Shabbos Chanukah-Part 2

The Davening:

A. Al Hanissim:[1]

Al Hanissim is recited on Shabbos Chanukah within the Shabbos Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv Shacharis, and Mincha.

Musaf:[2] Al Hanissim is recited also within the Musaf Shemoneh Esrei.[3]

B. Tzidkasecha:[4]

Tzidkasecha is omitted on Shabbos Chanukah by Mincha.

C. Bameh Madlikin:

Some Poskim[5] rule that the Mishnayos of Perek Bameh Madlikin which are customarily recited on Friday night are not to be recited on Shabbos Chanuka, and so is the Sephardic custom. Other Poskim[6], however, rule that it is to be recited as usual, and so is the Ashkenazi custom. [The Chabad custom is not to recite it even during a regular Friday night.]

  1. Kerias Hatorah for Shabbos Chanukkah:

Shabbos Chanukah-not Rosh Chodesh:[7] On Shabbos Chanukah, two Sifrei Torah are removed from the ark. The weekly portion is read from the first scroll, while the portion of Chanukah is read as Maftir from the second Torah scroll. [On all days that Chanukah falls on Shabbos, one only reads that days Karban and not also the next day’s Karban.[8] When the first day of Chanukah falls on Shabbos, one reads from Beyom Kalos Moshe until the end of the first Karban.[9]] The Haftorah of “Rini Vesimchi” is read. In the event that there are two Shabbos Chanukah’s that year, then on the second Shabbos, the Haftorah of “Neiros Shlomo” is read.

Shabbos Chanukah with Rosh Chodesh:[10] When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, three Sifrei Torah are removed. Six Aliyos are read from the weekly Parsha, from the first Torah scroll. [By the 6th Aliyah, the remainder of the Parsha is read from Shishi until the end of the Parsha.[11] One then places the second scroll on the Bima for the seventh Aliyah, and does Hagba to the first Sefer Torah.[12] [Half Kaddish is recited only after the reading of the portion of Rosh Chodesh.[13] One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[14]] From the second Torah scroll, one Aliyah is read from the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh. One begins from the words “Ubiyom Hashabbos.” [One then places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll, and one says half Kaddish.[15] Hagba is then done to the second scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagba.] From the third Torah scroll, Maftir is read from the Parsha of Chanukah [of that day’s Karban[16]]. The Haftorah of “Rini Vesimchi” of Chanukah is read.[17] This reading is then followed by the first and last verse of the Haftorah of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. [When adding the verses of Hashamayim Kisiy on Rosh Chodesh the custom is to add the first verse of the Haftorah and verses 23-24 and then again verse 23.[18]] If Rosh Chodesh Teves is two days, and falls on Shabbos-Sunday, then one also recites the first and last verse of Machar Chodesh. One first says the first and last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy and then of Machar Chodesh.[19]



On Shabbos Chanukah, does one place the 2nd Sefer Torah on the Bimah prior to Hagbah of the 1st Sefer Torah?[20]



On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah, does one place the first Sefer Torah back on the Bimah when half Kaddish is said after the reading?[21]



What is one to do if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one only has two scrolls available?

If there are only two Torah scrolls available, then one is to read the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh from the second scroll, and read the Parsha of Chanukah from the first scroll.[23] This, however, only applies if the first scroll is rolled to the Parsha of Chanukah prior to its Hagba. If, however, the first scroll was not rolled to the Parsha of Chanukah prior to its Hagba, then it is better to read the Chanukah portion from the second scroll.[24]


Q&A on mistake in reading

What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one read the portion of Chanukah from the second scroll?[25]

One is to read the portion of Rosh Chodesh from the third scroll. Even in such a case, the Haftorah of Chanukah is read and not the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh.

