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Pesukim: 118 [Siman:עזיאל ]
Haftorah: Yermiyahu 34:8-22, 33:25-26
Number of Mitzvos:
There are a total of fifty-three Mitzvos in Parshas Mishpatim. Twenty-three positive commands and Thirty negative commands.
A. Positive commands:
1. Mitzvah 42/Positive 15: To adjudicate the law of a Jewish slave [i.e. Eved Ivri] in accordance to the Torah regulations and laws.
2. Mitzvah 43/Positive 16: For the master to marry his Jewish maidservant [i.e. Ama Ivriya].
3. Mitzvah 44/Positive 17: For the master to help the Jewish maidservant [i.e. Ama Ivriya] redeem herself.
4. Mitzvah 47/Positive 18: To adjudicate capital punishment by strangulation [i.e. Chenek] to those liable.
5. Mitzvah 49/Positive 19: To punish one who injures his friend in accordance to Torah law.
6. Mitzvah 50/Positive 20: To adjudicate capital punishment by decapitation [i.e. Sayif/Cherev] to those liable.
7. Mitzvah 51/Positive 21: To adjudicate cases of damage or injury caused by the ox of an individual in accordance to Torah law.
8. Mitzvah 53/Positive 22: To adjudicate cases of damage or injury caused by a pit of an individual in accordance to Torah law.
9. Mitzvah 54/Positive 23: To adjudicate cases of stealing in accordance to Torah law.
10. Mitzvah 55/Positive 24: To adjudicate in accordance to Torah law cases of damage caused by an ox of an individual who ate one’s produce or destroyed it through walking.
11. Mitzvah 56/Positive 25: To adjudicate cases of damage caused by the fire of an individual in accordance to Torah law.
12. Mitzvah 57/Positive 26: To adjudicate cases of damage or loss caused to an item while stored by a custodian who was not paid for his services [i.e. Shomer Chinam] in accordance to Torah law.
13. Mitzvah 58/Positive 27: To adjudicate cases of civil claims [i.e. Toein Venitaan] in accordance to Torah law.
14. Mitzvah 59/Positive 28: To adjudicate cases of damage or loss caused to an item while stored by a paid custodian [i.e. Shomer Sachar], or by a renter, in accordance to Torah law.
15. Mitzvah 60/Positive 29: To adjudicate cases of damage or loss caused to an item while borrowed [i.e. Shoel], or by a renter, in accordance to Torah law.
16. Mitzvah 61/Positive 30: To adjudicate cases of seduction/statutory rape of a virgin [i.e. Besula] in accordance to Torah law.
17. Mitzvah 66/Positive 31: To lend money to a pauper in need.
18. Mitzvah 78/Positive 32: To follow the majority opinion in cases of disputes regarding all Torah matters.
19. Mitzvah 80/Positive 33: To remove a heavy burden from on top of an animal.
20. Mitzvah 84/Positive 34: To disown all the land produce grown in the year of Shemita.
21. Mitzvah 85/Positive 35: To rest from work on Shabbos.
22. Mitzvah 88/Positive 36: To visit the Temple during the festivals three times a year.
23. Mitzvah 91/Positive 37: To bring the first fruits [i.e. Bikurim] to the Temple.
B. Negative commands:
1. Mitzvah 45/Negative 28: Not to sell the Jewish maidservant [i.e. Ama Ivriya] to others.
2. Mitzvah 46/Negative 29: Not to infringe on the rights of the Jewish maidservant [i.e. Ama Ivriya] towards food, clothing, and conjugal rights.
