Shabbos Erev Tishe Beav

Shabbos Erev Tishe Beav

1. Menu:[1]

Even when Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos there are no restrictions towards the Shabbos menu and one may eat meat, fish and wine as much as his heart desires, and may feast to the point that was done on the table of Shlomo Hamelech.

Seudas Hamafsekes: When Shabbos falls on Erev Tishe Beav there are no Seudas Hamafsekes limitations relevant to the final meal before the fast.


2. Restrictions against leather shoes; bathing and anointing:[2]

When Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos the regular Tishe Beav restrictions against leather shoes, bathing and anointing do not apply until after Shabbos, as will be explained.


3. Marital relations:[3]

When Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos and is pushed off until Sunday one may not have marital relations on Shabbos.[4]

Night of Mikveh:[5] If Friday night is the night of Mikveh, marital relations are permitted.[6]

Announcing in Shul: Some[7] are accustomed to announce after Shul that all private mourning matters are in effect this Shabbos. Others[8] avoid this announcement.


Is one to follow Harchakos on Shabbos Tishe Beav?[9]

Some[10] write Harchakos are to be kept throughout Shabbos until after Tishe Beav. At the very least one is to avoid affectionate touch. [According to Admur, and the simple ruling of Shulchan Aruch, there is no need to be stringent regarding Harchakos, as stated above, although one is to avoid affectionate touch or sleeping in the same bed.]


4. Learning Torah after midday on Shabbos:

Before Midday:[11] When Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos and is pushed off to Sunday some Poskim[12] rule it is forbidden to learn Torah on Shabbos. Others Poskim[13] rule one may learn until midday [or even past midday, as explained next], and so is the practical custom. When Tishe Beav [the 9th of Av] falls on Sunday and Shabbos is the 8th of Av it is permitted according to all to learn Torah without limitation until midday.

After midday: When Erev Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos some Poskim[14] rule one is to limit ones Torah learning on Shabbos, beginning from midday of Shabbos, to only those subjects that are permitted to be learned on Tishe Beav itself. Other Poskim[15] however rule one may learn as usual. The Mishneh Berurah[16] concludes that one who relies on these Poskim, and continues his regular learning sessions, is not to be protested. Practically however, many are accustomed as writes the Rama, especially being that there are permitted Torah subjects that one can learn.[17]

Pirkei Avos: By Mincha.



One is to limit his Torah learning starting from midday of Erev Tishe Beav to only those subjects permitted on Tishe Beav itself. Nevertheless those which are lenient to continue their regular Torah sessions have upon whom to rely.



May one learn Chitas past Chatzos?[18]

Initially one is to complete his studies of Chitas prior to midday.[19] However if one was unable to do so he may study the regular Chitas studies until sunset.[20]


May one learn Rambam past Chatzos?[21]

One must complete the Rambam studies before midday. If he did not do so, then it is to be delayed until after Tishe Beav. [One however may study the laws of Aveilus in the Rambam even on Tishe Beav itself. Thus during those years that the daily lesson for Tishe Beav is the laws of Aveilus there is no limit as to when it must be studied.]


May one say Tehillim after midday?[22]



May one read Shnayim Mikra after Chatzos of Shabbos Erev Tishe Beav if he has not yet done so?[23]



5. Taking pleasure walks:[24]

One may not take pleasure walks on Erev Tishe Beav. [This applies even on Shabbos Erev Tishe Beav. If Tishe Beav falls on Shabbos and is pushed to Sunday, then one is to refrain from walks throughout the entire day.[25]]


6. Av Harachamim:[26]

The paragraph of Av Harachamim is recited before Musaf even when Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos.


7. Mincha of Shabbos:

Tzidkascha:[27] If Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos, the paragraph of Tzidkascha is omitted in Mincha.[28]

Pirkeiy Avos on  Shabbos that falls on Erev Tishe Beav: When Tishe Beav falls on Sunday, some Poskim[29] rule Pirkei Avos is not recited on Shabbos after Mincha. Other Poskim[30] however rule it is to be reicted. [Regarding the Chabad custom in this matter, the Rebbe spoke numerous times about this issue, at times saying it is to be said[31] and at others leaving it to the person to decide.[32] Practically some[33] write Pirkeiy Avos is not to be said.  In any event one is to repeat that same chapter the next week, even if he decided to recite it.[34]


8. Seudas Shelishis- Seudas Hamfsekes:[35]

When Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos, or on Shabbos and is pushed off until Motzei Shabbos, there are no Seudas Hamafsekes restrictions relevant to the final meal eaten on Shabbos before the fast. One may eat without any restrictions up until sunset. One may eat meat and drink wine by the final Shabbos meal, and may bring foods to his table as like the feast of King Shlomo.

