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Verses: 159 [Siman: חלקיהו]
Haftorah: Hosea 2:1-22
| Number of Mitzvot:
There are no Mitzvot in Parashat Bamidbar.
| The Main Themes:
- G-d commands Moses to take a census of the Jewish people:
- When: G-d spoke to Moses in the Sinai desert in the Tent of Meeting on the first day of the second month [i.e. 1st of Iyar] in the second year of leaving Egypt.
- Who is counted: He commanded him to count the Jewish people according to their families, counting every male who is twenty years of age and above.
- Choosing tribal leaders: One leader and representative of each tribe shall count with you. The following are the names of these leaders:
- Reuben: Elitzur Ben Shedeur
- Simeon: Shelumiel Ben Tzurishadai
- Judah: Nachshon Ben Amminadav
- Issachar: Nisanel Ben Tzuar
- Zebulun: Eliav Ben Cheilon
- Ephraim: Elishama Ben Ammihud
- Minasheh: Gamliel Ben Pedahtzur
- Benjamin: Avidan Ben Gideoni.
- Dan: Achiezer Ben Amishaddai
- Asher: Pagiel Ben Ochran
- Gad: Eliasaf Ben Deuel
- Naftali: Ahira Ben Einan
- Moses took all the above-mentioned individuals and he gathered the entire congregation on the first of the second month and the genealogy of each family was established. All men above 20 years of age were counted as G-d commanded Moses.
- The census of men in the Twelve tribes above age 20:
- Reuben: The census of the tribe of Reuben, the firstborn of Jacob, showed a population of 46,500 men above the age of 20.
- Simeon: The census of the tribe of Simeon showed a population of 59,300 men above the age of 20.
- Gad: The census of the tribe Gad showed a population of 45,650 men above the age of 20.
- Judah: The census of the tribe of Judah showed a population of 74,600 men above the age of 20.
- Issachar: The census of the tribe of Issachar showed a population of 54,400 men above the age of 20.
- Zebulun: The census of the tribe of Zebulun showed a population of 57,400 men above the age of 20.
- Ephraim: The census of the tribe of Ephraim showed a population of 40,500 men above the age of 20.
- Manasseh: The census of the tribe of Manasseh showed a population of 32,200 men above the age of 20.
- Benjamin: The census of the tribe of Benjamin showed a population of 35,400 men above the age of 20.
- Dan: The census of the tribe of Dan showed a population of 62,700 men above the age of 20.
- Asher: The census of the tribe of Asher showed a population of 41,500 men above the age of 20.
- Naftali: The census of the tribe of Naftali showed a population of 53,400 men above the age of 20.
- This concludes the census taking of the Jewish people, which was performed by Moses Aaron and the 12 tribal representatives
- The total count of men above age 20 within the 12 tribes was 603,550.
- The tribe of Levi:
- No census: G-d commanded Moses that the tribe of Levi is not to be counted.
- Carrying the Tabernacle, dismantling and assembling it: You should appoint the Levites to oversee the Tabernacle and its vessels. They are to carry it during travel, minister to the vessels, and encamp around the Tabernacle. When it’s time to travel the Levites are to dismantle the Tabernacle, and when it’s time to encamp they are to erect the Tabernacle. A non-Levite who does this service shall die.
- The position of encampment and travel of the tribes:
- The Jewish people are to encamp, each man in the area of their tribe.
- The Levites are to encamp around the Tabernacle. They will guard the Tabernacle and prevent wrath from falling upon the Jewish people.
- The Jewish people did all that Moses was commanded by G-d.
- G-d told Moses that the following is the order that the Jewish people are to encamp around the Tabernacle:
- In the East: In the east is to encamp the tribes of Judah, Issachar and Zebulun. This camp is led by the tribe of Judah. The census of the tribe of Judah showed a population of 74,600 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Nachshon Ben Aminadav. The census of the tribe of Issachar showed a population of 54,400 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Nethanel Ben Tzuar. The census of the tribe of Zebulun showed a population of 57,400 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Eliav Ben Cheilon. The total population for the camp of Judah was 186,400 [men above age 20]. They were the first to journey.