Remembered prior to saying after blessing: If one remembered prior to completing the Chanukah reading, or prior to saying the after blessing of the Aliyah, some Poskim[26] rule he is to roll the Sefer Torah to the Rosh Chodesh reading, and repeat the first blessing and then read again the Chanukah reading from the third Sefer Torah. Practically, if one chooses to complete the Chanukah reading in the second scroll and read the Rosh Chodesh reading from the third scroll, he may do so.[27]


What is the law if the Baal Korei did not read until the end of Shevi’i by the 6th Aliyah on a day that three Sifrei Torah are removed?

A seventh Aliyah is to be called up for Shevi, and then an eighth Aliyah for the reading of the second scroll and then a ninth Aliyah for the reading of the third scroll.[28]


Q&A on mistakes in Haftorah

What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah one read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh?[29]

If one accidentally read the Rosh Chodesh portion in the 3rd scroll, and then read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. [However, if one read the portion of Chanukah from the third scroll, and then read the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh, seemingly, this follows the same law as the next Q&A. He is thus to stop and read the correct Haftorah. If one only remembered after the blessings, then he is to read the Haftorah without its blessings.]


What is the law if the weekly Haftorah was read instead of the Haftorah of Chanukah?[30] Remembered prior to the blessings: If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered prior to reciting the concluding blessings over the Haftorah, then he is to now read the correct Haftorah of Chanukah and then continue with the concluding blessings.

Remembered after concluding the blessings: If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered after the concluding blessings over the Haftorah, then he is to read the correct Haftorah of Chanukah without a blessing.

Remembered in middle of the concluding blessings:[31] If one read the weekly Haftorah of the Parsha and remembered in the midst of the concluding blessings that he needed to read the Haftorah of Chanukah, it requires further analysis as to whether one is to stop to read the correct Haftorah and then conclude the remaining blessings, or is to conclude the remaining blessings and then recite the correct Haftorah.

  1. The meal:
  2. The menu-Increasing in food:

The custom is to increase in meals and festivities during Chanukah.[32] Thus, on Shabbos Chanukah, one is to increase in foods more than a regular Shabbos.[33] [When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, then one is to increase in foods even more, on behalf of both Shabbos Chanukah and on behalf of Rosh Chodesh.[34]]


  1. Heating up Sufganiyot on Shabbos:[35]

A typical Sufganiya which contains jam inside of it is not to be heated up on Shabbos, due to the possible cooking prohibition relevant to the jam. [If the Sufganiya does not contain jam inside, then if it is completely dry, it may be heated up on top of another hot pot.[36]]

  1. Birchas Hamazon:

Al Hanissim:[37] Al Hanissim is recited on Shabbos Chanukah within Birchas Hamazon, [hence making it the longest Bentching of the year].

Forgot Ritzei on Shabbos Chanukah:[38] On Shabbos Chanukah, if one recited Al Hanissim but forgot to say Ritzei in Birchas Hamazon, and is thus repeating Birchas Hamazon from the beginning, he is not required to repeat the saying of Al Hanissim in the second Birchas Hamazon.[39] If Rosh Chodesh Teves fell on Shabbos, and he forgot to say Ritzei but said Al Hanissim and Yaleh Veyavo, then although he is not required to repeat Al Hanissim in his second Birchas Hamazon, he is initially required to repeat Yaleh Veyavo in his repetition.[40]

  1. Eating near the Chanukah candles if there is a blackout:[41]

It is forbidden to use the light of the Chanukah candles to perform any mundane activity. Some Poskim[42] rule that the above prohibition only applies if one is close to the candle, and desires to discern an item. However, to perform an activity that does not require much discerning near the light, such as to eat near it, is permitted to be performed. Other Poskim[43], however, rule it is forbidden to do any activity in face of the candlelight even if it does not require much discerning, and one is a distance from the light. It is therefore forbidden to eat in face of the light. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, and it is thus forbidden to eat even one’s Shabbos meals near the candles.[44] [The above however applies only if there is no other light in the room, if however, one has other light in the room, and does not need to use the light of the candles, then it is permitted to eat and do activities near the Chanukah candles.]

