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The Yom Tov day meal:
The importance of eating on Shavuos:
It is a positive command to eat and drink during all festivals. Shavuos, however, contains an additional stringency not applicable by other Holidays. Unlike Shabbos and other Holidays, in which it is permitted to fast a Taanis Chalom, on Shavuos, it is forbidden to fast even a Taanis Chalom. The reason for this is because on this day the Torah was given, and one thus needs to eat and rejoice on this day to show the Jewish people are pleased and satisfied on the day the Torah was given. It is not similar to Shabbos and other Holidays, in which it is permitted to fast a Taanis Chalom.
Sparks of Chassidus
Why is the Mitzvah of eating on Shavuos stricter than all other Holidays?
Regarding all other Holidays there is a Talmudic dispute between Rebbe Eliezer and Rebbe Yehoshua whether one may sanctify the entire day to spiritual matters and hence fast, or if he must split his time equally between spiritual and physical matters. However, regarding Shavuos all agree one must dedicate half of the Holiday for physical matters. Furthermore, although practically we rule that on all Holidays one must dedicate half to Himself and half to G-d, all agree that one may fast a Taanis Chalom, with exception to Shavuos in which doing so is forbidden. This is puzzling, as seemingly there is more room for the approach which allows total dedication to spirituality, and fasting, on Shavuos, which is the day we received the Torah. The explanation is as follows: The novelty of Matan Torah is not that we were given a G-dly wisdom which we now have the ability to study, as the Torah already existed before Matan Torah. The Midrash states that Avraham learned Torah and fulfilled all the Mitzvos, and so followed Yitzchak and Yaakov in his steps. Rather, the novelty of Matan Torah is that we now have the ability to transform our course selves to spiritually refined beings through the Torah. We can now elevate the coarseness of the physical world by performing Mitzvos with the physical objects. We can now elevate the world to spirituality and draw G-d below to have His dwelling place within our world and fulfill the purpose of creation. It is for this reason that we must eat on Shavuos, in order to emphasize the novelty of Matan Torah which is to work with the physical world, using it to serve G-d, and hence making for Him a dwelling place in the lower realms.
Eating a Dairy and Meat meal:
It is customary amongst all Jewry in all places to eat dairy products on the first day of Shavuos. This custom is Halachically binding, “Minhag Yisrael Torah Hi”, as many reasons have been said behind this custom. Nevertheless, since it is a Mitzvah to eat meat on Yom Tov, therefore, one is to also have a have a meat meal. One is to eat both meals in a way that avoids any prohibitions of eating meat and milk, following all the laws written in Yoreh Deah 88-89 regarding having a separation between the two meals.
The following are the details of the two meals and the laws which pertain to eating meat after milk:
The dairy meal:
After Kiddush one is to either wash on bread or eat a Kezayis of Mezonos. One is then to eat milk products. One is not required to wash on bread for the dairy meal, and so is the widespread custom to only eat Mezonos, although some are accustomed to wash. [According to all, if one will be eating an amount of Mezonos that can be considered Kevius Seuda, one must wash beforehand. See Q&A!] After finishing the dairy meal one is to say an after blessing, clean out his mouth, wash his hands, and wait one hour. [See Q&A for full details] After an hour passes one may begin the meat meal. If one ate cheeses which are Halachically defined as “hard cheese”, one must wait 6 hours prior to eating meat.
The meat meal:
After an hour has passed from eating the dairy products, one may begin the meat meal. A different tablecloth is to be used for the meat meal. In the event one washed on bread for the dairy meal, one is not to use the same leftover bread for the meat meal. The same applies for any foods which may contain remnants of dairy.
Checklist between dairy and meat meal:
1. Say an after blessing.
2. Clean out the mouth and wash hands.
3. Wait one hour.
4. Change tablecloths.
Q&A on the dairy meal
What are the reasons mentioned behind eating dairy products on Shavuos?
· Commemoration of Shtei Halechem: Dairy products are eaten in commemoration of the Shtei Halechem offering, which consisted of two loaves [i.e. two meals], which were brought on Shavuos. We thus eat two meals with bread, one dairy and one meat, to emulate the two loaves.