- In the South: At the south is to encamp the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad. This camp is led by the tribe of Reuben. The census of the tribe of Reuben, showed a population of 46,500 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Elitzur Ben Shedeur. The census of the tribe of Simeon showed a population of 59,300 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Shelumiel Ben Tzurishaddai. The census of the tribe Gad showed a population of 45,650 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Eliasaf Ben Reuel. The total population for the camp of Reuben was 151,450 [men above age 20]. They were the second to journey.
- In the West: At the west is to encamp the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin. This camp is led by the tribe of Ephraim. The census of the tribe of Ephraim showed a population of 40,500 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of Ephraim was Elishama Ben Amihud. The census of the tribe of Manasseh showed a population of 32,200 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of the tribe of Manasseh was Gamliel Ben Pedahtzur. The census of the tribe of Benjamin showed a population of 35,400 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of the tribe of Benjamin was Avidan Ben Gideoni. The total population for the camp of Ephraim was 108,100 [men above age 20]. They were the third to journey.
- In the North: At the north is to encamp the tribes of Dan, Asher and Naftali. This camp is led by the tribe of Dan. The census of the tribe of Dan showed a population of 62,700 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Achiezer Ben Amishaddai. The census of the tribe of Asher showed a population of 41,500 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Pagiel Ben Ochran. The census of the tribe of Naftali showed a population of 53,400 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Ahira Ben Einan. The total population for the camp of Dan was 157,600 [men above age 20]. They were the last to journey.
- Traveling order: The Tent of Meeting and the Levite camp are to travel in the middle of the camps. All the camps are to travel the same direction and group that they are positioned.
- The total count [of men above age 20] within the 12 tribes was 603,550. The Levites were not included in this count, as G-d commanded Moses.
- The descendants of Aaron:
- The following are the offspring of Aaron and Moses: Nadab the firstborn, Abihu, Elazar and Itamar. All were anointed as Kohanim. Nadab and Abihu died before G-d when they offered foreign incense. They did not have children.
- The job of the Levites to guard the Tabernacle:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying he should appoint the tribe of Levi to be of assistance to Aaron and serve him. They are to guard the Tabernacle and its utensils.
- In exchange for the firstborns: The Levites were taken from amongst the Jewish people in exchange for the firstborns. “The firstborns became Mine on the day I smote the firstborn Egyptians, and I sanctified the firstborn humans and animals to be Mine. The Levites are thus Mine in place of the firstborns.”
- The Levite census, their jobs, leaders, and area of encampment:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying he should take a census of the Levites, counting them per family. Every male above the age of one month is to be counted. The following is the census of the families:
- Gershon: His sons were Libni and Shimi. Their total number of males above the age of one month was 7,500. They encamped behind the Tabernacle, to the west. Their family leader was Eliasaf Ben Lael. They were entrusted with the job of [dismantling, carrying, and mantling] the Tabernacle and Ohel tapestry coverings, the courtyard curtains, entrance screen, and its rope.
- Kehot: His sons were Amram, Yitzhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Their total number of males above the age of one month was 8,600. They encamped on the side of the Tabernacle, to the south. Their family leader was Elitzaphan Ben Uzziel. They were entrusted with the job of [dismantling, carrying, and mantling] the Aron, Shulchan/Table, Menorah, Altar, holy vessels and the screen.
- The tribal leader of Levi: Elazar the son of Aaron was the tribal leader of the tribe of Levi.
- Merari: His sons were Machli and Mushi. Their total number of males above the age of one month was 6,200. Their family leader was Tzuriel Ben Avichayil. They encamped north of the Tabernacle. They were entrusted with the job of [dismantling, carrying, and mantling] the beams of the Tabernacle, its poles, pillars and sockets, and all its accessories. The pillars of the courtyard, their sockets, pegs and ropes.
