May one go shopping before Davening?
It is forbidden for one to go shopping prior to Davening Shacharis, [starting from Alos Hashachar].
B. Erev Shabbos:
Even on Erev Shabbos, it is forbidden for one to go shopping prior to Davening Shacharis, unless the store will close, in which the following laws apply:
Store is closing, or product will sell out: If one will not be able to go shopping for Shabbos after he finishes Davening [such as if the store will close, or the store will sell out of the product], then he should first go shopping, and then Daven afterwards.
Saying Kerias Shema before shopping: Whenever one needs to go shopping before Davening, he must recite the Shema within its proper time prior to shopping.
If will miss Zeman Tefila: The above allowance to shop prior to Davening if the store will close applies even if it is possible that due to the purchase he will miss praying within Zman Tefila, nevertheless he is to first make his purchase. [However, if doing the purchase will cause him to definitely fail to pray within Zman Tefila, then he is to first pray. If, however, he will still have enough time to Daven prior to Sof Zeman Tefila in the form of skipping parts of Pesukei Dezimra, then he may go shopping beforehand, and then afterwards pray an abridged prayer .]
If will miss Minyan: If, however, delaying the prayer until after shopping will cause one to fail to pray with a Minyan, then he is to first pray. [Some Poskim, however, rule that only if there is also a chance that one will miss Zeman Tefila do we instruct them to first Daven with a minyan. If, however, he will for certain be able to Daven within Zeman Tefila, then it is better that he misses the Minyan and first go shopping if he will not be able to shop afterwards. Furthermore, some Poskim completely argue on the above and always permit shopping prior to Davening if one will not be able to shop afterwards even in expense of missing the minyan, so long as it is not certain that he will miss Zeman Tefila. Nonetheless, certainly if one is the 10th man needed for the Minyan then he should not go shopping beforehand and cause the minyan to fall apart. Likewise, some Poskim limit disallowance of missing Davening with a Minyan for the sake of going shopping before prayer only to those food items that are absolute Shabbos necessities such as bread, meat, fish, and win. However, regarding all other delicacies, one may not miss Davening with a minyan for the sake of purchasing them, although he may purchase them prior to prayer if he will not miss the Minyan, and will not be able to do so after Davening.]
It is forbidden for one to go shopping prior to Davening Shacharis, even on Erev Shabbos, unless all the following apply:
1. He will be unable to go shopping afterwards or the food item will be unavailable afterwards.
2. He says Shema prior to the shopping.
3. It is not definite that he will miss Zman Tefila due to the shopping.
4. He will not questionably miss Zman Tefila and also definitely miss Davening with a Minyan due to the shopping. If he will certainly not miss Zman Tefila but will definitely miss Davening with a Minyan he is first to make his purchases, unless he is needed for the Minyan.
Does the above laws apply to women; may a woman go shopping prior to her Davening Shacharis?
A woman should not go shopping for Shabbos prior to her Davening at least her abridged obligatory sections of prayer, although those who do so do not have to be protested, although are to be taught at the very least to say the morning blessings beforehand.
 See Admur 89:4; 250:3; M”A 251:6; Seder Hayom Shabbos; Kaf Hachaim 89:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 89:15; 250:2
 See Admur 89:4 and Michaber 89:3 regarding the general prohibition to do one’s errands before Shacharis; Admur 250:3 and M”A 251:6 regarding the cases of allowance on Erev Shabbos, hence proving that regularly, this is forbidden.
 M”B 89:17; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; See Admur 89
 Admur 250:3 “If one will not be able to go shopping after he finishes Davening, then he should first go shopping, and then Daven afterwards. However, he must recite the Shema prior to shopping, as perhaps it’s time will pass by the time he finishes shopping. However regarding the prayer itself, it contains more time. Now, although there is room to suspect that this time will to pass, nevertheless [we ignore this worry] since the Mitzvah of preparing for the Shabbos meals will definitely not be fulfilled, due to that he will no longer have the ability to buy. Nonetheless, if the congregation is praying, then he is not to separate from them.”; M”A 251:6; Seder Hayom Shabbos; Shaareiy Teshuvah 89:2, 10; M”B 89:36; 250:1
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may always go shopping for Shabbos before Davening, being that one is doing so for the sake of a mitzvah, and the prohibition against doing errands prior to Davening only apply to personal errands and not errands done on behalf of a mitzvah. [Peri Chadash 89:6; Yifei Laleiv 89:5; P”M 89 A”A 15; 250 M”Z 1, Brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 The implication from Setimas Haposkim is that even if one will not find a certain food available that he wants for Shabbos, even though other foods will still be available, then he may go shopping prior to prayer. [So rules Birur Halacha Zilber 250; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] However, some Poskim rule that one may only go shopping prior to prayer if he will not find anything at all available to purchase for Shabbos. [Chayeh Adam Shabbos 1:2; Brought in Kaf Hachaim, ibid]
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Seder Hayom ibid; P”M 250 M”Z 1
 The reason: He must say the Shema prior to shopping even if there may be time left to say it after shopping, as we suspect that perhaps it’s time will pass prior to him finishing shopping. [Admur ibid]
 But not definite, as will be explained.