· Like a pure woman: In preparation for Matan Torah we count seven weeks of Sefiras Haomer. This count is similar to the seven clean-day count of a Niddah, in preparation for her immersion. Now, it is known that blood serves as the source of the milk during nursing, and represents the purification the Niddah blood, to life giving nutrients found in milk. For this reason, on Shavuos, we eat dairy to emphasize that the seven weeks of purification have effectively come to a close, and we are now purified of all evil.
· Torah is allegorized to milk: The Torah is allegorized to milk, as states the verse “Devash Uchalav Tachas Leshonecha”, and hence we eat dairy on Shavuos, which is the day of the giving of the Torah.
· Commemoration of after Matan Torah meal: Some suggest that the Jews did not keep Kosher until Matan Torah, and hence when they arrived home after Matan Torah they had no meat to eat, as it was all Treif. They likewise could not cook anything, even Pareve, being that all their vessels were Treif. They had no option but to eat cold dairy, which was readily available. Some suggest that before Matan Torah we kept Kosher, but we were allowed to eat non-slaughtered meat. Once the Torah was given and we became obligated in eating slaughtered meat, all of our meat became Treif. We could not slaughter new meat after Matan Torah because the Torah was given on Shabbos, and it is forbidden to slaughter on Shabbos, and hence had to resort to eating dairy. The Rebbe suggest that in truth we did keep Kosher even before Matan Torah. However, our Shechita which we performed before Matan Torah became invalid when we became Jews after Matan Torah, and thus all of our meat and meat vessels became not Kosher. For this reason, only dairy products were available to be eaten.
· Commemoration of the reason we merited receiving the Torah: The Midrash famously states that the supernal angels attempted to litigate against the giving of the Torah to the Jewish people for various reasons. The final rebuttal, or comeback, which closed all litigation and allowed the Torah to be given involved the Mitzvah of not eating meat and milk together. The argument was as follows: After the angels told Hashem that they desired to keep the Torah for themselves, Hashem answered the angels that it states in the Torah “Thou shall not eat a kid in its mother’s milk.” Now, you angels surely remember the meal you ate in the home of Avraham Avinu? You ate meat and milk together during that meal as the verse states “Vayikach Chema Vechalav,” so how can you now ask to receive the Torah? This, states the Midrash, was the final comeback which refuted any claims from the angels, and allowed the Torah to be given. Accordingly, we eat dairy and then meat on Shavuos to emphasize the reason why we received the Torah over the angels, as they did not keep the dietary laws of separating between meat and milk. An even deeper approach is stated in the name of the Alter Rebbe: The law is that while one may not eat dairy after meat, one may eat meat after dairy. The above Midrash is hence puzzling, as the verse explicitly states that it offered first dairy and then meat to the guests, and they therefore performed no transgression. The explanation is as follows: The reason for the prohibition against eating meat and milk together is because milk is from Chesed and meat is from Gevura, and their combination can be catastrophic. However, this only applies if the Gevura overpowers the Chesed, while if the Chesed overpowers the Gevura then it is actually a positive matter. Now, we have a general rule of Tatah Gavar, the bottom overrules, and hence if one first eats dairy, he may eat meat afterwards, as the bottom which is dairy/Chesed, overrules the meat/Gevurah. However, if one eats meat first, then the Gevurah overpowers the Chesed. This system however only applies in this world, in which we hold that the lower realms are of greater importance than the higher realms, and hence the lower item overpowers. However, in the Heavens, they believe that the higher realm is greater than the lower realms, and therefore the rule of Tatah Gavar does not apply. Accordingly, Hashem told the angels that if the Torah is given to them, and thus the higher realms prevail, it would end up that they ate meat and milk together, hence transgressing the Torah. Furthermore, by the mere fact that by Avraham they agreed to eat first dairy and then meat shows that they too agree that the lower realms overpower, and hence they have no claim to receive the Torah. [Accordingly, we can explain the custom of eating a dairy meal on Shavuos, and then eating a meat meal, as this commemorates the victorious rebuttal which gave us the Torah to begin with. It also emphasizes that the purpose of the Torah is for the lower realms.]