  1. Entertainment:
  2. Chanukah gelt:[45]

Parents are to give Chanukah Gelt to their children every day of Chanukah, with exception to Shabbos. On Friday or Sunday, one is to give a double portion on behalf of Shabbos. One is not to give Chanukah Gelt on Shabbos, even in the form of non-Muktzah items.[46]

  1. May one sing Haneiros Halalu on Shabbos?

The beginning of Haneiros Halalu is not sung on Shabbos[47], however its continuation of “Al Nisecha” is sung.[48]

  1. May one play Dreidel on Shabbos?[49]

Playing Dreidel for the sake of winning and losing items of value/food: It is forbidden to play Dreidel on Shabbos for the sake of meriting something with each spin. Thus, it is forbidden on Shabbos to play Dreidel in the typical way that it is played during the week even if money is not used,  such as to use chocolate coins or chocolate lentils or any food or other item of the like in which there is a benefit for the players to win. This applies even to children, and the father is therefore obligated to educate them not to play Dreidel in this fashion on Shabbos.

Playing Dreidel without any item to win or lose: It is permitted for children below the age of Bar/Bas Mitzvah to play Dreidel without any purpose of gain or loss simply to spin it and see who gets what.[50] Accordingly, it is permitted to play Dreidel using items that have no value or importance if gained, or if there will be no gain or loss, such as if the children will have to return everything they won back into the pile when they are done playing, and they will not gain or lose any more or less than any other child due to the game. Thus, they may play using almonds even if they are in their shell if at the end of the game, they will return it back to the bag and no one will keep what they won. It is proper to designate a special beautiful Shabbos dreidel for this purpose in order to avoid any question of Muktzah or Uvdin Dechol that may be relevant to a Dreidel that is commonly only used for playing for gain and loss which is forbidden on Shabbos, as explained above. Regarding adults: It is best for them to avoid playing Dreidel on Shabbos both due to the general negation of playing games on Shabbos, as well as the stringency against playing games that involve luck.

May one play Dreidel with beans?[51] It is permitted for children to play Dreidel on Shabbos using beans that have been predesignated for this purpose to be used annually for Dreidel playing. Here too, a special Shabbos dreidel should be designated for this purpose as explained above. If the beans are not designated to be put away for annual use on Shabbos Chanukah and will be thrown out right after Shabbos, then it is best to avoid doing so, although those who do so have upon whom to rely. Even when playing with beans in which there is no true gain or loss for the players, there’s a stringency to avoid doing so as explained above, and thus it should only be done by children below the age of Bar/Bas Mitzvah.

  1. Motzei Shabbos-Lighting the Chanukah candles on Motzei Shabbos:[52]

In Shul?[53] On Motzei Shabbos, in Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit after Maariv [before Aleinu[54]], prior to Havdala.[55]

At home:[56] Certainly, at home, one is to first light the Chanukah candles and then recite Havdala, as one has already heard Havdala in Shul.[57] [However, some Poskim[58] rule that the Chanukah candles are to be lit only after Havdala.[59] Practically, the worldly custom, as well as the Chabad custom, at home, is to first to say Havdalah and only then to light the Chanukah candles.[60]]

Using the Chanukah candles for Havdala:[61] On Motzei Shabbos, one may not use the Chanukah candle to recite the blessing of the Havdala candle, and rather a separate Havdala candle must be used.[62] [This however only applies if one already lit the Chanukah candle and recited the blessing of “Lehadlik Ner Chanukah” over it. If, however, one has not yet lit the candle for the sake of the Mitzvah of Chanukah, then one may light this candle for Havdala, recite the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish, and then extinguish the candle and relight it for the sake of the Chanukah candle.[63] Furthermore, it is even proper to do so.[64]]



In Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit prior to Havdala. In one’s home, the Chanukah candles are lit after Havdala.



When does one recite Vayiten Lecha; after Havdala or after the Chanukah lighting?[65]

The prayer of Vayiten Lecha is recited only after the Chanukah lighting. 


What time is one to take leave of Shabbos in order to light the Chanukah candles after Shabbos?