- Moses and Aaron: Moses, Aaron and their sons encamped in front of the Tabernacle, to the east. They guarded it from the Jewish people so no alien enter and die.
- Total Levite population: The total Levite population was 22,000 males above the age of one month [not including 300 Levites who were themselves firstborns].
- Counting of firstborns:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying he should take a census of the firstborn of the Jewish people, counting all males one month old and above. You shall designate the Levites and their animals for Me in exchange for the firstborns of the Jewish people and their firstborn animals.
- Moses counted the firstborns of the Jewish people as G-d commanded and there was a total of 22,273 firstborn males above the age of one month.
- Redeeming the firstborns with the Levites:
- G-d commanded Moses to exchange the Levites and their animals for the firstborns of the Jewish people and their firstborn animals, and they shall be for Me.
- For the redemption of the 273 Israelite firstborns who are in surplus to the Levite count, you shall take five Shekalim per head, each Shekel being the worth of 20 Geira. Give the money to Aaron and his sons.
- Moses took the money from the surplus firstborns and gave it to Aaron and his sons as G-d commanded. It was a total sum of 1,365 Shekel.
- The census and services of the Levite family of Kehot:
- G-d commanded Moses to count all the male members of the Kehot family who are between the ages of 30-50. They were appointed with the following tasks to be done after the Kohanim performed their tasks. The task of the Kehot family serviceman is considered holy of holies.
- The tasks of the Kohanim in preparing the Tabernacle for travel:
- Preparing the Aron for travel: When the camp travels, Aaron and his sons are to take down the Parochet curtain and cover the Aron with it. A Tachash leather cover is to be placed on top of it, and a turquoise [i.e. Techeiles] wool cover on top of that.
- Preparing the Shulchan/Table for travel: The Shulchan/Table is to be covered with a turquoise wool cover and have its vessels placed on top of it. This includes the dishes, spoons, supports, tubes, and bread. On top of them they shall spread a scarlet wool covering, and a Tachash leather cover is to be placed on top of that.
- Preparing the Menorah for travel: The Menorah and all its vessels are to be covered with a turquoise wool cover. This includes the lamps, tongs, and scoops, and all the vessels of its oil. All this is then to be placed into a Tachash hide cover and place it on the pole.
- Preparing the gold Altar for travel: The gold altar is to be covered with a turquoise wool cover, which is then to be covered by a Tachash hide cover.
- Preparing the service vessels of the Tabernacle for travel: All the service vessels which are used in the Tabernacle [for Ketores] are to be placed into a turquoise cloth, which is then to be covered by a Tachash hide cover and placed on the pole.
- Preparing the copper Altar for travel: The [copper] altar is to be cleaned of ash and then have an Argamon [i.e. purple] wool cloth placed over it. All its vessels are to be placed on it, which include the firepans, forks, shovels and basins. They are to then cover it with a Tachash hide cover.
- The Kehot family’s job of carrying the vessels: After Aaron and his sons complete the wrapping of the vessels of the Tabernacle, the Kehot family servicemen are to come and carry it. [They are not to carry it before it is properly covered] lest they touch the holy and die.
- Elazar’s position: Elazar the son of Aaron was appointed the task of carrying the illuminating oil, the incense spices, the Mincha, and anointing oil. He was also appointed to oversee the work of the Kehot family.
- G-d told Moses and Aaron not to cause the Kehot family to become extinct upon them coming to do the service with the Holy of Holies. To prevent this, they are to oversee everyone’s job [and make sure the vessels are properly covered before they come].
Verses: 176 [Siman: עמינדב]
Haftorah: Judges 13:2-25
| The Mitzvot:
There are eighteen Mitzvot in Parashat Naso. Eight positive commands and ten negative commands
1. Mitzvah 362; Positive 143: To send the impure people outside of the camp called Shekhinah.
2. Mitzvah 363; Positive 144: To prevent any impure people from entering the Temple.
3. Mitzvah 364; Positive 145: To confess one’s sins to G-d.
4. Mitzvah 365; Positive 146: To bring a suspected adulteress wife to the Kohen to have done to her as instructed in the Torah.