3. Mitzvah 48/Negative 30: Not to hit one’s father or mother.
4. Mitzvah 52/Negative 31: Not to eat the meat of an ox which was found liable for capital punishment.
5. Mitzvah 62/Negative 32: Not to allow a witch to live, and to judge her with death.
6. Mitzvah 63/Negative 33: Not to verbally oppress a convert of the gentile nations.
7. Mitzvah 64/Negative 34: Not to monetarily cheat a convert of the gentile nations.
8. Mitzvah 65/Negative 35: Not to oppress orphans or widows neither in speech or action.
9. Mitzvah 67/Negative 36: Not to demand payment of a loan if one knows he cannot pay it.
10. Mitzvah 68/Negative 37: Not to collect or give interest on/to a loan.
11. Mitzvah 69/Negative 38: Not to curse judges.
12. Mitzvah 70/Negative 39: Not to curse G-d.
13. Mitzvah 71/Negative 40: Not to curse the Nassi, which is the king and head of the Sanhedrin.
14. Mitzvah 72/Negative 41: Not to tithe the produce in the wrong order.
15. Mitzvah 73/Negative 42: Not to eat meat of a Treif animal.
16. Mitzvah 74/Negative 43: Not to listen to the claims of one side not in the presence of the other.
17. Mitzvah 75/Negative 44: Not to accept testimony of a sinner.
18. Mitzvah 76/Negative 45: Not to follow a simple majority in cases of capital punishment.
19. Mitzvah 77/Negative 46: For a judge not to base his ruling on the opinion of other judges unless he comprehends it.
20. Mitzvah 79/Negative 47: For a judge not to show compassion in judgment on the weak and poor.
21. Mitzvah 81/Negative 48: Not to tilt the judgment of a case against the side of a sinner.
22. Mitzvah 82/Negative 49: Not to give capital punishment for a sin unless valid witnesses testify.
23. Mitzvah 83/Negative 50: For a judge not to take a bribe even if he plans to judge truthfully.
24. Mitzvah 86/Negative 51: Not to swear, or cause others to swear, in the names of idolatry.
25. Mitzvah 87/Negative 52: Not to influence others to serve idolatry.
26. Mitzvah 89/Negative 53: Not to slaughter the Pesach offering on the 14th of Nissan while still owning Chametz in one’s possessions.
27. Mitzvah 90/Negative 54: Not to leave the parts of the Pesach offering, and other offerings, that need to be offered to the altar, until morning. [i.e. Nosar]
28. Mitzvah 92/Negative 55: Not to cook meat and milk together.
29. Mitzvah 93/Negative 56: Not to make a covenant with the seven Canaanite nations.
30. Mitzvah 94/Negative 57: Not to allow idolaters to live in our land.
- The laws of an Eved Ivri:
- His terms of service and release: These are the laws that you shall place before them: When you purchase a Jewish slave [Eved Ivri], he shall work for six years and in the seventh year he is to be freed. If he came alone he is to leave alone, while if he came with a wife he is to leave with a wife. If the slave is given a wife by his master, then she and the children are to remain with the master, while he is to go free.
- If the slave does not want to leave: If the slave states that he enjoys working for his master and does not want to go free, then the master is to take him to the judges and bring him to the doorpost and make a hole through his ear using a peg, and he shall work for him forever.
- The laws of an Ama Ivria:
- If one sells his daughter as a Jewish maidservant [Ama Ivriya] her conditions of release are not like that of other slaves. She cannot be sold. He is encouraged to marry her, or to have his son marry her, and give her the regular marital rights maintained by a wife. He must provide her with food, clothing, and conjugal rights. If the above is not performed, she shall go free.
- Cases involving injury and homicide:
- Murder: One who hits a man and murders him is to be put to death. If it was unintentional, he is to flee to an area of refuge.
- Hitting one’s parents: One who hits his parents is to be put to death.
- Kidnapping: One who kidnaps a person and sells him is to be put to death.
- Cursing one’s parents: One who curses his parents is to be put to death.
- Injury: One who injures a person is to pay restitution for damages caused.
- Killing a slave: One who kills his slave will be avenged.
- Killing a fetus: One who kills a fetus, shall be penalized.
- If there will be a fatality, Then he shall give a life in place of a life. An eye for an eye, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot, a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound.
- Injuring a slave: One who injures the eyes or teeth of a slave is required to set the slave free.
- One’s animal killed: If one’s ox kills a man or woman, the ox is to be stoned and not have its meat eaten, while the owner is to be set free. If, however, the owner knew of the ox’s murderous nature and was warned, then also the owner is to die. If the ox killed a slave, he is to pay 30 Shekalim to the master of the slave, and the ox is to be stoned.
- Cases involving monetary damage:
- Pit damages: If one digs a pit, and leaves it uncovered, he must pay for damages if an animal falls in and dies.
- Animal damages: If one’s ox gores and injures another ox, he is to pay half the damages. If, however, this ox had a history of goring which was known to the owner, the owner must pay for the full damages.
- Stealing animals: If a man steals an ox or sheep and slaughters or sells it, he is to pay restitution of five times the amount of the ox and four times the amount of the sheep.
- Robbing a home: If one catches a burglar in the act of stealing in one’s home, one may kill him.
- A robber who does not have ability to pay restitution, is to be sold as a slave.
- One who steals must pay double the amount of the item he stole.
- Property damage caused by animala: If one’s animal ate the food in another person’s yard, the owner must pay.
- Fire damage: If one’s fire spreads and causes property damage to another, the person who lit the fire must pay.
- Caretaker who lost an object: If a caretaker of an item claims the item was lost or stolen from him, he is to take an oath that he did not take the item. [This applies by a Shomer Chinam-one who was guarding for free, however if he was a Shomer Sechar-guarding for payment, then even] if the item was stolen he must pay for it, although if something happened beyond his control, he is exempt.
- Borrower lost object: If a borrowed item became damaged, the borrower must pay, unless the owner was with him.