Some are accustomed to Daven Maariv as early as possible on Motzei Shabbos, in order to facilitate the lighting of the candles within a half hour after nightfall.[66] Nonetheless, doing so has led to people desecrating Shabbos, and lighting the candles prior to the exit of Shabbos.[67] Accordingly, it is best to not change from the regular time of Maariv on Motzei Shabbos which is followed during the rest of the year, and so is the custom.[68] This applies whether one lights inside or outside the home.[69]

One who takes leave of Shabbos by Rabbeinu Tam:[70] One who takes leave of Shabbos by the time of Rabbeinu Tam, is to do so as well on Shabbos Chanukah, and only light the candles after the time of Rabbeinu Tam.



[1] Michaber 682:1; Admur 187:8

[2] Michaber 682:2; Rebbe Yochanan in Shabbos 24a

[3] The reason: This applies despite the fact that there is no Musaf sacrifice or prayer on Chanukah in it of itself [Michaber ibid] as this day is obligated in four prayers. [M”A 682:1; Taz 682:4; M”B 682:6]

[4] Admur 292:7

[5] Michaber 270:1; Birkeiy Yosef 270:2; Rav Poaslim 5:34; Kaf Hachaim 270:9

[6] Rama 270:1

[7] Michaber 684:2-3

[8] Tzemach Tzedek 68; Kitzur SHU”A 139:24; Kaf Hachaim 684:10; Sefer Haminhagim p. 161; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 11 based on Tzemach Tzedek 68

[9] Levush; Kaf Hachaim 684:13

[10] Michaber 684:3

[11] M”B 685:4

[12] Hagba is only done after the second scroll is placed on the Bima. [Rama 147:8] Some [Rav M. Harlig] say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. Others say it is to be placed on the left side. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 36; Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[13] Rivash 59; Kneses Hagedola 684; Kaf Hachaim 684:17

The Sefaradi custom: The Sefaradi custom is to say two Kaddeishim, one after the second scroll, and one after the third scroll [Kaf Hachaim 147:42; 684:19; See Yabia Omer 4:22]

[14] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[15] M”B 685:5; See Levush and Kaf Hachaim 684:19 for the reason behind this

[16] Tzemach Tzedek 68; Kitzur SHU”A 139:24; Kaf Hachaim 684:10; Sefer Haminhagim p. 161; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 11 based on Tzemach Tzedek 68

[17] The reason: As Chanukah contains Persumei Nissa, and is hence said over the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh. In addition, Chanukah was the last portion that was read from the Torah. [Levush; Kaf Hachaim 684:20]

[18] Custom of Rebbe Rayatz, as brought in glosses of Rebbe to the Seder Haftoras in Siddur Torah Or, printed in Sefer Haftoras Chabad, and mentioned in Likkutei Sichos 35:187 footnote 34

The reason: In order to begin and end the last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy with a verse of good tiding. [verse 24 talks of negative matters] [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[19] Likkutei Sichos 35:27; Igros Kodesh 5:108 [letter to Rav A.C. Naah printed in Shulchan Menachem p. 96-105]; See Igros Kodesh 2:308 of Rebbe Rayatz in a letter to Rav Yaakov Landau that he was in doubt as to whether the verses of Rosh Chodesh are to be mentioned in this instance; See Background ibid and other opinions brought next

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to the ruling of the Michaber ibid and Chabad custom of the Rebbe Maharash, one is not to recite the verses of Rosh Chodesh after the Haftorah of Chanukah. The reason for this is because we only mention Rosh Chodesh in cases in which there are opinions that require it to be read that Shabbos. However, all the Poskim agree that the Haftorah of Chanukah is to be read instead of Rosh Chodesh and there is thus no reason to mention it. [Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 16] The Rebbe ibid disputes his ruling

[20] M”B 684:9

[21] M”A 147; Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 684:19; P”M 684 A”A 5; M”B 147:27 in name of Shaareiy Efraim

Other customs: Some are accustomed to place the 1st Sefer Torah near the other scrolls for the saying of Kaddish. [Luach Eretz Yisrael, that so did Rav Shmuel Salant]

[22] This is only done when Kaddish is said after the 1st Sefer prior to the 2nd, and not when Kaddish is said after the 2nd.

