Standing for an old person:
The age defined as elderly: An elderly person is defined, in this regard, as a person who has reached 70 years of age. [According to the Arizal and Kabala, one is to stand for a person who has reached 60 years of age.]
Standing for an elderly ignoramus/Rasha: The above obligation to stand before the elderly applies even if the old man is an ignoramus, so long as he is not a Rasha. [One who does not wear Tefillin, or Daven, is considered a Rasha, and one is not obligated to stand in his honor. It is unclear if this applies even in a case that the person is a Tinok Shenishba.]
Standing for a gentile elder: [One is not required to stand in honor of an elderly gentile, however] one is to honor and respect him with words and give him a hand of support.
A Sage standing for an elder: Even a young Sage must stand for an elderly man who is very old. [If, however, he is a greater Sage than the elderly man] he is not required to fully stand, and it suffices to slightly [get up to] show him honor.
An elderly man standing for another elder: An elderly man is not required to stand for another elderly man, and it rather suffices to simply show some form of respect.
Must one stand for an elderly woman?
In what circumstances must one stand for the elderly?
Within four Amos: One is obligated to stand for a scholar/elder upon them reaching within one’s four Amos [196 cm]. One is not [i.e. forbidden] to stand in his honor, prior to him reaching within one’s four Amos. The same applies for one’s teacher, if he is not his main teacher from which he learned majority of his wisdom, then he must stand upon him reaching within one’s four Amos.
Riding: If the scholar/elder is riding on a horse, or wagon [or car], and reaches within one’s four Amos, it is considered as if he is walking in one’s four Amos, and one must stand on his behalf.
In the Beis Midrash/Shul/room: When the Nassi enters the Beis Midrash, everyone is to stand for him, and they do not sit down until he tells them to sit down. When the Ravad [i.e., head of Beis Din] enters the Beis Midrash, they make for him two rows through which he walks in-between, and they remain standing until he sits in his place. When a regular Sage enters the Beis Midrash, whoever is within his four Amos upon him walking by, is to stand for him, thus having some people sitting and some people standing, until the Sage reaches his place to sit. [Some Poskim however rule that in today’s times, whenever a Sage or elder enters into a room that is surrounded by walls, everyone in the room must stand for him, even if he is not within one’s four Amos.]
Closing one’s eyes: It is forbidden for one to close his eyes prior to the scholar/elder entering one’s four Amos, simply in order to refrain from needing to stand for him upon him reaching his four Amos.
Bathroom/bathhouse: One is not required to stand for the scholar/elder in a bathroom or bathhouse. This however only applied in the inner room of the bathhouse, however in the outer room [including the middle room in which people change] one is required to stand.
During work: Workers are not obligated to [stop and] stand for a scholar [or elder] while they are working. [If, however, one is self-employed, he may choose to stop his work and stand, if he wishes to be stringent.] If, however, one is working for another [i.e., an employee], it is forbidden for the worker to be stringent upon himself and stand during his work. [This applies even in the presence of one’s main Rebbe.]
If one hears the voice of the Sage/elderly, but does not see him, must he stand in his honor?
Some Poskim rule that if one hears the sound of the Sage, or elderly, coming within his vicinity he must stand in his honor.
If one is sitting on the Bima and a Sage/teacher/elder walk by, must one stand up if he passes within his four Amos, below the Bima?
If one is sitting in a room, and a Sage/teacher/elder walks by in a different room, must one stand up if he passes within his four Amos?
One must stand for a Sage/teacher/elder even if he is in the middle of Davening?
For how long must one remain standing?
One must remain standing until the scholar/elder passes from in front of his face. As soon as the scholar [or elder] passes in front of him, he is [i.e. must] to sit down. [Thus, he is to sit down prior to the Sage passing a four Amos distance from him.] Some Poskim however, rule he is to remain standing until the Sage passes a distance of four Amos from him.
If the elder/Sage remains standing within one’s four Amos, for how long must one remain standing?
This matter requires further analysis. Seemingly, one should remain standing until the amount of time it takes him to pass from before oneself.
