face. Furthermore, some Poskim rule it is forbidden to use any type of powdered makeup, whether white or colored, even if it will not stick to the skin, due to the dyeing prohibition. Practically, one is to discuss with his Rav for a final ruling, although in general, the leaning approach is to be stringent.
Applying the powder to makeup placed before Shabbos: Even according to the lenient opinion, if the woman put on makeup on her face from before Shabbos and now desires to apply face powder to it, then it is forbidden to do so according to all, being that the powder clings on to the makeup and enhances its color.
Practically, may I use Shabbos makeup that has a Hechsher? Shabbos makeup is colored powder that is applied to the face, and fall under the above dispute as to their validity. Hence, even those powders that contain a Hashgacha, are only permitted according to the lenient opinion above, and are forbidden according to the stringent opinion. Accordingly, there is no such thing as Kosher Shabbos makeup that is Mehadrin, and abides by all opinions. The purpose of the Hashgacha is to ensure that the powder does not contain any oil or other sticking substance which would render the powder forbidden even according to the lenient opinion. Practically, before making using Shabbos makeup, even if it has a Hechsher, one is to contact their Rav. Certainly, one should not use a powder that does not contain a Hashgacha, as it may contain oil based ingredients that make it stick to the face, and are forbidden according to all.
Other matters to beware: Those who are lenient to use Shabbos approved makeup, must beware of the following matters: 1) Not to mix the colored powders. 2) One’s face is dry, not oily, and clean from makeup, in order so the powder does not stick. 3) It is best for the powder to be loosened before Shabbos. 4) It is permitted to use the designated brush, or any other designated item [such as a designated Q-tip], in order to apply the makeup. It may also be applied using the fingers.
 Admur 320:27; Michaber 303:25; Mishneh Shabbos 94b; 95a; M”A 303:19; 320:25; M”B 303:79; 320:58; Yireim ibid brought in Shibulei Haleket
Biblical or Rabbinical? The dyeing of human skin is only Rabbinically forbidden as the prohibition of dyeing does not apply to skin. [Implication of Michaber ibid and Admur ibid; M”A 303:19; Olas Shabbos 303:19; M”B 303:79; Chachamim in Mishneh ibid; Rambam 20; See Biur Halacha 303:25 “Mishum Tzoveia”; Kaf Hachaim 303:115] However some Poskim rule it is Biblically forbidden. [Elya Raba 303:40 in name of Rishonim who rule like Rebbe Eliezer in Mishneh ibid; Yireim, brought in Nishmas Adam; Semag; Ran; Ravan; See Biur Halacha ibid and Kaf Hachaim ibid]. From the above one can learn that the fact that a dye may not last a long time is not a reason to not be Biblically forbidden.
Dyeing the face of a friend: Some Poskim rule that, according to all opinions, one who dyes the face of his friend transgresses a Biblical prohibition. [Elya Raba ibid based on Shabbos 95a] Others argue that according to those who hold dyeing of skin is Rabbinical, agree it is Rabbinical even in such a case. [Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf Hachaim 320:115]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 20; Igros Moshe 1:114; 5:27; Maharam Brisk 1:23; Yabia Omer 6:37; Ateres Moshe 95; Beir Moshe 8:25; Shevet Halevi 6:33; Piskeiy Teshuvos 303:14
 The reason: Some Poskim rule that the prohibition against applying makeup does not apply regarding a white color. [Beir Moshe 8:25; Shevet Halevi ibid] In addition, some of the above Poskim rule that even if white does pose a problem of dyeing in such a case it is permitted to do so, as the powder does not stick to the face as does a regular dye and is thus not similar at all to the dyeing prohibition. Thus, although it technically does cause the face to be dyed, since it is not in the same manner as regular dyeing it remains permitted, as we do not find that the Sages decreed against this form of dyeing in any area, and we cannot create new decrees on our own. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 20; Yabia Omer 6:37; Igros Moshe 1:114; 5:27; Shabbos Kehalacha 18:22 [Volume 3 page 178]
 The reason: As the powder does not stick to the face as does a regular dye and is thus not similar at all to the dyeing prohibition. Thus, although it technically does cause the face to be dyed, since it is not in the same manner as regular dyeing it remains permitted, as we do not find that the Sages decreed against this form of dyeing in any area, and we cannot create new decrees on our own. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid] Others however suggest that the reason makeup is allowed is because the dye does not last on the face at all, and only when the dye lasts, is it considered a prohibited form of dyeing. [Igros Moshe ibid] This latter explanation, however, is most difficult to accept, as the Sages explicitly decreed against dyeing even if it does not last at all. [See Admur 320/28; M”A 320/25; Rambam 9/13; Machatzis Hashekel 320/24; M”B 320/59] In addition, what would determine the difference between lasting makeup, and temporary makeup, when in truth all makeup disappears with time.
 Igros Moshe 5:27
 Maharam Brisk 1:23; Ateres Moshe 95; Beir Moshe 8:25; Shevet Halevi 6:33; Rav SZ”A brought in SSHK 14 footnote 158; Beis Yisrael 1:56; Piskeiy Teshuvos 303:14
 The reason: As there is no difference between whether the powder sticks to the face or does not stick to the face, and we find no source to differentiate on this matter. Likewise, it is clearly ruled that even temporary dye that does not last at all is nevertheless Rabbinically forbidden. [Poskim ibid]
 Rav SZ”A brought in SSHK 14 footnote 158; Beis Yisrael 1:56
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 20
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 20
 The reason: Due to the prohibition against making dye. [Magen Avraham 320/25 brought in Mishneh Berurah 320/59; 252/1; Michaber and Admur 252/1 that doing so is only permitted from before Shabbos.]
 The reason: The avoid the question of Tochein/grinding. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 129 footnote 15]
 As predesignated items, for the sake of getting dirty with a pigment, do not contain the dyeing prohibition. [See Kuntrus Achron 302/1]