[23] Rama 669:1; Peri Chadash 684; Shulchan Gavoa 684:11; Kaf Hachaim 684:16

[24] Chemed Moshe 669; Kaf Hachaim 669:41; Biur Halacha 669:1 “Vechozrim”

[25] Chayeh Adam 139:24; Shaareiy Efraim 8:76; M”B 684:3 in Biur Halacha “Veim Taah”; Kaf Hachaim 684:27

[26] Shaareiy Efraim 8:76

[27] Shaareiy Efraim ibid; See Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[28] As the custom is to permit to add more than seven Aliyos on Shabbos [Admur 282:1] Now, although there are Poskim who forbid doing so [Tashbatz 2:70, brought in Hagahos Harif and Kaf Hachaim 282:10] and so is our custom not to add any more Aliyos [Tzemach Tzedek 35:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1] nevertheless, in a case of need one may do so [Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]. This especially applies in such a case that one must read another three Aliyos being that they involve three different Sefer Torahs, and hence all remaining three Aliyos are considered an obligation. See also Kaf Hachaim 684:17 in name of Peri Chadash, Levush, Birkeiy Yosef 282:3. A further proof for this can be brought from Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] that even if one skipped one word or one letter one must go back and read it even if it means adding an Aliya, and hence certainly here one must add a seventh Aliya to Shevi and then read another two Aliyos.

Delaying Shevi until next Shabbos: One cannot delay Shevii until next Shabbos, and thus only have 8 Aliyos, as even a missed letter from the Parsha must be read that Shabbos, as brought in Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] and certainly if the entire Shevi was missed.

[29] Chayeh Adam 139:24; M”B 684:3 in Biur Halacha “Veim Taah”; Kaf Hachaim 684:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 684:3

[30] The following Poskim record this ruling regarding Rosh Chodesh, and the same would seemingly apply regarding Chanukah: Dvar Moshe 25:3; Shaareiy Efraim 9:19; Kaf Hachaim 425:18; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:5; Ashel Avraham, in name of Devar Moshe brought in Otzer Hamifarshim 425; Kaf Hachaim 423:9

[31] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid footnote 16

[32] Rama 670:2; Hashlama of Rav Nechemiah that it is an old custom and so is the custom today; Biur Halacha 670; Rebbe in Toras Menachem 49 2:34 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:287 and Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:282] “One is to be Mehader in the Mitzvos of Chanukah like all opinions… Rav Nechmia writes the custom in these countries is to increase in meals in these days”; See Michaber and Rama 670:2; Maharal of Prague; Megillas Taanis [and Megillas Antiochus] which states explicitly that “It was established for festivities and joy like all the festivals written in the Torah”; Rashal Yam Shel Shlomo Bava Kama 7:37 that so is proven to be the opinion of Rambam Chanukah 3:3 who writes “The days of Chanukah are days of joy and praise”; Bach 670 that so is implies from Rambam ibid; M”A 670:3; Elya Raba 670:16; Mordechai Haruch, brought in Darkei Moshe 670 “They established it for Mishteh and Simcha”; See Likkutei Sichos 10:142

[33] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 28; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[34] When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, one is to prepare an extra dish for the Shabbos day meal in honor of Rosh Chodesh. [Elya Raba 419:1; Kneses Hagedola 419; Beir Heiytiv 419:1; Chayeh Adam 117:2; M”B 419:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayikra 2:10; Mishmeres Shalom 30:4] Accordingly, when Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos Chanukah, one should increase in double fold on behalf of both Rosh Chodesh and Chanukah.