5. Mitzvah 374; Positive 147: For the Nazirite to grow his hair.
6. Mitzvah 377; Positive 148: For the Nazirite to shave his hair and bring Sacrifices at the end of his Nazarite period.
7. Mitzvah 378; Positive 149: For the Kohanim to bless the Jewish people.
8. Mitzvah 379; Positive 150: For the Kohanim to carry the Aron on their shoulders during travel.
1. Mitzvah 366; Negative 220: Not to place oil on the offering of the suspected adulteress wife.
2. Mitzvah 367; Negative 221: Not to place frankincense on the offering of the suspected adulteress wife.
3. Mitzvah 368; Negative 222: The prohibition for the Nazirite to drink wine.
4. Mitzvah 369; Negative 223: The prohibition for the Nazirite to eat grapes.
5. Mitzvah 370; Negative 224: The prohibition for the Nazirite to eat raisins.
6. Mitzvah 371; Negative 225: The prohibition for the Nazirite to eat grape seeds.
7. Mitzvah 372; Negative 226: The prohibition for the Nazirite to eat grape peels.
8. Mitzvah 373; Negative 227: The prohibition for the Nazirite to shave his head.
9. Mitzvah 375; Negative 228: The prohibition for the Nazirite to enter a home which contains corpse.
10. Mitzvah 376; Negative 229: The prohibition for the Nazirite to impurify himself to a corpse.
- The census and services of the Levite family of Gershon:
- G-d commanded Moses to count all the male members of the Gershon family who are between the ages of 30-50.
- The Gershon family’s job of carrying the vessels: The Gershon family servicemen are to carry the tapestries of the Tabernacle, the spread of the Tent of Meeting and its Tachash leather cover that is on it and the screen of the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. They are to carry the curtains of the courtyard and its entrance screen, the ropes and all their accessories.
- Ithamar the supervisor: Ithamar the son of Aaron was appointed to supervise their work.
Second Aliyah (according to Torah Temima/Chabad)
- The census and services of the Levite family of Merari:
- G-d commanded Moses to count all the male members of the Merari family who are between the ages of 30-50.
- The Merari family’s job of carrying the vessels: The Gershon family servicemen are to carry the beams of the Tabernacle, its poles, pillars and sockets, and all its accessories. The pillars of the courtyard, their sockets, pegs and ropes.
- Ithamar the supervisor: Ithamar the son of Aaron was appointed to supervise their work.
- The census of working men in the three families:
- Kehot: The family of Kehot had 2,750 working men between the age of 30-50.
Second Aliyah (according to most Chumashim)
- Gershon: The family of Gershon had 2,630 working men between the age of 30-50.
- Merori: The family of Merari had 3,200 working men between the age of 30-50.
- Total number of worker: The total number of working Levites between the age of 30-50 was 8,580.
- Expelling the impure from the camp:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should command the children of Israel to expel from their camp any person, male or female, who is a Metzora, a Zav, or is impure to a corpse so that they do not impurify the camp in which G-d dwells. The children of Israel did as instructed.
- Laws relating to one who swears falsely:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should tell the children of Israel that any man or woman who has committed sacrilege against G-d [by swearing falsely regarding a stolen object] is to be held accountable. They are to confess their sin before G-d and reimburse the person [who the object was stolen from] plus an additional fifth. If the victim is not alive and does not have any heirs to whom one can return the debt, then it is to be given to the Kohanim, per G-d’s instructions. All the above is in addition to bring a sacrificial ram for atonement.
- Giving the Kohen his designated presents:
- All the donations [of Bikkurim] of the Jewish people is to be given to the Kohen. However, the donor reserves the right to decide which Kohen to give it to. One who gives the Kohen will receive [monetary blessing].
- The suspected adulteress wife [i.e. Sotah]:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should tell the Jewish people the Sotah laws.
- The sin: If a wife strayed from her husband and betrayed him, having sexual relations with another man, unaware to her husband, then if she was warned by her husband [not to seclude herself with another man and she transgressed] and secluded herself, then she must follow the Sotah procedure.
