May one recite the morning blessings upon awakening, prior to daybreak/Alos?
- Example: One wakes up at 4:00 A.M. to go to work. Alos only begins at 4:50. May he say the morning blessings prior to this time?
One who slept [at least sixty breaths] at night and became obligated in the morning blessings may recite all the morning blessings as soon as he becomes obligated in them, even before daybreak. Nevertheless the blessings may only be recited after midnight. [If however he did not become obligated in the morning blessing, such as he did not hear the rooster crow, or did not change clothing or wear leather shoes or put on a belt or hat, then he may not say these blessings until Alos, even if he slept at night. Thus those that wake up before Alos and say the morning blessings must beware to receive all the pleasures to which the blessings correspond to as explained in Halacha 6B. However there are opinions that rule one may recite all the morning blessings prior to Alos even if he did not receive their corresponding benefit. According to all the blessings of Shelo Asani Goy/Aved/Isha may be said immediately upon awakening, prior to Alos.]
If one plans to return to sleep: The above law applies even if one plans on returning to sleep a set sleep prior to Alos, nevertheless he may say all the morning blessings that he became obligated in prior to Alos, past midnight. [Nevertheless regarding the blessing of Elokaiy Neshama see above, Halacha 4, that in such a case one is to say it without Hashem’s name after the first time he awakens.] These blessings are not repeated a second time when he awakens in the morning. However, one should wash his hands again without a blessing after awakening the second time, as explained in Chapter 4 Halacha 19B.
If one awoke before daybreak [after having slept at least 30 minutes] he may recite all the morning blessings for which he has already received their corresponding pleasure, prior to Alos, after midnight. Those blessings of which he did not yet receive their corresponding pleasure, such as hearing a rooster crow, may only be said after Alos.
If one awoke prior to midnight may he say the blessings after midnight?
If one heard a rooster crow prior to midnight he may not say the blessing after midnight, prior to Alos, on the basis of this crow. It is unclear if this law would apply to the other morning blessings.
If one recited the blessings prior to midnight must he repeat the blessings?
If one recited the blessing of Hanosen Lasechvi prior to midnight some Poskim rule he must repeat the blessing after midnight. This applies even if he heard the crow of the rooster before midnight. It is unclear if this law would apply to the other morning blessings.
If one woke up early may one eat prior to Alos,:
It is forbidden to begin a meal starting from 30 minutes prior to Alos [however, snacking is allowed]. [Nevertheless, some Poskim rule it is a grave prohibition according to Kabala to eat, prior to dawn, after awakening, throughout the entire year. This prohibition applies starting from midnight and onwards, after awakening from a standard sleep of 60 breaths. Practically, the custom of Sefaradi Jewry is to be stringent. However, Ashkenazi Jewry is lenient and so is the Chabad custom. If one did not sleep that night for at least 60 breaths, then according to all, he may eat up until dawn. Likewise, some Poskim rule that if one plans to return to sleep for a second time before Alos, then this prohibition does not apply. Likewise, if one is weak or sick he may eat prior to Alos even according to the Zohar.]
 Siddur; Sefer Haminhagim p. 5 [English] [To note that the English edition omitted the words “obligated in them” from the translation. These words are in the Siddur and in the original wording of the Hebrew Edition.]; Luach Kolel Chabad; Shevach Hamoadim 2:2 regarding waking up early to say Selichos.
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 47:9 Admur rules that one who awakens before Alos may recite all the morning blessings upon awakening with exception to Hanosein Lasechvi Bina which may only be said after Alos, unless he heard the rooster crow in which case he may say the blessing immediately after midnight. See 6:8 regarding Elokaiy Neshama; 4:14 regarding Al Netilas Yadayim. Regarding if this ruling in Shulchan Aruch refers even to one who slept only a temporary sleep: Admur here does not mention any differentiation. However in 47:7 regarding Birchas Hatorah it is implied one needs to sleep a standard sleep. Vetzaruch Iyun.