[35] See Igros Moshe 4:74 regarding ketchup and the same would apply here; See Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 95 and p. 144, p. 147 that if the jam is not made of pure fruit then according to all it has the status of a liquid. If it is made from pure fruit, it is subject to the dispute mentioned below.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may heat it up on Shabbos on top of a hot pot that is on the Blech, being that the jelly is considered a solid. [Halichos Shlomo Chanukah 17:11; Chazon Ovadia Chanukah 19 in name of Rav SZ”A; See also Shabbos Kehalacha p. 147 that Rav SZ”A rules that ketchup has the status of Yaveish being that it derives from tomato paste, and something which was originally a solid remains a solid even when its turned into a flowing paste.]

[36] See “A Semicha Aid for the laws of Shabbos” Volume 1 in the sections of Chazarah and Bishul

[37] Michaber 682:1; Admur 187:8

[38] Admur 188:14; M”A 188:13; Beir Heiytiv 188:4; Elya Raba 188:8; Peri Chadash 682:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim question whether one is to repeat Al Hanissim in his second Birchas Hamazon [P”M 188 A”A 13] and some Poskim conclude that one is to repeat it. [Shaar Hatziyon 188:21; Siddur Yaavetz p. 295; Pischeiy Olam 188:27; Toras Chaim Sofer 188:15; Chayeh Adam 154:39; Nitei Gavriel 48:6]

[39] The reason: As the saying of Al Hanissim in Birchas Hamazon is not an obligation at all, [but rather a mere custom]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; See Shabbos 24a “One does not need to mention it, and if he wants to mention it he could.”]

May one repeat Al Hanissim if he so chooses? Admur ibid writes “one is not required to say it” which implies that it may be said. However the M”A ibid writes that “he is not to say it” which implies it may not be said even if he desires to do so. See Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 14 who concludes it may be repeated if one chooses.

[40] Admur 188:14; M”A 188:13; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:7; M”B 188:29

The reason: As one is required to mention Rosh Chodesh in every Birchas Hamazon on Rosh Chodesh. Thus, one is required to recite Yaleh Veyavo even though he is not repeating the Birchas Hamazon due to Rosh Chodesh. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] As his first Birchas Hamazon is not considered valid at all, and it is hence considered as if he never yet recited Birchas Hamazon. [Levusheu Serud ibid; M”B ibid]

[41] 673:1

[42] Beis Yosef, Darkei Moshe and Rashal, brought in M”A 673:2; The M”A 678:2 seems to conclude like this opinion as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights, and so rules Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[43] Bach; Smak and Sefer Haterumah, brought in M”A 673:2; Conclusion of M”A ibid that so is the custom and so is proven from 678:1 from the fact we rule one cannot light the Chanukah candles in one’s house as Shabbos candles, if one only has one candle available; However see M”A 678:2 that seems to conclude like the previous opinion, as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights; See P”M 678 A”A 2

[44] M”B 673:9-10; 678:2

[45] Toras Menachem 5748 2:65; Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 452; Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:283; Shulchan Menachem 3 p. 288-289; Sefer Haminhagim P. 161

[46] Toras Menachem ibid, due to a decree [that one not come to give out Muktzah items]

[47] Sichas Shabbos Chanukah 1982; Hiskashrus 908

[48] Hiskashrus 908, as Rebbe himself would start to sing it may times on Shabbos.

[49] Regarding the prohibition of playing games for the sake of gain and loss and against doing a lottery: See Admur 338:6; Rama 338:5; Rambam Shabbos 23:17; Shabbos 23 and 148; Beis Yosef 338 in name of Igor 521; Bach 338; Michaber 322:6; M”A 322:9; Mur Uketzia 338 [forbids even for food]; Aruch Hashulchan 338:13; SSH”K 16:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:11 [old] 14 [new]; Chayeh Halevi 10:58; Mishnas Yosef 7:128; Avnei Yashpei 126-2; Metziyon Teitzei Torah 117; Akeidas Moshe 4:33-3; Maaglei Eliyahu 3:30; Emes Leyaakov 679 footnote 593; Mishnas Aaron Leiberman Muktzha 88; Avnei Derech 13: 83; Chevel Nachalaso 20:10

Regarding the prohibition of playing luck games, see: Bach 338; Olas Shabbos 338:5; Kaf Hachaim 338:41; omitted from the majority of Poskim, including Admur;