· White is Chesed: The color white is a color of Chesed, and the giving of the Torah was a great kindness. It is for this reason that we eat dairy on Shavuos.
· Har Sinai was a “cheese cake”: The Midrash says that Har Sinai had seven names, one which is Har Gavnunim” which means a mountain of cheese. This means to say that it was as clean as a white cheese cake. We thus eat dairy on Shavuos to commemorate this matter.
· Celebrating the allowance to eat dairy: Prior to Matan Torah, dairy products were forbidden to be eaten due to Eiver Min Hachaiy. Therefore, to commemorate the allowance of eating dairy products which began after Matan Torah, we eat dairy on Shavuos.
Q&A on when to eat the dairy meal
May one eat dairy for the night meal?
The night meal of Shavuos is to consist of meat as opposed to dairy. The dairy meal is to only be eaten the next day, prior to the meat meal of the day.
Does one fulfill his obligation with eating milk products prior to prayer?
It is customary to eat the milk products after Kiddush. Nevertheless, if one is only able to eat dairy before Davening, such as so he has strength to pray, he has likewise fulfilled the custom, and may begin the meat meal immediately after Kiddush.
Is one to eat dairy products also on the 2nd day of Shavuos in the Diaspora?
The custom to eat dairy on Shavuos only applies on the first day, and does not apply to the second day of Shavuos in the Diaspora. Nevertheless, some follow this custom also on the second day, and so is recorded to be the Rebbe’s custom.
Q&A on the menu of the dairy meal
Must one wash for bread by each of the two meals, dairy and meat, or does it suffice to wash for the meat meal and have Mezonos for the dairy meal?
Some are accustomed to wash on bread for both the meat and dairy meal. Nevertheless, the widespread custom is not to eat bread for the Milk meal and rather to eat Mezonos, and then wash on bread by the meat meal.
If one will be eating a lot of Mezonos by the dairy meal, is he required to say Hamotzi?
If one will be eating more than 330 grams of baked Mezonos produce that receive a status of Hamotzi upon setting a meal on them, then one must wash on bread for the dairy meal and recite Birchas Hamazon. If one will be satiated from these Mezonos foods then he may wash on the actual Mezonos and recite Hamotzi on it. If one will be eating less than 330 grams of baked Mezonos produce, but will be satiated from the dairy meal, then if he is eating more than 220 grams of baked Mezonos, he may wash on the actual Mezonos and recite Hamotzi over it. If he is eating less than 220 grams of baked Mezonos, then he is to wash on real bread beforehand. If he will not be satiated from the Mezonos products, then so long as he is eating less than 330 grams he is not required to wash or bentch. [In short: If one will be eating more than 330 grams, he must wash on bread, or on the Mezonos if he will be satiated. If he is eating less than 330 grams of Mezonos and will not be satiated, he does not need to wash or eat bread. If he is eating less than 330 grams of Mezonos but will be satiated, then he must wash on bread, or on the Mezonos if he will be eating 220 grams of Mezonos.]
Some are accustomed to eat milk and honey on Shavuos, as the Torah is allegorized to honey.
Some are accustomed to add Saffron to foods on Shavuos, as it has a good scent and rejoices the heart.
Bread with four heads:
Some are accustomed to knead a long loaf of bread with four heads in commemoration of the Shtei Halechem.
In order to commemorate the Shtei Halechem offering brought on Shavuos, one is to specifically eat wheat bread on Shavuos.
Q&A on delaying the meat meal
Custom of Chabad and others to wait between milk and meat:
From the letter of the law, there is no need to wait between eating dairy and meat, and one is simply required to wash and clean his mouth and hands prior to eating meat. However, according to the Zohar one is required to wait between eating dairy and meat. The Shelah Hakadosh likewise rules that one is to wait one hour between dairy and meat. Many however are accustomed to wait only a half hour. Practically, the Chabad custom is to wait at least one hour between eating or drinking all dairy products and eating meat.  This applies even after eating soft cheese and drinking milk. [Those cheeses which are defined as hard cheese are subject to a six hour wait as will be explained.] Even if one plans to wait an hour, one is to perform Kinuach and Hadacha [i.e. cleanse the mouth] and wash his hands, prior to eating meat.