How to stand:
One must fully stand up in front of the scholar/elder with exception to those cases mentioned above in which only slight standing is required.
How often is one required to stand for a Torah Sage or elderly person?
Some Poskim rule that one is only obligated to stand for his Rebbe twice a day, one time in the morning and a second time in the evening. This, however, only applies in the house of the Rav [i.e. in private], however, in public, when one is in front of others who do not know that he already stood, he is obligated to stand [each time]. [Even in the privacy of the Rebbe’s home, it is permitted for one to stand for his Rebbe more than two times a day if he so wishes, and it is only that he is not obligated to do so. Other Poskim, however, rule one is obligated to stand for his Rebbe even 100 times. Some Poskim rule that this stringency only applies to a Torah scholar and not to an elder. It is questionable if this dispute applies likewise towards standing for one’s parent.]
A scholar/elder who forgives his honor:
All [people for whom one is required to stand, such as a Sage; Avad; Gadol Hador; Nassi; elder] if they forgive their honor, then their honor is forgiven [and it is no longer obligatory to stand for them]. Nevertheless, it remains a Mitzvah to honor them and slightly stand up for them. [Some Poskim rule that only a Rav may forgive his respect, however, one who is not a Rav but learns Halacha or Talmud cannot forgive his respect.]
For whom must one stand? One is required to stand in the presence of one’s teacher of Torah, Torah scholar, and elderly person. One is also to stand for the wife of a Torah Sage, a Baal Mitzvos, and one who is performing a Mitzvah. However, the custom of many today is to only stand on behalf of the Rosh Yeshiva or Ravad, although the validity of this custom requires further clarification. If any of the above people forgive their honor, it is no longer obligatory to stand for them, although it still remains a Mitzvah to honor them and slightly stand up for them. One may not delegate honor to a student in the presence of his Rebbe, unless the Rebbe also delegates respect to that student.
Who is defined as a Sage/teacher/elder? A Sage is defined as any G-d fearing person whose Torah knowledge far exceeds that of the common folk. An elder is defined as any Jew who is above 70 years of age, and according to Kabala, above 60 years of age, and is not Rasha. A teacher is defined as anyone who has taught one Torah, even if he did not learn from him majority of his Torah.
When must one stand? One is required to stand upon the above people entering one’s four Amos, whether on foot or in a vehicle, and must remain standing until the person passes from in front of him, in which case he is then to be seated. This is with exception to a main teacher/Gadol Hador/Ravad/Nassi, in which case one must stand upon them entering within his sight, and by a Ravad, must remain standing until he passes a distance of four Amos from him, while by a main teacher/Gadol Hador/Nassi he must remain standing until his Rebbe/Gadol/Nassi sits down, or until he passes from within his sight. Some Poskim however rule that in today’s times we no longer have a concept of a Rosh Av Beis Din. Likewise, one whose majority of knowledge was personally acquired through the study of Sefarim is not considered to have a main teacher. Some Poskim rule that in today’s times, whenever a Torah scholar or elder enters into a room that is surrounded by walls, everyone in the room must stand for him. It is forbidden for one to close his eyes prior to the scholar/elder entering his four Amos, simply in order to refrain from needing to stand for him upon him reaching his four Amos. One is not required to stand for the scholar/elder in a bathroom, or the inner room of a bathhouse. Workers are not obligated to [stop and] stand for a scholar [or elder] while they are working. Even while one is learning Torah he is obligated to stand for [a sage/elder].
How to stand: One must fully stand up in front of the scholar/elder with exception to those cases mentioned above in which only slight standing is required.
How often to stand: In public, one must stand in face of his Rebbe/scholar/elder even 100 times that day. However, in private, it is disputed as to whether one needs to stand more than twice a day, one time in the morning and one time in the evening.