 The reason: We do not suspect that one will come to pass the time for Davening [which is the 4th hour of the day], as we do by Shema, as Davening contains one more hour then does the Shema. Now, although there is room to suspect that this time will too pass until the shopping is complete, nevertheless since the Mitzvah of preparing for the Shabbos meals will definitely be not fulfilled if one Davens first, due to the closing of the stores, while it is possible that he still be able to Daven on time if he go to the store first, therefore he is to first go to the store. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Seder Hayom ibid] Alternatively, the shopping for Shabbos overrides Davening, being that doing so is a biblical obligation, as opposed to prayer. [Seder Hayom ibid, omitted from Admur ibid]
 Implication of Admur ibid; P”M 250 M”Z 1; Ketzos Hashulchan 70:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 11
 Admur ibid “Nevertheless if the congregation is praying, he is not to separate himself from the congregation.”; M”A ibid; Seder Hayom ibid; See Admur in 90:17
 Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 11 [in answer of questions raised by Biur Halacha against the above ruling]
Opinion of Ketzos Hashulchan: The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid suggests that in truth everyone agrees that Davening with a Minyan alone is not enough to nullify the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos, and one is to thus first go shopping in such a case. When, however, do we say that Davening takes precedence? In a case that in addition to one losing out in praying with a Minyan, there is also possibility that if he shops before Davening, he will miss Zman Tefila, and in such a case that there are possibly two transgressions involved in first going shopping, one is to forgo the shopping and first pray. However, if one knows for certain that he will not miss Zman Tefila then he is to first go shopping, even on expense of missing the Minyan. [This opinion of the Ketzos Hashulchan does not contradict the ruling of Admur or the ruling written above, as whenever one goes shopping in the morning there seemingly is doubt if he will lose Davening within Zman Tefila, as there is no prediction of how long the shopping will take.]
The law if one is the 10th man for the Minyan: Vetzaruch Iyun on the above distinction of the Ketzos Hashulchan, as Admur in 90:17 rules that the Mitzvah of Davening with a Minyan which contains the greatest positive command of sanctifying Hashem’s name in public, pushes off even a negative command of not freeing a slave. [This is in contrast to other Poskim, such as Michaber Yoreh Deah 267:79 who do not view any special advantage in Davening with a Minyan regarding pushing off this negative command, and rather rule that all Rabbinical Mitzvos may push off this command of not freeing a slave.] Thus, certainly in our case that a) there is a dispute if Oneg Shabbos is Biblical or Rabbinical, and b) It is possible for one to eat at someone else’s house or borrow food, which Davening with a Minyan would push off shopping, even on expense of Oneg Shabbos. However perhaps one can differentiate between the Halacha here and in 90:17, as perhaps only in a scenario that there will not be a Minyan at all do we say that making a Minyan overrides even a Biblical command. However, if there will be a Minyan regardless of if one joins this Minyan, then Davening with a Minyan does not override even a Rabbinical command. This distinction can also be proven from the law that one may not delay praying within Zman Tefila even if he needs to use the bathroom, if he can withhold himself for a Shiur Parsa. However, one is to delay praying with a Minyan if he has to use the bathroom even if he can withhold himself for Shiur Parsa. Likewise, the law states that if Zman Tefila is passing he is to begin Davening Shemoneh Esrei before the Minyan even though he will miss Davening with the Minyan due to this. In any event one can deduce from here that if one is the 10th man for a Minyan he may not leave the Minyan and go shopping even if the store will be closing, and even if he will be able to Daven later, after shopping, within Zman Tefila.
 Mishneh Berurah 250 Biur Halacha “Yashkim”; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 The reason: As how could the Rabbinical Mitzvah of Davening with a Minyan push off the Mitzvah and obligation to prepare for the Shabbos meal, which is a Biblical command of Oneg Shabbos. Furthermore, even if Oneg Shabbos is only of Rabbinical origin, since one can Daven in private how can we allow Davening with a Minyan to completely nullify the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. He thus concludes that one is to first go shopping, even on expense of missing the Minyan, and then Daven in private. [Biur Halacha ibid]
 See Admur 90:17 and previous footnotes
 Birur Halacha Zilber 250; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 See Admur 106 for a dispute as to whether women are obligated in the daily prayer, and that the main ruling follows that they are obligated, and therefore consequently all the laws applicable to men would apply to women as well. Even according to the lenient opinion, they are still obligated to say the morning blessings in place of their prayer, and according to many Poskim, including Admur, are independently obligated to recite the sections of Shema and Birchas Shema that discuss the Exodus, and hence due to this would have all the restrictions apply. Nonetheless, those who are lenient do not have to be protested, as according to some opinions they are not obligated in the daily prayer, or in mentioning the Exodus.
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