By when must one stop eating and drinking on Shabbos?[36] One must stop eating and drinking while it is still day [prior to sunset[37]]. [Thus the fast officially commences by sunset of Shabbos. It is a Mitzvah to publicize this matter.[38]]

May one eat with other people? One may eat with his family as usual.[39] Regarding eating with friends [as is common to do in Shuls which serve the third meal], some Poskim[40] rule it is not to be done.[41] Others[42] rule one is to follow his usual pattern, and hence if he usually eats this meal with friends he is not allowed to refrain from doing so.[43]

Making a Zimun:[44] It is permitted to make a Zimun by Birchas Hamazon of the final Shabbos meal.



Is one to initially recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset?

One may recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset.


May one perform Mayim Achronim after sunset?[45]



Is one to recite Birchas Hamazon with Nachem if he forgot to Bentch prior to night?[47]

No. One only recites Nachem in Birchas Hamazon on Tishe Beav if he actually ate on Tishe Beav, such as one who is sick.


9. When do the bathing and anointing restrictions begin?[48]

The bathing and anointing restrictions begin at sunset. Hence beginning from sunset one may not wash his hands, just as is the law on Tishe Beav.


10. When is one to switch his shoes?[49]

One may not switch his shoes before the conclusion of Shabbos. Some[50] are accustomed, as rules the Rama, to only remove their shoes after Barchu of Maariv is recited, with exception to the Chazan which removes it before Maariv.[51]  Others are no longer accustomed[52] to wait until after Barchu of Maariv to remove their shoes[53], rather immediately after the conclusion of Shabbos they say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol[54] and then switch their shoes. Practically this was the Rebbe’s custom.[55] In however Luach Kolel Chabad it states to remove the shoes after Barchu as rules the Rama.


May one wear Shabbos clothes on Motzei Shabbos? Are they to be switched after nightfall before Maariv?

Some Poskim[56] write one may remain wearing his Shabbos clothing. Others[57] write one is to remove Shabbos clothing after the conclusion of Shabbos, prior to Maariv [after reciting Baruch Hamavdil]. Practically the custom amongst Chabad is to wear the clothes until after Eicha and Kinos, and so was the custom of the Rebbe. According to all one may not change his Shabbos clothing before the conclusion of Shabbos.


When Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos may one begin wearing the non-leather shoes before Shabbos is over?[58]

No. One must wait until Shabbos is over prior to changing shoes. This applies likewise to children. [Some Poskim[59] rule that one is not required to recite Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol prior to switching clothing. However one is obligated to say it prior to doing any actual Melacha.[60] It is however proper for men to not do any Biblical Melacha until the conclusion of Maariv, even after reciting Baruch Hamavdil.[61]]


[1] Michaber 552/10

[2] Michaber 554/19

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is forbidden in all private mourning matters, including bathing even one’s hands, legs and face in hot water. [Taz 554/9; See Kaf Hachaim 554/86]

[3] 454/19

[4] Rama ibid

Ruling of Michaber/Sefaradim: The Michaber ibid rules that even marital relations is permitted on Shabbos, and so is the Sefaradi custom. [Moreh Baetzba 234; Kaf Hachaim 554/86]

[5] Shlah; Zera Emes 80; M”B 454/40; Many Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 554/88; So concludes Piskeiy Teshuvos 554/17 to be the Rabbinical directive.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to delay Mikveh night until after Tishe Beav. [Elya Raba 554/19] Some Poskim rule it is not allowed if his wife is pregnant or nursing, as it is only allowed for Peru Urevu. [Minchas Elazar 5/86; Sheivet Haleivi 6/70]

[6] The reason: As the night of Mikveh there is a Mitzvah of Onah. Vetzrauch Iyun from Chasam Sofer which rules there is no Mitzvah of Onah on Mikveh night, and so is the accepted ruling regarding a woman whose Mikveh night coincides with a Yom Chashash.

[7] Darkei Moshe, brought in M”B ibid

[8] See M”B ibid and Shaareiy Tziyon 45

[9] Piskeiy Teshuvos 554/17 footnote 80

[10] Mahril Diskin 5/67

[11] See M”A 553/7

[12] Implication of M”A 553/7; Kitzur SHU”A 154/4; Chayeh Adam 136/4; Leket Yoser p. 110

[13] Maharahm Lublin brought in M”A ibid; Maharil 44; Mateh Moshe 718; Kaf Hachaim 553/18

[14] Rama 553/2; Maharil; Rama ibid; M”A 553/7 in name of Kneses Hagedola

[15] Taz 553/2; Rashal; Gra; M”B 553/8; Aruch Hashulchan 553/2

[16] 553/8

[17] Kaf Hachaim 553/18

Chabad Custom: See Hiskashrus 940; See Hisvadyus Shabbos Chazon Erev Tishe Beav 1981 that the Rebbe stated to limit the topics of the Farbrengen to those matters permitted on Tishe Beav.

[18] Hiskashrus 889

[19] As rules the Rama brought above.

[20] As even on Tishe Beav itself we allow learning one’s set Torah sessions past midday. Hence certainly on Erev Tishe Beav that learning is merely a custom which some even allow, one may be lenient past midday.