Differences between Shulchan Aruch and Siddur: According to the Shulchan Aruch there is no need to a) receive the corresponding pleasures of the morning blessings in order to recite the blessings before Alos, other than hearing the rooster crow. B) One may recite the blessings even before midnight.
 Approximately thirty minutes. [Ketzos Hashulchan 1 footnote 2] The sleeping of 60 breaths is needed in order to become obligated in Al NetilasYadayim; Elokaiy Neshama; and the three Shelo Asani blessings. However regarding all the other blessings, according to the Siddur, irrelevant of whether one slept he must receive the pleasure of the blessing in order to recite it before Alos, and hence sleeping gives no practical ramification. However according to the Shulchan Aruch if one slept he would be allowed to recite all the morning blessings even if he did not receive its corresponding pleasure. Nevertheless it remains unclear if this would apply even if one slept a temporary sleep of 60 breaths, as explained in the previous footnote.
 This means to say that one received the pleasure that the blessings corresponds to as explained in Halacha 6B. If however one did not receive that corresponding pleasure then that blessings may not be said prior to Alos even if he slept at night. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid, and so is implied to be the simple interpretation of Admur in Siddur]
 It is implied from Admur in Siddur [“Yachol Levareich Meyad”] that this is not an obligation and one may hence choose to say the blessing in the morning if he so chooses.
 This includes the blessing of Hanosein Lasechvi Bina. [47:9 and so is implied from Siddur; Shaareiy Teshuvah 47:13; M”B 47:31; Kaf Hachaim 46:49]
Other Opinions: According to the Michaber 47:13 one may never say the blessing of Hanosein Lasechvi Bina prior to Alos even if he heard the rooster crow. So is also implied from M”A 47:13 that one is initially to be stringent not to say the blessing. See Biur Halacha 47 “Mivareich”.
 Siddur; The Siddur mentions this regarding the blessings of Hanosen through Birchas Hatorah and regarding Al Netilas Yadayim. The Ketzos Hashulchan adds that this applies likewise to the blessing of Elokaiy Neshama [5:5] and regarding the blessing of Asher Yatzar. [5:2]
The ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 47:9 there is no mention made of needing to wait until midnight to say the morning blessings with exception to the blessing of Hanosein Lasechvi Bina.
Other Poskim: The above ruling in Siddur that requires all the morning blessings to be said only past midnight is not recorded in previous Poskim. [Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 16] The Ashel Avraham Butchach [Mahadurah Tinyana] 4 is puzzled by this ruling of Admur. However see Kaf Hachaim 46:49 in name of Mekubalim that one is to recite all the morning blessings from after midnight and perhaps it is based on this that Admur writes his ruling. Nevertheless to note that there it applies: a) even if one did not sleep at night and b) even if one did not receive their corresponding pleasure. Regarding washing hands before midnight see Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 12 that rules one may wash and say the blessing before midnight and so concludes Kaf Hachaim 4:52. The Peri Chadash 46 and 47:13 mentions midnight regarding the blessings of Hamaavir Sheiyna and Birchas Hatorah.
 47:9; Brought in Siddur regarding one who did not sleep at night. The Ketzos Hashulchan 5 footnote 14 applies this law likewise to one who slept at night. See also Piskei Hassidur 46 that he brings this down.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6 based on the simple understanding of Admur in the Siddur and based on the ruling of Admur regarding the blessing of Hanosen Lasechvi Bina. This is unlike the ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch 47:9 which does not require one to receive all the corresponding pleasures of the morning blessings, with exception to the roosters crow. Vetzaruch Iyun the reason why the hearing of the rooster was excluded more than any of the other blessings. See glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 16.