- Bringing her and her offering to the Kohen: The Sotah woman is to be brought by her husband to the Kohen. He is to bring with him, her Mincha offering, which is 1/10th of an Eipha of unsifted barley flour without oil or frankincense, as it is a sin offering.
- The procedure: The Kohen is then to stand her before G-d. The Kohen is to take holy water in an earthenware vessel and place onto it earth that was taken from the Tabernacle floor. The Kohen is to uncover the woman’s hair and place the Mincha offering on her palm. He is to remain holding the bitter waters.
- Administering the oath and bitter waters: The Kohen is to administer an oath to the woman saying that if she did not betray her husband then she will be found innocent of the bitter waters. If, however, she is guilty, then a curse will befall her and the bitter water will cause her thigh to fall and her stomach to swell. She is to answer Amen Veamen. The above curse is to be written on a scroll and erased in the water and then given to the woman to drink.
- The offering: The Kohen is to take the Mincha offering from the woman and waive it before G-d and then offer a portion of it onto the altar. The woman is to be given the water to drink only after the Mincha is offered.
- The effect of the waters: If the woman is guilty of adultery, her stomach will swell, and her thigh will fall off. If she is innocent, she will have children.
- The Nazirite:
- The prohibitions: A man or woman who swears to become a Nazirite to G-d may not drink wine or eat grapes throughout the period of his Nesirus. He may not cut his hair or defile himself by contacting a corpse throughout the entire Nazirite period, even if it is the corpse of a relative. A Nazirite is holy to G-d.
- If the Nazirite becomes impure: If he does become impure to a corpse he is to shave his head on the 7th day, and on the 8th day he is to bring two doves to the Kohen, one for a Chatas offering and one for an Olah offering. After the Nazirite period is complete he is to bring a sheep in its first year as an Asham offering.
- The Nazirite procedure: After the Nazirite period is complete he is to come to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting and bring with him a sheep in its first year as an Olah offering and a female sheep within its first year as a Chatas offering, and a ram as a Shelamim offering. He is to bring a basket of Matzot, their flour offering and libations. The Kohen is to offer all the above offerings and shave the head of the Nazirite in the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. The hair is to be placed on the fire used to cook the Shelamim. Afterwards, the Kohen is to take a cooked foreleg of the ram and two different Matzot and place it on the palm of the Nazirite and waive them before G-d. The Nazirite may then drink wine.
- Birchas Kohanim:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should tell Aaron and his sons that they should bless the Jewish people with the priestly blessing of Yivarechicha G-d Veyishmirecha etc.
- The Sacrifices of the tribal leaders:
- On the day that Moses completed the erecting the Tabernacle and anointing all the vessels the leaders of the tribes brought an offering before G-d. They brought six covered wagons and 12 oxen, intending there to be 2 oxen per wagon and one wagon for every two tribes. G-d instructed Moses to take the wagons and give it to the Levites to use to perform the work of the Tent of Meeting. The Gershon family received 2 wagons and 4 oxen. Merari received 4 wagons and 8 oxen and Kehot did not receive any wagons as they must carry the items of the Tabernacle on their shoulders.
- The tribal leaders came to bring their offering to the Altar to inaugurate it and G-d instructed Moses that each tribe should bring their offering on a separate day.
- The first day: On the first day, Nachshon Ben Aminadav of the tribe of Judah brought a offering. The offering consisted of: One silver bowl which weighed 130 Shekel. One basin of silver which weighed 70 Shekel. Both were filled with fine flour which was mixed with oil, as a Mincha offering. One ladle of gold which weighed 10 Shekel filled with incense. One young bull, one ram and one sheep within its first year as an Olah offering. One goat as a Chatas offering. For a Shelamim sacrifice was brought 2 cattle, five rams, five male goats, and five sheep within their first year.