[21] Based on the lesson schedule of Rambam edited by the Rebbe ; Hiskashrus 889

[22] Divrei Malkiel 6/20; Nitei Gavriel 50/8

[23] Kaf Hachaim 553/19; Zechor Levaraham 553/9

[24] Rama 553/2

[25] Birkei Yosef 553/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 553/5; Kaf Hachaim 553/20

[26] Elya Raba 554/18; P”M 559 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 559/2

[27] Michaber 559/1

[28] The reason: As Tishe Beav is considered a Moed. [Beis Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 559/1]

[29] Rama 553/2; Maharil; Rama ibid; M”A 553/7 in name of Kneses Hagedola

[30] Taz 553/2; Rashal; Gra; M”B 553/8; Aruch Hashulchan 553/2

[31] Likkutei Sichos 19/43 footnote 53

[32] Hisvadyus Shabbos Chazon Erev Tishe Beav 1981

[33] Hiskashrus 950

[34] Hisvadyus Shabbos Nachamu 1981

[35] Michaber 552/10

[36] Rama 552/10

[37] M”B 552/24; Kaf Hachaim 552/54

[38] M”B 552/24

[39] M”B 552/23

[40] M”A 552/14; Elya Raba 552/13

[41] The reason: As although one is to eat foods as on the table of King Shlomo, it is to be eaten with some bitterness. [ibid; Rokeiach]

[42] Bechor Shor brought in M”B ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 553/4; Shaareiy Tehsuvah 553/11

[43] The reason: As otherwise this is considered to show public mourning on Shabbos. [ibid]

[44] M”B ibid based on Elya Raba

[45] Taharas Hashulchan 557; Nitei Gavriel 66/10

[46] The reason: As this washing is not a washing of pleasure.

[47] Shaareiy Teshuvah 552/13; Nitei Gavriel 51/21

[48] Rama 553/2

[49] 553/2

[50] See Piskiey Teshuvos 553/1 for a list of Poskim which rule this way even today; Shraga Hameir 4/23

[51] Rama ibid,

[52] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 553/1 for an explanation of why the ruling of the Rama is no longer applicable. In short he writes in name of Rav SZ”A that the Rama refered to a time that Maariv was Davened before the conclusion of Shabbos.

[53] As writes Rama ibid

[54] M”B 553/7 in regards to the Chazan which removes his shoes prior to Barchu.

[55] Hiskashrus 950 that so was the custom of the Rebbe to enter Shul for Maariv wearing non-leather shoes. So concludes Hiskashrus to be the proper custom.

[56] Ashel Avraham Butchacher Mahadurah Tinyana 551

[57] Piskeiy Teshuvos 553/1

[58] Admur 254/10 [regarding removing Challah from oven, wine from cellar]; 302/10 [regarding making the beds]; 319/18 [regarding removing fat from soup]; 321/6 [regarding watering vegetables]; 323/6 [regarding washing dishes]; 324/11 [regarding switching plate of food from ox to donkey]; 338/8 [regarding moving fruits from roof]; 611/5 [regarding preparing vegetables on Yom Kippur]

The reason: As it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [254/10; 302/10; 323/6; 503/3; 611/5] And it is forbidden to trouble oneself on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [319/18; 321/6; 323/6; 324/11; 338/8; 611/5] Doing so is Rabbinically forbidden [302/10] being that it is a mundane action and a belittling of Shabbos. [338/8]

[59] Elya Raba 299/22; Shaareiy Teshuvah 299/2; M”B 299/40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 299 footnote 110

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to even do actions of preparation from Shabbos to weekday until one hears Havdala or recites Baruch Hamavdil. [Alef Hamagen 599/5 in name of Achronim; Nitei Gavriel 28/7; Hiskashrus 1025]

Ruling of Admur: Regarding the need to say Baruch Hamavdil prior to performing Melacha Admur 299/15 states “Likewise some permit performing, after Shabbos is over but prior to saying Havdala, all Rabbinical prohibitions which are forbidden simply due to them being a mundane act.” Thus if preparing from Shabbos to a weekday is considered a mundane act prohibition it would be permitted according to this opinion. In 338/8 Admur rules that the prohibition of preparing on Shabbos for a weekday is due to being a mundane act, and hence accordingly it would be permitted to be performed according to this opinion. However Tzaruch Iyun if Admur’s final stance on the matter follows this opinion, as a) The first opinion holds that one may not do any of his preparations or work prior to escorting the king through Havdala. This seems to imply that even preparations of Uvdin Dechol are forbidden according to this opinion. Likewise, b) Admur never concludes that we rule like the second opinion and simply states that regarding Yom Kippur we are lenient to follow it. Vetzaruch Iyun if one can learn from Yom Kippur to other places. From here can be understood the source of the ruling of the Alef Hamagen ibid that rules stringently in this matter. It is a wonderment on the Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that he omitted this first opinion brought in Admur. It is also a wonderment on Nitei Gavriel ibid who completely omits all the Poskim that are lenient in this matter.

[60] Admur 299/15

[61] See 299/19

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