Sunday, 26th Adar 5783/March 19, 2023
- The Mitzvah of Karbanos:
- Hashem called to Moshe from the Ohel Moed and commanded him to relate to the Jewish people the laws involving the sacrifices. These laws relate to the following topics:
- The type of animal to bring as a sacrifice: A man who desires to bring a Karban to Hashem, is to bring it from the domestic animal, whether from cattle or sheep.
- The cow Olah offering:
- If one brings an Olah offering from cattle, it is to be a perfect male. It is to be offered at the opening of the Ohel Moed.
- Semicha: One is to rest his hand on the head of the Olah, and it will be an appeasement for him, to bring him atonement.
- Offering the animal: Once slaughtered, the Kohanim are to offer the blood of the animal onto the altar.
- The Olah must be skinned and dismembered. The Kohanim are to light a fire on the altar and set up the wood. They are to arrange the limbs on the altar. The intestines and feet are washed and offered on the altar. All of the parts of the Olah are offered to Hashem.
- The sheep and goat Olah offering:
- If one brings an Olah offering from flock, it is to be brought from sheep, or goats, it is to be an unblemished male animal.
- It is to be slaughtered in the northern part of the altar in front of Hashem.
- The Kohanim are to offer the blood around the altar.
- The Olah must be dismembered.
- The Kohanim are to light a fire on the altar and set up the wood. They are to arrange the limbs on the altar. The intestines and feet are washed and offered on the altar. All of the parts of the Olah are offered to Hashem. It is a pleasant smell for Hashem.
Tanya Middle of Chapter 37:
1. The purpose of the descent of the G-dly soul is not for its own benefit:
- This world is a descent in level for the G-dly soul: The spark of the G-dly soul did not descend into this world for its own sake and purpose, as in truth it’s embodiment in this physical world is a great descent from its previous level.
- The G-dly soul is in exile in this world: In this world, the G-dly soul is found in a state of actual exile [as it no longer experiences a connection to God and love and fear as it did previously prior to its descent].
- This applies even by a complete Tzadik: This would hold true even if one were to reach the level of a complete Tzaddik who serves G-d with fear and love of the highest level of pleasure, nonetheless, he would fail to reach the level of attachment to G-d, and fear and love that he had for G-d, prior to his descent into this physical world. In fact, he doesn’t even reach a fraction of his previous state of emotions, and the two levels cannot be compared to each other at all. The reason for this is because the physical body cannot contain the level of emotions experienced by the soul in heaven prior to its descent below.
2. The entire purpose of the descent of the G-dly soul below is to elevate and refine the animal soul and world:
- The purpose of the descent is to fix the animal soul and world: Rather, the entire purpose of the descent of the G-dly soul below to this world, to become invested within a physical body and animal soul, is simply for the sake of fixing them alone.
- It’s job to separate it from evil: The job of the G-dly soul is to separate its body and animal soul from the three levels of complete impurity. This is accomplished through guarding the 365 negative commands and their offshoots.
- It’s job to elevate and unite it with G-d: Likewise, its purpose is to elevate the animal soul, together with its corresponding portion in this world, and to connect them and unite them with the infinite light of G-d. This connection and unity with the animal soul and its corresponding parts of the world is accomplished through the performance of the 248 positive commands, of which the animal soul is a partner in, as it is the animal soul which performs all of the actions of the commands.
- The G-dly soul needs no elevation: In addition to the fact that this world does not cause any elevation in the G-dly soul, it furthermore essentially does not even need an elevation, as the G-dly soul does not need any fixing at all. It’s entire purpose of coming down here is something to draw down the G-dly light to fix its body and animal soul. In this respect, it is exactly similar to the descent of the divine presence within exile in the lower world in order to refine the sparks.
Rambam, Hilchos Eidus, Chapter 21
Chapter 21: The punishments for Eidim Zomimim-false witnesses
Halacha 1: Divorce-Testifying falsely regarding a divorce
- Must pay market value of Kesuba: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a man had divorced his wife, must pay the market value of the Kesuba document, as it would be sold for its possible redemption.