- The second day: On the second day, Nethanel Ben Tzuar of the tribe of Issachar brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The third day: On the third day, Eliav Ben Cheilon of the tribe of Zebulun brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The fourth day: On the fourth day, Elitzur Ben Shedeur of the tribe of Reuben brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The fifth day: On the fifth day, Shelumiel Ben Tzurishaddai of the tribe of Simeon brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The sixth day: On the sixth day, Eliasaf Ben Deuel of the tribe of Gad brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The seventh day: On the seventh day, Elishama Ben Amihud of the tribe of Ephraim brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The eighth day: On the eighth day, Gamliel Ben Pedahtzur of the tribe of Manasseh brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The ninth day: On the ninth day, Avidan Ben Gidoni of the tribe of Benjamin brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The tenth day: On the tenth day, Achiezer Ben Amishaddai of the tribe of Dan brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
Seventh Aliyah (according to most Chumashim)
- The eleventh day: On the eleventh day, Pagiel Ben Ochran of the tribe of Asher brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
- The twelfth day: On the twelfth day, Ahira Ben Einan of the tribe of Naftali brought an offering. The offering consisted of the same items as that offered on the first day by Nachshon.
Seventh Aliyah (according to Torah Temima/Chabad)
- The total number: The total number of Sacrifices brought were:
- 12 silver bowls which weighed 130 Shekel.
- 12 basins of silver which weighed 70 Shekel for a total of 2400 shekel of silver
- 12 ladles of gold which weighed 10 Shekel filled with incense for a total of 123 shekel of gold.
- 12 young bulls, 12 rams and 12 sheep within its first year as an Olah offering.
- 12 goats as a Chatas offering.
- For a Shelamim sacrifice was brought 24 cattle, 60 rams, 60 male goats, and 60 sheep within their first year.
- When Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak with G-d he would hear G-d speak from between the Cherubim.
Verses: 136 [Siman: מהללאל]
Haftorah: Zechariah 2:14-4:7
There are a total of five Mitzvot in Parashat Behaalotecha. Three positive commands, and two negative commands.
A. The positive commands:
1. Mitzvah 380; Positive 151: For anyone who was unable to bring the Pesach offering before Pesach to perform the second Pesach on the 14th of Iyar
2. Mitzvah 381; Positive 152: For those obligated in the second Pesach to eat it’s meat with Matzah and Maror.
3. Mitzvah 384; Positive 153: To blow trumpets daily in the Temple, and during times of suffering.
B. The Negative commands:
1. Mitzvah 382; Negative 230: The prohibition to leave any leftovers from the meat of the second Pesach.
2. Mitzvah 383; Negative 231: The prohibition to break the bones of the second Pesach sacrifice.
- The Menorah:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying: Tell Aaron that the seven candles of the Menorah are to be lit facing towards the Menorah. Aaron did as Moses instructed. The Menorah was made of a pure block of gold, as G-d showed Moses.
- The inauguration process for the Levites:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying: Take the Levites for G-d from amongst the Jewish people. Purify them through sprinkling on them purification waters and shaving all their hair off their skin. They are to immerse their garments and then become pure.
- Their offering: They are to take a young bull [as an Olah offering] and its Mincha of flour mixed with oil, and a second young bull as a Chatas offering.
- Semicha to the Levites: All the Levites, together with all the Jewish people, are to be brought before the Tent of Meeting, and the Jewish people will lean their hands on the Levites.
- Waving: Aaron will waive the Levites before G-d and they shall perform their service.
- Semicha to the animals: The Levites shall rest their hands on the heads of the bulls, and one is to be offered as a Chatas while the second as an Olah.
- After the above process is complete the Levites shall serve in the Tent of Meeting as the representatives of the children of Israel, having been redeemed in exchange for the firstborns, and given to the Kohanim.
- Moses, Aaron and the Jewish people did to the Levites as they were instructed, and the Levites were purified, had their clothing immersed, and were waved.
- The years of service of the Levites:
- The Levites are to serve in the service of the Tent of Meeting beginning from 25 years of age until 50 years of age. They are to retire from this service at age 50 but they shall serve as a safeguard in the Tent of Meeting.