- Miscellaneous laws:
- Statutory rape: If one seduces an unmmaried virgin, he is to marry her as a wife, and if her father refuses he must pay her father.
- Witches: Do not allow a witch to live.
- Bestiality: One who lies with an animal is to be put to death.
- Idolatry: One who slaughters to other G-ds shall be destroyed.
- Verbal abuse against converts, widows and orphans: Do not oppress a convert, widow or orphan as if you do Hashem will hear their cry and take His wrath out on you, turning your wives to widows and sons to orphans.
- Loans: If you lend money to a Jew you may not collect interest on the loan. You may also not press them to pay. If you collect clothing as collateral of a debt, you shall return it by sundown.
- You may not curse a judge or curse a leader amongst your people.
- You shall not delay the tithe produce or the Terumah.
- You are to give Hashem your firstborn. The newborn animal is to be given to Hashem on the 8th
- Treifa meat: You may not eat meat of a Treifa animal. Rather, throw it to the dogs.
- Laws involving the judicial system:
- Don’t listen to meritless reports.
- Don’t join a false witness in testimony.
- Don’t follow the majority to do evil.
- Do not show compassion in judgment to the weak and poor.
- Miscellaneous laws:
- Hashavas Aveida: Return a lost animal to its owner even if it belongs to your enemy.
- Chamor Sonacha: Help your enemy’s animal unload if it has a heavy burden.
- Do not tilt the judgment of a case against a destitute person.
- Lying: Distance yourself from lying.
- Do not kill the innocent.
- Bribery: Do not take a bribe.
- Do not oppress a convert.
- Shemita: Plant your field for six years and in the seventh year, leave your field for the destitute and animals to eat from.
- Shabbos: One shall work for six days and rest on Shabbos, you and your household.
- Do not mention other deities on your lips.
- Aliya Leregel: Celebrate with me three times a year. Guard the festival of Matzos for seven days, eat Matzos, and do not come to see me empty handed. By the festival of harvest and of the gathering [you are also to visit me]. Three times a year, all your males are to come see the face of G-d.
- Do not slaughter my sacrifice over Chametz and do not let the fat of my festive offering remain overnight.
- Bikurim: The first fruits of your lands you shall bring to me.
- Basar Bechalav: Do not cook a young animal in its mother’s milk.
- Hashem warns Bnei Yisrael to heed the commands of his angel:
- I will send my angel before you, to guide you and guard you on the way to the promised land. Beware not to transgress his words for he will not forgive you. If you obey him, then I will destroy all your enemies. My angel will be sent before you and destroy all the seven nations of Canaan.
- Do not bow to their gods and do not serve them. Destroy their gods and their statues.
- Blessings to be received:
- Serve Hashem your G-d and He will bless your bread and water and remove illnesses from amongst you.
- No women will have a miscarriage or be infertile in your land. I will fill the number of your days.
- I will send fear before you, and send the wasp, to drive out all your enemies in the land of Canaan. I will not destroy them all in one year, lest the land become desolate and filled with wild animals, rather I will expel them little by little.
- I will give you borders from the reed sea until the Mediterranean.
- Do not make a peace treaty with those nations, lest they remain in your land and bring you to sin, to serve their gods.
- Details of Matan Torah:
- Hashem told Moshe that he, Aaron, Nadav and Avihu, and the seventy elders of Israel are to prostrate themselves from a distance. Moshe alone is to ascend to G-d, and not anyone else.
- Naaseh Venishma: Moshe told all the words of G-d to the nation and they said “We shall do.”
- Building an altar, bringing sacrifices and sprinkling blood: Moshe awoke in the morning and built an altar under the mountain and twelve monuments, corresponding to the 12 tribes. The youth were sent to offer sacrifices on the altar for G-d. Moshe took half the blood and placed it in a bowl, and the other half he threw onto the altar. Moshe then took the Torah and read it to the congregation, and they replied “Everything that Hashem has asked we will do and listen.” Moshe then took the blood and sprinkled it on the nation, as part of the covenant.
- Ascending the mountain and looking at Hashem: Moshe, Aaron and the seventy leaders ascended the mountain and they saw Hashem, and that under His feet was a sapphire brick, like the purity of the sky. Hashem did not take vengeance against these nobles [even though] they gazed at G-d and ate and drank.
- Moshe ascends to receive the Luchos: Hashem told Moshe to ascend the mountain and receive the stone Luchos with the commandments written on them. Moshe rose together with Yehoshua, and Moshe ascended the mountain of G-d. He instructed the leaders to remain put until they return, and that in the interim Aaron and Chur would act as the leaders to deal with any issues that occur. Moshe ascended the mountain and it was covered by a cloud. Moshe remained in the cloud for six days and on the seventh day Hashem called him from within the cloud. Hashem appeared like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain, before the Jewish people. Moshe remained there for 40 days and 40 nights.
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