 Implication of Rav Issi Bar Yehuda in Kiddushin 32a who includes a Zakein Ashmaiy in the verse and Rashi ibid states “The word Seiva in the verse implies every old man”; Implication of Minyan Hamitzvos of Rasag; Implication of Beis Yosef 244 who brings Rashi ibid; Implication of Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 257; See Chinuch Mitzvah 257 who only adds “standing for elders” later on in the Mitzvah and Minchas Chinuch ibid questions if the Chinuch learns it is part of the Biblical Mitzvah or not, nonetheless, he concludes that we rule like Rav Isi Bar Yehuda; See however Rambam Mitzvah 209 who makes no mention at all that it is included in the Biblical command, and likewise in Hilchos Talmud Torah 6:9 he does not write it as a command at all, and simply states that “One is to stand for him.” This strongly implies that he does not learn this to be a Biblical command. Likewise, the Michaber ibid and Tur ibid writes standing for elders only in the end of the Halacha, and states “Likewise it is a Mitzvah.” It is unclear if the intent of the Michaber/Tur is to state that it is likewise a positive command, or if his intent is to say that it is a Mitzvah, but not a positive command. See Sefer Hamitzvos Rasag of Rav Perlow Mitzvah 11-12. Vetzaruch Iyun.
 Michaber ibid; Tur 244; Rambam Talmud Torah 6:9; Chinuch Mitzvah 257; Semag 13; Rebbe Isi Ben Yehuda in Kiddushin 32b; Rebbe Yochanon in Kiddushin 33a that the Halacha is like Isi
The reason: As the verse in Parshas Kedoshim [Vayikra 19:32] states “Mipnei Seiva Takum”, which means that one is to get up for his elders.
Other opinions: Some rule there is no obligation to stand for an elder who is not a Torah scholar. [Tana Kama and Rebbe Yossi Hagelili in Kiddushin ibid; Pesikta on Parshas Kedoshim omits opinion of Issi ben Yehuda; Implication of Sheilasos on Kedoshim ibid; Implication of Rashi Kedoshim ibid; Implication of Or Zarua, Yireim, Ravaan p. 137 who omit the words “Elder”; See Sefer Hamitzvos Rasag of Rav Perlow ibid]
 Michaber ibid
 Brought in Birkeiy Yosef 244; Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:12; Minchas Chinuch 257
 Rama ibid; Beis Yosef in name of Tosafos Kiddushin 32; Hagahos Maimanis 6; Mordechai; Rabbeinu Yerucham; Ran; Rabbeinu Tam
 Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:12
 Michaber 244:7; Kiddushin 33a
 Michaber 244:7
 Shach 244:5
 Michaber 244:8
 Sefer Chassidim 578; Beis Yehuda Y.D. 1:28; Minchas Chinuch 257:3 based on final ruling like Rebbe Issi Bar Yehuda; Kiryat Chana David 1:15; Yechaveh Daas 3:72; Implication of Chinuch ibid, and all other Rishonim who record “This Mitzvah applies to both men and women”
 Halachos Ketanos 1:154; Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:16; Rav Poalim 2 Kuntrus Sod Yesharim 9 based on Arizal in Shaar Hamitzvos Kedoshim; Shevet Halevi 1:114; See Avnei Yashpei 1:188
 Michaber 244:2 and 9 and 13-14
 Michaber 244:2; Kiddushin 33a
The reason: One is required to stand in a way that is recognizable to the elder that it is being done out of honor and respect, and it is only recognizable once the person reaches his four Amos. [Taz 244:3; Kiddushin ibid]
 Shach 244:6 and Birkeiy Yosef 244 based on implication of Michaber, as the Michaber 244:2 already taught us that one is not obligated to stand until the Sage reaches the four Amos, so what need is there to repeat this ruling if not for the fact the Michaber is now teaching us that it is even forbidden to stand prior to this point; Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:13
 Michaber 244:9
The reason: It is forbidden to stand prior to the Sage reaching within one’s four Amos being that it is not recognizable that it is being done in his honor, being that there is no obligation to stand for him yet. [Shach ibid; Birkeiy Yosef ibid]
 Michaber 242:30
Other Poskim: Some rule that one must stand Kimalei Einav for any teacher from which one learned Torah from, even if he did not learn majority of his Torah from him. [Maharik 12]
 Michaber 244:2; 242:16; Kiddushin 33b; Rashi ibid
 Michaber 244:15; Horiyos 12b
 Kneses Hagedola 244 and Birkeiy Yosef 244:5 leaves this matter in question; Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:13 and in his Sefer Mekabtziel concludes that one must be stringent by a Biblical command.