- The Pesach offering in the desert:
- G-d spoke to Moses in the Sinai desert, on the first month of the second year after the exodus saying that the Jewish people shall perform the Pesach sacrifice on time, in the afternoon of the 14th day of this month according to all its laws.
- The Jewish people did as they were instructed.
- The second Pesach [i.e. Pesach Sheiyni]:
- The complaint: Certain individuals who were impure due to contact with a corpse came to Moses complaining why they could not perform the Pesach sacrifice, and why they should miss out on this opportunity. Moses brought their complaint to G-d, to which G-d replied with the following laws:
- Its laws: G-d spoke to Moses saying: Any man who is impure or a distance away [from the area of slaughter, i.e. Jerusalem, on the 14th of Nissan] is to offer the Pesach sacrifice in the 2nd month on the 14th It is to be eaten with Matzah and Maror. It may not be leftover until morning, and its bones may not be broken.
- Transgressed and did not offer: One who is pure, and is not a distance away and still does not bring the Pesach sacrifice, is to be cut off from its nation.
- The order of traveling in the desert:
- On the day the Tabernacle was erected the cloud covered it. At night, a fire appeared on the Tabernacle until the morning. The Jewish people would travel upon the cloud ascending from the Ohel tent, and they would encamp in the area where the cloud would settle. At times they remained encamped for many days and at times for only one day. They traveled and encamped according to the word of G-d.
- Blowing the trumpets:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should make two trumpets of pure silver to be used to gather the congregation, and to announce the time to travel.
- Signal for gathering: If you blow a Tekia using both of them, this is a sign for the congregation to gather by the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. If you blow [a Tekia using] one trumpet, this is a sign for the tribal leaders to gather.
- Signal for traveling: If you blow a Teruah, short blasts, it is a sign for traveling. By the first Teruah, the eastern camp is to travel. By the second Teruah, the southern camp is to travel. The trumpets are to be blown by the Kohanim.
- Signal for G-d during war: During war against your enemies, a Teruah should be blown from the trumpets and G-d will remember you and save you from your enemies.
- During Holidays: On days of joy and holidays and Rosh Chodesh you shall blow the Shofar during the sacrifices and it will be a remembrance for you before G-d.
- The travels of the children of Israel:
- The date: On the 20th day of the second month of the second year the cloud ascended from the Tabernacle and the Jewish people traveled. The cloud rested in the Paran desert.
- The order of the travel: The first to travel was the camp of Judah, which included the tribes of Issachar and Zebulun and their leaders. The Tabernacle was then dismantled and the Gershon and Merari family carried the [tapestries and beams of the] Tabernacle. The next camp to travel was the camp of Reuben, which included the tribes of Simeon and Gad and their leaders. The Kehot family then traveled carrying the [vessels of the] Temple. The Tabernacle was erected prior to their arrival. The next camp to travel was the camp of Ephraim, which included Manasseh and Benjamin and their leaders. The final camp to travel was the camp of Dan, which included Asher and Naftali and their leaders.
- Jethro desires to leave: Moses spoke to Chovav, his father in-law, and told him that they are traveling to the place that G-d has promised them. Moses asked Jethro to come along with them and he will be repaid with good. Jethro refused to go and said that he planned to return to his homeland. Moses implored for him to remain with them and serve as an advisor as he has been until now.
- They traveled from the mountain of G-d a journey of three days and the Aron of G-d traveled with them to find them a resting place. The cloud of G-d accompanied them during the day
- Traveling of the Ark: When the Aron traveled, Moses would say “Arise G-d and disperse your enemies and let those who hate you flee.” When the Aron rested, Moses would say “Reside tranquilly G-d, among the myriads of Jewish people.”
- Fire breaks out in the Camp:
- The people complained in an evil way before G-d, and G-d heard and became angry. A fire shot forth from G-d and consumed those at the edge of the camp. The nation screamed to Moses and Moses spoke to G-d and the fire subsided. That area was called Taveirah, as the fire of G-d consumed there.