Regarding the prohibition of playing rolling games on a floor see: Admur 338:6; Aruch Hashulchan 338:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 60; Shevisas Hashabbos; SSH”K 16:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:9

Regarding if the above prohibition applies to children see: Admur 338:6; Rama 338:5 and Darkei Moshe 338; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:14 footnote 123 Regarding having a special designated Dreidel just for Shabbos see: Igros Moshe 5:22-10 [not Muktzah]; Mikdash Yisrael  274-275; Chayeh Halevi 10:58

Background: The sages decreed against playing “gambling” games on Shabbos which refers to all games that involve a gain and loss of items of the players, even if it is not money but rather food, if the items gained and lost retain a monetary value. This is due to their general decree against doing business on Shabbos. Now, although in the case of children the items that will be won by the players belongs to the father of the home and is hence not exactly similar to business, nonetheless, this would still seemingly fall under the lottery prohibition applicable on Shabbos which is itself forbidden due to the gambling prohibition which is similar to business. Now, if there is no gain or loss at all achieved through playing the game then seemingly it would be permitted. When permitted to be played, seemingly it may be played even on a tiled floor and not just specifically on a table, being that it is never common to play Dreidel on a dirt floor, and hence it is not similar to the prohibition recorded in the Poskim against playing rolling games on even tiled floors. Now, although there are Poskim who prohibit playing any luck game on Shabbos, practically we do not rule this way, and therefore certainly children may be lenient to do so. However, since there are Poskim who rule that using a regular weekday Dreidel can transgress the prohibition of Muktzah and Uvdin Dechol, therefore, to avoid all issues one should designate a special Shabbos dreidel for playing on Shabbos. Likewise, it is best for adults and as well all children above bar/bas mitzvah to avoid playing it in order to avoid all the halachic issues and use one’s time properly on Shabbos.

[50] See Divrei Yatziv ibid that son was done in the times of the Greeks on Shabbos to fool them to thinking that they were not gathering to learn Torah.

[51] Regarding designating beans so they are no longer considered Muktzah see: Admur 308:8; 53; Michaber 308:22; Ketzos Hashulchan 110:5; Regarding the prohibition of wasting food see: Admur Shemiras Haguf 14; Michaber 171:1, 4, 5; Torah Lishma 401; Mayan Omer 11:5; M”A 171 in Hakdama; M”B 171:4 and Biur Halacha 171:1 “Lo”; Setimas Kol Haposkim who discuss placing oil on the body and never stipulated that it must be inedible – See Admur 160:15; 327:1-2; Mishneh Shabbos 111a; Ma’aser Sheiyni 2:1-2; Shevi’is 8:2; Rambam Ma’aser Sheiyni 2:6; Terumos 11:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 171:5

Explanation regarding using beans-Muktzah: Any item that is Muktzah Machmas Gufo because it doesn’t have the status of a vessel may receive the status of a vessel- before Shabbos if we designated to be used forever for this purpose. This applies even if it is not common to designate the item for this purpose, although in such a case a permanent designation must be done in a temporary one does not suffice. Now regarding our question of designating beans for Dreidel playing on Shabbos: Although beans are not commonly designated for such use, and hence a mere temporary designation does not suffice, nevertheless, if one designates it for this purpose alone and then throws it in the garbage when done playing, then this itself can be considered permanent use. It goes without saying that designating it for annual Dreidal playing would suffice to remove its Muktzah state and practically this is the best option to be done rather than designate it only for one Shabbos. Likewise, this option of annual designation should be done in order to avoid a prohibition of Bizuiy Ochlin.

Explanation regarding using beans-Bizuiy Ochlin: Although using beans for Dreidal playing will cause them to not be used anymore for eating being that they must be permanently designated for Dreidal playing as explained above, as well as become dirty, nonetheless this does not transgress the prohibition of Bizuiy Ochlin being that is being done for a meaningful purpose to be able to create this game of entertainment. It is no different than the allowance that was followed throughout history to use flour for various nonfood purposes, such as to make playdoh, dolls, and to stuff up holes in the wall, which created a discussion in the laws of Passover regarding Chametz. It is likewise similar to the allowance to smear edible oil on the body.