Airplane or boat: Based on the above if one is on a boat or airplane he may not say the blessing of Roka Haaretz before dawn, as he has not walked on the ground, and thus has not received its corresponding pleasure. [Ketzos Hashulchan notes page 82]
 See Koveitz Ohalei Torah 777-780 for a discussion on this matter. Rav Shalom Ber Levin writes a different interpretation in the Siddur [which in my opinion is impossible to enter into the wording] and concludes that practically Chassidim were not particular to recite the morning blessings after Alos. He explains in the Siddur that if one slept at night he may even say the blessing of Hanosein Lasechviy prior to Alos, even if one did not hear the rooster crow. Harav Asher Lemel Hakohen, Chabad Rav of Beitar, agrees to his opinion. Harav Yosef Simcha Ginzberg [through a personal correspondence] defended the opinion of the Ketzos Hashulchan in Admur, stating that there is no other way to interpret it.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5 footnote 15 being that according to the opinion of the Mekuballim, which hold that these blessings thank G-d for not attaching souls of gentiles to us upon returning our soul to our body, then the blessings may be said as soon as one awakens. Furthermore, even according to those which say that it is said as thanks for being given the merit and obligation to fulfill all the Mitzvos, it seemingly is to be said at the time that one says the blessing over Torah study, which is immediately upon awakening from a set sleep at night. [Seemingly however the practical ramification between the two opinions would be regarding one who slept a temporary sleep of 60 breaths, in which case according to the Mekubalim he could recite the blessing while according to the Poskim he cannot being that he is not yet obligated in Birchas Hatorah. Vetzaruch Iyun]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6
 It is implied from Admur in Siddur [“Yachol Levareich Meyad”] that this is not an obligation and one may hence choose to say the blessing after the second time he awakens in the morning if he so chooses.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6 based on Siddur which states that the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim is only said one time upon awakening “just like all the morning blessings”; See Chapter 4 Halacha 18.
 Siddur regarding one who did not sleep at night, brought in previous Halacha.
 M”B 47:31
 Admur 89:5; Rama 581:2
 M”A 89:14 in name of Tov Haaretz, Rav Chaim Vital and Zohar 2:215; Beir Heiytiv 581:12 in name of Zohar and Kisvei Arizal; Chida in Machazik Bracha 581:5; Birkeiy Yosef 89:1 [Shiyurei Bracha] in name of Mekubbalim; Yosef Ometz 17:2; Mishnes Chassidim Chatzos 7; Oar Hachama Zohar ibid; Nitzutzei Oros Zohar ibid; Kaf Hachaim 581:69; 89:28-31]
The reason: As one who eats food past midnight after awakening adds vitality to the Kelipos. [Rebbe ibid] It is however not prohibited due to the prohibition of eating prior to prayer, as this prohibition only begins from Alos. [89:5; Rebbe ibid]
Other Poskim: Some rule that even according to Kabala there is no need to refrain from eating prior to Alos. [Heishiv Moshe 6 based on Siddur Arizal of Rav Shabsi of Rashkov that Rav chaim Vital ate before Alos; Mahril and Rama ibid]
Opinion of Shulchan Aruch Harav: In Igeres Hateshuvah chapter 3 Admur writes that one may eat prior to three hours before sunrise on a fastday. The Rebbe in Igros Hakodesh 3:75 writes that this ruling only was said regarding when the prohibition of eating prior to a fast begins and is not discussing the prohibition of the Zohar, which in certain cases is allowed. Nevertheless a proof can be brought from Admur 89:5, which omits this law of the M”A ibid brought from the Zohar, that Admur rules it is permitted.
 So is evident from M”A ibid; Beir Heiytiv ibid; and other Poskim; Igros Hakodesh 3:75
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Shvus Yaakov 3:41 defends the ruling of Rama; Some Poskim write that the current Ashkenazi custom is to only be lenient to allow to drink coffee or tea prior to Alos, although regarding eating food they are careful. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 581:12; M”B 581:21]
 See Igros Hakodesh 3:75 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 1:44] that so is the ruling of Admur. It is our custom to allow one to eat after Alos before Davening in order to have strength to Daven. Certainly then, one may be lenient to eat before Alos in order to have strength to Daven.
 P”M 89 A”A 14; Igros Hakodesh 3:75
 Ashel Avraham Butchach [Tinyana] 89; See there that he connects the prohibition of the Zohar to the prohibition of eating before Davening.
 Nitzutzei Oros Zohar ibid; A”A 89 in name of Shev Yaakov [brought in Igros Hakodesh ibid]
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