- The complaint for meat and the Slav birds:
- The lust for meat: The mixed multitude amongst the Jewish people lusted after meat, and they and the Jewish people cried and complained that they do not have meat. They said, “We remember the fish, cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions and garlic that we ate in Egypt for free and now all we have is the Mun before our eyes.”
- The Mun: The Mun was like a coriander seed and was the color of the Bedolach. The people would gather it and grind it in the mill, or mortar, and cook it into cakes. It tasted like dough kneaded with oil.
- Moses is angered and confronts G-d for help in the leadership: Moses heard the people crying with their families by the entrances to their tent. G-d became very angry and it was bad in the eyes of Moses. Moses turned to G-d and complained as to why He has caused him evil by placing the entire burden of the nation on him, as if he has born them and must carry them in his bosom to the promised land. “From where do I have meat to give them all that they should complain to me. I can no longer carry the burden of this nation alone, and if this is your decision then please kill me and do not see my suffering.” G-d said to Moses that he should gather 70 elders of Israel and bring them to the Tent of Meeting where they will receive from the spirit of Moses and be able to carry the burden of the nation together with him.
- G-d promises meat: G-d instructed Moses to tell the nation to prepare themselves tomorrow to eat meat, as you have cried to the ears of G-d saying it was better off in Egypt where you had meat. You will have meat for thirty days until it comes out of your nostrils and become repulsive to you.
- Moses does not believe G-d: Moses replied to G-d that it is not possible to feed 600,000 souls in the desert for a full month. Even if you slaughter all the flock and cattle and fish it will not suffice them. G-d chastised Moses saying that the hand of G-d is not limited, and that he will see that G-d’s word will be fulfilled.
- Moses gathers the 70 elders and makes them leaders: Moses left and informed the Jewish people of G-d’s words. He gathered 70 elders and positioned them around the Tent of Meeting. G-d descended with a cloud and spoke to Moses and He set aside from the spirit of Moses onto the seventy elders. When this happened, they began to prophesize. Two people remained in the camp, one called Eldad and the second Meidad, and they prophesied there. A youth ran to inform Moses that Eldad and Meidad were prophesying in the camp. Joshua told Moses that he should finish off with them. Moses, however, replied that there is no need to be zealous for his sake and if only G-d would make them all prophets.
- The Slav arrive: G-d brought a wind that carried with it the Slav pheasant birds from the sea. They swarmed the camp for the distance of one day’s travel from each direction. They were approximately two cubits height from the ground. That entire day and night and next day the nation collected the Slav. The least that a person gathered was ten heaps worth of Slav. The [dead] birds were spread and piled throughout the camp. While the people ate the bird, while the meat was still in between their teeth, the wrath of G-d smote them and many died. That area was named “Kivros Hataavah,” as in the area was buried the people who were craving.
- From Kivros Hatava the nation traveled to Chatzeiros.
- Miriam and Aaron speak against Moses:
- The slander: Miriam and Aaron spoke regarding the black woman that Moses married saying that it is not only to him that G-d speaks but also to them [and hence why is he celibate]. G-d heard, and Moses was the humblest man on earth.
- G-d punishes Miriam with Tzara’at: G-d suddenly appeared and summoned Moses, Aaron and Miriam to come to the Tent of Meeting. G-d asked for Aaron and Miriam, and explained to them that Moses is unlike anyone else in prophecy as “I speak to Him face to face without any riddles and he sees the image of G-d constantly. Why then did you not fear speaking against My servant Moses.” G-d’s anger flared up and He left. When the cloud ascended from the Tent of Meeting, Miriam was stricken with Tzara’at as white as snow and Aaron noticed. Aaron asked Moses for forgiveness and to have mercy on their sister. Moses screamed to G-d in supplication that He should heal her. G-d instructed for her to be placed outside the camp for seven days. The camp did not travel during those days until Miriam’s return.
- They then traveled from Chatzeiros to the desert of Paran.
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