Does one have to say an after blessing between eating dairy and meat?
Some Poskim rule one does not have to say an after blessing between dairy and meat unless he is required to wait 6 hours, such as after eating aged cheese. Others however rule one is required to recite an after blessing, and so is the custom.
Does one have to wait an hour from the end of the dairy meal until the start of the meat meal, or does it suffice for there to be an hour lapse between the dairy and meat foods?
Some write that one may begin the meat meal within one hour from eating dairy so long as he does not eat meat until one hour passes from his conclusion of eating dairy. However, others write that based on the Zohar’s requirement of waiting an hour between meals, one must delay the start of the meat meal until an hour passes from the conclusion of the dairy meal. Practically, those who suspect for the words of the Zohar are to follow this opinion.
Which cheeses are Halachically defined as hard cheese that require a six hour wait?
Halacha differentiates between hard and soft cheese in terms of the amount of time one must wait prior to eating meat. Soft cheese, such as cream cheese, sour cream, yogurts, cottage cheese, from the letter of the law does not require one to wait at all before eating meat. One must however clean his mouth and wash his hands prior to eating meat. Hard cheese, however, requires one to wait six hours prior to eating meat.
What is the definition of hard cheese? Hard cheese which has aged six months requires a six hour wait. Hard cheeses which have not aged 6 months, such as yellow cheese and the majority of forms of hard cheese, are disputed amongst today’s Poskim if they are considered like hard cheese and if one must thus wait six hours before eating meat. One is to follow the ruling of his personal Rav. Those hard cheeses which one knows for certain to have aged six months, or that they contain larvae, such as parmesan, Casu Marzu, and other exotic forms of hard cheese, require a six hour wait prior to eating meat or poultry.
May one make cheese cake using whole biscuits that contain engraved letters?
It is not advised to do so due to the eating restriction to be explained. If one did so, then care must be taken not to break the biscuits with one’s hands in a way that the letters will break. One may however eat the biscuits whole, have them break in his mouth.
What blessing is to be recited over baked cheese cake that contains Mezonos ingredients?
One is to only recite a blessing of Mezonos. [Some however write that if the Mezonos is very thin and is barely felt within the food, then only a blessing over the cheese is recited.
Reciting a Torah and story of the Besht:
One is to recite a teaching and story of the Baal Shem Tov during Shavuos.
Drinking a Revius of wine:
It is an obligation for men to drink [a Revius of] wine on Yom Tov.
Q&A on wine
How much wine must a man drink?
A man is to drink a Revius of wine. The wine drank in Kiddush is included in this Mitzvah.
Must one drink actual wine, or is grape juice also valid?
One does not fulfill his obligation with grape juice.
Must one drink actual wine, or are other alcoholic beverages also valid?
One can drink any alcoholic beverage.
 Admur 494:18; KU”A 249:5; Chok Yaakov 494:8 in name of Maharil; Rashba 4:262; Pesachim 68b
 Seemingly this refers to the Mitzvah of Simcha, which is a Biblical command, however, not the Mitzvah of Oneg and Kavod which is only Rabbinical; Alternatively, Admur here is referring to the Biblical prohibition of fasting on Yom Tov.
 Admur 429:10
 See Admur 288:3
 See Likkutei Sichos 23 p. 27
 Pesachim 68b
 Pesachim ibid
 Admur 494:16; Rama 494:3 “In certain places it is customary to eat dairy on the first day of Shavuos”; Kol Bo 52
 Admur ibid, in contrast to wording in Rama ibid
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid; See Q&A regarding the second day
 Admur 529:3
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid “the custom is to eat a dairy meal and then a meat meal”
 Admur 494:16; Shlah; Peri Megadim brought in M”B 494:17; Aruch Hashulchan 494:5; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1579 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 3:41]
Other opinions: Some Poskim [Kol Bo brought in Beir Heiytiv 494:8; Noam Elimelech Mishpatim “Lo Sivashel”; Piskeiy Teshuvah 285; See Darkei Teshuvah 89:19] rule one may be lenient in the laws of separation between milk and meat on Shavuos, and not wait 6 hours between eating them. Other Poskim [Shlah; Peri Megadim brought in M”B 494:17; Aruch Hashulchan 494:5] however decried this leniency. The Rebbe ibid stressed against being lenient as the one of the entire reasons of eating milk is to commemorate our strict observance of the Kashrus laws which merited us to receive the Torah over the angles, so how can one now be lenient in these laws. It is also clear from Admur ibid that he is against being lenient in any laws of meat and milk.