 The reason: As perhaps in a closed area, the entire area is considered to be within one’s four Amos. Now, although the above law states that only for a Nassi must all the people in the Beis Midrash stand up, perhaps this only applied in previous times, and only in a Beis Midrash was the above order of standing given out, being that only students sat in the Beis Midrash and each day the Nassi/Avaad/Rebbe would enter, and they thus wanted to delegate different levels of respect. However, today, this is no longer applicable. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid]
 Michaber 244:3; Kiddushin 32b
 Michaber 244:4; Kiddushin 32b
 The reason: As the verse states “Stand and honor” from which we learn that only when the standing respects and honors the person, must one stand. [Michaber ibid]
Rabbo Hamuvhak/One’s Rebbe: Some Poskim rule that the above allowance [not to stand] applies even towards one’s main Rebbe, Rabbo Hamuvhak. [Lechem Mishneh Talmud Torah 6, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 244:3] Others however rule that it does not apply by one’s main Rebbe, and one is required to stand even in a bathhouse, in respect of his main Rebbe [Turei Even on Rambam ibid, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid]
 Shach 244:3; see Admur 84:1
 Rama ibid in name of many Rishonim
 Michaber 244:5
 The reason: As the Torah did not obligate one to honor the elderly if doing so will cause one a loss of money. [Kneses Hagedola 244 in name of Mahariy Beiy Rav 52; Birkeiy Yosef 244 in name of Toras Kohanim; Bavli; Yerushalmi]
 Kneses Hagedola 244 in name of Reb Avraham Halevi; Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:17
 Michaber 244:11; Abayey in Kiddushin 33b; See Chaim Sheol 71:2
 Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:15
 Gilyon Maharsha 240:7 regarding a father, and 244:1 regarding a Sage or elderly, based on Rama 282:2 that in such a case one must stand for the Sefer Torah even if he does not see it
 Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:13
 Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:13
 Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Seitzei 2:15 in name of Birkeiy Yosef
 Michaber 244:9 and 14-15
 Michaber 244:2 and 9; Kiddushin 33b
 See Shach 244:6 regarding him learning in the Michaber that it is prohibited to stand prior to entering the four Amos, as otherwise the ruling of the Michaber would be repetitive. The same then should apply here regarding this law, as the Michaber already stated this law in 244:2. As for the reason that it is an obligation for one to sit, it is to show that the only reason he stood is in honor of the Sage/elder. [ibid]
 Michaber 244:9
 See Shach 244:7 and Michaber 244:13
 Shach 244:7 in name of Bach; Rashi; Rosh
 Taz 244:4
 Rama 242:16; See Kiddushin 33b
 Tur in name of Rambam
 The reason: As the honor of his teacher should not be any greater than the honor of Hashem in Kerias Shema. [Taz 242:12]
 Shach 242:36 based on wording of Rama ibid; Bach 242 and Semag 13 who write “not obligated”; however, the Rambam, Tur and other Poskim write “not permitted.” The Rama ibid hence interprets this to mean “not obligated.” [Shach ibid]
 Shach 242:37 in name of Rosh Tur; Levush; Sefer Chassidim 23
 Shevet Halevi 5:130; However, see Sefer Chassidim 23 who writes one must stand for a Zakein even 100 times
 Aruch Hashulchan 240:24 leaves this matter in question; Chayeh Adam 66:7 rules one does not need to stand for a parent more than twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening.
 Michaber 244:14; Kiddushin 32a
 Chida in Shiyurei Bracha 243
 The reason: As the Torah is not considered his that he can forgive his respect, while by a Rav the Torah is considered already his. [ibid]