[52] 681:2


On Motzei Shabbos, there are two Mitzvos which need to be fulfilled with the exit of Shabbos; 1) Havdalah and 2) Chanukah candles. The question arises as to which Mitzvah one is to perform first. On the one hand, the Mitzvah of Havdala is more common, and hence should receive precedence based on the rule of Tadir. On the other hand, the Mitzvah of Chanukah candles contains Pirsumei Nissa. There is another advantage involved in lighting the Chanukah candles first, as it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos, and Havdala as much as possible. Practically, there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to the order that should be followed, as will be explained in the coming footnotes. Nonetheless, the final ruling is a compromise of the opinions, that in Shul one precedes the Chanukah candles, while at home one precedes Havdalah, for reasons to be explained.

[53] Michaber ibid; M”B 681:3; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to first recite Havdala and then light the Chanukah candles, as Havdala is a more frequent Mitzvah, and thus takes precedence. [Taz 681:1] The custom of the world is not like this opinion regarding the Shul lighting and hence one should not change the custom. [M”B ibid]

[54] So is the custom in Beis Chayeinu. [Shevach Hamoadim 7:3]; See Beir Heiytiv 681:1 regarding saying it before Vayiten Lecha; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:336 regarding saying it before Kaddish Tiskabel, in order so it be considered part of the communal prayers. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[55] The reason: As it is a Mitzvah to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, as well as that the lighting of the candles contains the Mitzvah of publicizing the miracle. [M”B 681:2]

[56] 681:2

[57] Rama ibid; Mor Uketzia 681; Chayeh Adam 154:37; Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 235; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Minhag Yishuv Hayashan in Yerushalayim; See M”B 681:3

The reason: As the lighting contains the Mitzvah of “Pirsumei Nissa” which takes priority over Havdalah. Alternatively, the reason is because it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, and thus Havdalah is delayed. [M”B 681:2]

[58] Taz 681:1; Birkeiy Yosef 681:1 that many are accustomed like the Taz; Makor Chaim 681; Derech Hachaim; Kitzur SHU”A 139:17; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 19 in name of many Poskim and that so is the custom of Yerushalayim; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 25; Aruch Hashulchan 681:2 that so is the custom; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 820; Nimukei Orach Cham 681; Maor Vashemesh Parshas Mikeitz in name of the Chozeh Melublin, in name of Rav Shmelka Minikulsburg that regarding this matter the ruling follows the Taz ibid; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2; See Biur Halacha 681:2 “Madlikin”

Ruling of Mishneh Berurah: The M”B 681:3 and Biur Halacha “Madlikin” records both opinions and concludes that that in a Shul one first lights the Chanukah candles while at home one may do as he chooses.

[59] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Havdalah is more Tadir. [Taz ibid]

[60] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Poskim ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid that so is the custom; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2

[61] Michaber 681:1; Tur in name of Yerushalmi

[62] The reason: As it is forbidden to benefit from the Chanukah candle, and one may not recite a blessing over the Havdalah candle until one benefits from its light. [Michaber ibid]

[63] Bach; Ateres Zekeinim; M”B 681:1; Kaf Hachaim 681:1

[64] Poskim ibid

The reason: As it is proper to perform two Mitzvos with the same candle.

[65] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

The reason: In order to precede the lighting of the Chanukah candles as much as possible. [Luach ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Vayiten Lecha is recited prior to Havdalah. [M”B 681:2]

[66] Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 237

[67] Biur Halacha 293 “Gimel Kochavim”

[68] Moadim Uzmanim 2:155; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[69] See Moadim Uzmanim ibid that in today’s times, even those who light outside the home, have a number of hours until the time of “Tichleh Regel Min Hashuk” passes.

[70] Igros Moshe 4:62

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