 The reason: In order so the Kiddush be “Bemakom Seuda.”
 See Q&A
 See Q&A
 Shlah ibid; See Taz 89:2 unlike Shach 89:7; However, others [Hakashrus 10:48] rule there is no need to do Kinuach and Hadacha once one has waited an hour, even according to the Taz. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as the Shlah explicitly writes to do so despite his ruling of waiting an hour, and so quotes Darkei Teshuvah; In Igros Kodesh 20 p. 28 the Rebbe mentions the commentary of the Peri Megadim SD 89:7 that the Shach holds the delay of an hour takes the place of needing to clean the mouth. Vetzaruch Iyun if the intent of the Rebbe here is to rule that one who waits an hour does not need to clean his mouth, or is simply showing another source to the asker for the idea of waiting an hour, although in truth we also clean our mouth afterwards. Hiskashrus 931 learns from here there is no need to wash the mouth. Shevach Hamoadim p. 241 writes one is to wash out the mouth.
 It is the Chabad custom to wait at least one hour between eating or drinking all dairy products and eating meat. This applies even to soft cheeses and milk. [Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 20 p. 289; This custom is mentioned in the Shlah Hakadosh Tractate Shavuos p. 30. In the above letter the Rebbe mentions he is unsure if this custom of waiting an hour is meant for all to follow or only for select individuals. However, it is told that in 1953, the Rebbe mentioned to the Bochurim learning Semicha that this as a classical Chabad custom. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 308]
 See Q&A regarding if one may begin the meal within the hour and delay eating meat until an hour passes.
 See Q&A regarding which cheeses enter this category.
 See Rama
 Michaber Yoreh Deah 89:4
 Rama 494:3 “In certain places it is customary to eat dairy on the first day of Shavuos and in my opinion the reason is because it is similar to the two foods we take on Pesach, on the night of the Seder, to commemorate the Karban Pesach and Karban Chagiga. So too, on Shavuos we eat dairy and afterwards eat meat, [as one may not use the same bread for both a meat and dairy meal-Machatzis Hashekel 494:7]. Hence, the two meals of meat and dairy force us to bring two loaves of bread [one for each meal] to the table, which is in place of the altar. This commemorates the two breads which were offered on Yom Habikkurim.”
 M”A 494:6 in name of Zohar; Beir Heiytiv 494:8; Aruch Hashulchan ibid
 Kol Bo 52; Chok Yaakov 494:9; Aruch Hashulchan 494:5
 M”B 494:12 in name of a Gadol; Sefer Geulas Yisrael ; Imrei Pinchas [Koretz]
 Imrei Pinchas [Koretz]
 Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:194
 See Beir Heiytiv 494:8 [towards end]; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1579 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 3:41]
 Shabbos 88b; Midrash Raba Yisro 28
 Midrash Tehilim 8; Daas Zekeinim on Vayeira ibid
 Vayeira 18:8
 Beir Heiytiv 494:8 [towards end] “I heard that we eat dairy and then meat, unlike what the angels did by Avraham in which they ate meat and milk, as due to this the Torah was given to the Jewish people”; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1579 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 3:41]
 Brought in Sefer Pardes Haaretz [Horawitz] Vol. 3 p. 548 in footnote
 See Michaber Y.D. Chapter 89
 Bnei Yissachar Shavuos, brought in Taamei Haminhagim 622
 Taamei Haminhagim 624
 Taamei Haminhagim 624
 See Shach 87:9
 Darkei Teshuvah 89:19; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:11
Other opinions: Some are accustomed to eat the dairy meal on the night meal of Shavuos. [custom brought in Darkei Teshuvah ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] This is based on those Poskim who rule the Mitzvah of Simcha does not apply at night. [Shaagas Aryeh 66]
 The reason: As one is obligated in Simchas Yom Tov also on the night of Yom Tov [Shaareiy Teshuvah 529:529:2 in name of M”A 546:4] and the Mitzvah of Simcha is only fulfilled with meat. [Darkei Teshuvah ibid]
 Hiskashrus 931; This was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz as recorded in Reshimos 8 p. 14, and so was the custom of the Rebbe as recorded in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 307; Darkei Teshuvah 89:19 “Therefore, the proper custom which I received from my holy forbearers is to eat dairy immediately after Kiddush…”
 Admur 494:16 “It is accustomed on the first day of Shavuos…”; Rama ibid “On the first day of Shavuos”; Hiskashrus 931
 Darkei Chaim Veshalom 644
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 309
 This is in accordance to the reason of the Rama 494:3, mentioned above, that dairy products are eaten in commemoration of the two loaves of bread that were offered on Shavuos. According to this reason, the main aspect of the custom of eating dairy is to eat two meals of bread, and thus commemorate the two breads. [So is implied from Rama 494:3 and Magen Avraham 494:8] This is also mention in Admur 494:16 when he discusses the custom to knead bread with milk. Taamei Haminhagim likewise writes that one eats two meals, washing for both the meat and milk meal. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12
 Darkei Teshuvah 89:19 “as he received from his ancestors”; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 644; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12; Hiskashrus 931; In the Chabad Tikkun Leil Shavuos it writes that one does not wash for the meal, but rather eats Mezonos after Kiddush and then says a Bracha Acharona and washes for the meat meal. Similarly in Otzer it says that the Rebbe only ate Mezonos for the milk meal. Perhaps this can also be inferred from Admur which writes that “it’s a custom to eat milk products” and does not write that “it’s a custom to eat two meals”.
 Admur Seder Birchas Hanehnin 2:3
 Kol Bo 52; Chok Yaakov 494:9; Aruch Hashulchan 494:5; M”B 494:13
 Kol Bo 52; Chok Yaakov 494:9; Aruch Hashulchan 494:5
 Kol Bo 52; Chok Yaakov 494:9
 M”A 494:9
 See Michaber Y.D. 89:2
 Mentioned in: Shach 89:16; Beis Yosef 173; Toras Chatas of Rama; Levush 173; P”M 89 S.D. 6; Darkei Teshuvah 89:19
 Tractate Shavuos p. 30
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12 footnote 68; Hakashrus 10:47
 Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 20 p. 289; In the above letter the Rebbe mentions he is unsure if this custom of waiting an hour is meant for all to follow or only for select individuals. However, it is told the Rebbe mentioned this as a classical Chabad custom to the Bochurim learning Semicha in 1953. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Sivan]
 Shlah ibid; Taz 89:2 unlike Shach 89:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494 footnote 67; Shevach Hamoadim p. 241 writes one is to wash out the mouth. However, others [Hakashrus 10:48] write there is no need to do Kinuach and Hadacha once one has waited an hour, even according to the Taz. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as the Shlah explicitly writes to do so despite his ruling of waiting an hour, and so quotes Darkei Teshuvah 89. In Igros Kodesh 20 p. 28 the Rebbe mentions the commentary of the Peri Megadim SD 89:7 that the Shach holds the delay of an hour takes the place of needing to clean the mouth. Vetzaruch Iyun if the intent of the Rebbe here is to rule that one who waits an hour does not need to clean his mouth, or is simply showing another source to the asker for the idea of waiting an hour, although in truth we also clean our mouth afterwards. To note the Peri Megadim himself on Taz 89:2 explains as the Taz that one is required to wash the mouth even after waiting one hour. Hence one cannot deduce the opinion of the Peri Megadim from his commentary on the Shach.
 M”A 494:6; M”B 494:16; See Keren Ledavid 140; Mishneh Sachir 1:59
 Shelah Tractate Shavuos p. 30; Kneses Hagedola 89; Minchas Yaakov 76:5; Beir Heiytiv 89:2; P”M 89 S.D. 6 that so is custom on Shavuos, and so applies according to Zohar who requires one to wait between dairy and meat; Darkei Teshuvah 89:14 and 19; Beir Mayim Chaim Vayeira; Shach 89:6 regarding eating dairy after meat outside of a meal;
 Hakashrus 10 footnote 69; So rule regarding dairy after meat: Rama 89:1:” It does not make a difference if one waits the hour before or after he bentches”; Degul Merivava on Shach 89:3; Darkei Teshuvah 89:4; Kaf Hachaim 89:9; However, the Aruch Hashulchan [89:4] rules one is to wait six hours from the end of the meal. Hence seemingly here too accordingly one would need to wait an hour from after he bentches until he washes for the meat meal. Practically the custom is like the first opinion.
 Implication of Shelah Miseches Shavuos p. 30 and Darkei Teshuvah 89:19 “Say Birchas Hamazon, and then wait an hour and then eat the meat meal”; Olas Reiyah 59; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12;
 See Rama 89:2
 Shach 89:15; Issur Viheter, brought in Taz 89
 These take approximately 1-2 months to be prepared. [Hakashrus 10 footnote 120]
 Some Poskim rule one is to wait 6 hours after all hard cheeses. [Sheivet Haleivi 2:35; Rav Elyashiv; Rav S.Z. Labkowsky; Rav Eli Landa; See Hakashrus 10 footnote 125] Others rule one may be lenient by all hard cheese unless one knows it is aged six months. [Rav Y. Farkash; Hiskashrus 931 “Majority, if not all, cheeses on the Mehadrin market today are not hard, and one does not need to wait 6 hours after them.”]
 Some are stringent being that although these cheeses are not wormy and have not aged 6 months, nevertheless they maintain a hard cheese quality due their ingredients, and high fat content which is result of the new technology in cheese processing. [See Hakashrus 10 footnote 120, 125 and 126. I heard this also from Rav S.Z. Labkowsky, and so he rules to be stringent by all hard cheeses.] Others are stringent because it is not written on the cheese as to how many months they have been aged and hence, due to doubt, one is to be stringent by all hard cheeses.
 Admur 458:8 regarding Matzah on Pesach
Other opinions: Some Poskim allow breaking engraved letters that is on food. [M”B 340:15; SSH”K 11:8. Ra”sh Haleivi brought in Magen Avraham, although he himself concludes with Tzaruch Iyun]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 144 footnote 3; Shabbos Kehalacha Volume 3 p. 369; 20:73
 Admur 168:9; Shevet Halevi 4:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 212:14; Luach [Prus] p. 41; Luach [Marlow] p. 160
 The reason: As the dough and filling have been baked together and are hence considered one food of Mezonos which is the Ikkur. [168:9]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Sheivet Halevi 4:23
 Sefer Hasichos 1944:140 that so is custom of Rabbeim; Toras Menachem 40:58 that since the Rebbe Rayatz told over this custom, it is proper that every person follow it.
 Admur 529:7
The ruling in 242:1 and KU”A 2: There Admur mentions plainly that eating and drinking such as wine and meat is part of the Biblical Mitzvah of Simcha. Vetzaruch Iyun as there it implies a) meat is also a Biblical Mitzvah b) Everyone fulfills the Mitzvah through eating and drinking.
 See Q&A!
 Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 529; Torah Or Esther p. 198 “One fulfills his obligation of Simcha through drinking a Revius of wine.”
 Peri Chadash 483; Chol Hamoed Kihilchaso 1 footnote 24
 Chol Hamoed Kihilchaso 1 footnote 25
Mishnah Berurah 429:19 – Many poskim rule that one may fast for a bad dream, unlike the opinion of the Alter Rebbe.
It is not the custom of Yemenite Jewry to eat dairy on Shavous. Thus, the statement of “It is customary amongst all Jewry…” is not understood in my opinion.
If fulfilling the mitzvah through any alcoholic beverage (not wine), is one to drink a reviis, or any amount suffices (as it is not always possible to drink a reviis of hard liquor)?