- Its value: This value is dependent on several factors, including the state of peace between the husband and wife and chance of them getting divorced, as well as of course the written value of the document.
- It is the job of the judges to evaluate its market worth based on the above factors.
Halacha 2: Loan-Testifying falsely regarding a loan
- Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a loan was due to be paid earlier than its actual due date must pay the borrower the amount of money that a middleman would charge to arrange for a loan with that later due date.
Halacha 3: Ox-Testifying falsely regarding the damage of a ox
- Goring: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that an ox of an individual had gored another ox, are liable to pay up until half of the damage, but not more than the value of the ox which gored.
- Eating and breaking vessels: If they falsely testified that the ox ate another persons produce or broke his vessels, then they are liable to pay the full value.
Halacha 4: Slave-Testifying falsely regarding liability to emancipate a slave
- Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that an owner punched out the tooth of his slave and blinded one of his eyes, and they are liable to pay the owner for the value of the slave as well as the value of his eye.
- Testifying in the wrong order: If the above testimony was found to be true but to have occurred in the opposite order, then the false witnesses must pay any difference in value between the loss of the tooth versus the loss of the eye, depending on the order in which they falsely testified.
Halacha 5: Adultery-Testifying falsely regarding an adulterous woman
- Sotah: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a woman was warned by her husband and then secluded herself with a man, are liable for receiving lashes.
- After Sotah: A witness who falsely testified that an established Sotah had intercourse with another man, he is liable to pay for the value of her Kesuba.
- Adultery: Likewise, witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a married woman had intercourse with another man, is liable to pay for the value of her Kesuba.
- No capital punishment: The above false witnesses of adultery are not liable for death being that she was not warned by them before hand, and hence she herself would not have been found liable for death even if the testimony were true.
Halacha 6: Theft-Testifying falsely regarding theft of a sheep or ox
- Paying four or five times its value: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a person stole a sheep or ox and then slaughtered or sold it, are liable to pay the full amount of four or five times its value.
- Two sets of false witnesses: If two sets of witnesses falsely testified regarding the above, with the first set testifying regarding the actual stealing, and the second set testifying regarding the sale or slaughtering, then the first set must pay double the value of the stolen item, while the second set must pay four or five times its value.
- One of the two witnesses is false: If only one of the two witnesses of a set were found to be false witnesses, then if this occurred in the second set of witnesses then the first set must still pay double the value, although the second set does not have to pay anything. If, however, this occurred in the first set of witnesses, then nobody has to pay anything.
Halacha 7: Real estate-Testifying falsely regarding real estate ownership
- Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] regarding the ownership of a piece of real estate, must pay the real owner its full market value.
- Three years: Thus, if the witnesses testified that an individual who claims to have purchased the field has been on the field for three years, then they must pay the real owner the true market value.
- Three sets of witnesses: If there were three sets of false witnesses, one set per year, then the three sets divide the value of the field amongst themselves, and pay it to the owner.
Halacha 8: Ox-Testifying falsely regarding a habitual goring ox
- Three sets of false witnesses: Three sets of witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that an ox had gored for a total of three times, each set testifying about one goring, then the three sets divide the value of the damage, and pay it to the owner.
- This, however, only applies if all three sets came to testify together in coordination, otherwise, the first two sets are exempt from payment.
- Two sets of false witnesses: If only the first two of the three sets were found to be false witnesses, then they are all exempt.
Halacha 9: Ben Sorer Umorer-Testifying falsely regarding a Ben Sorer Umorer
- Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] regarding a rebellious child that he has the status of a Ben Sorer Umorer, are liable for death.
- Two sets of false witnesses: If one set of false witnesses testified regarding the child’s first act of rebelliousness [i.e. stealing money from his father and using it to buy meat] and a second set testified regarding his second act of rebelliousness [that he did it again], then the first set is liable for lashes, while the second set is liable for death.
- If, however, both sets, of four witnesses in total, testified together in coordination with the first two testifying on the first act of stealing and the second two testifying on the second act of stealing, then they are liable for capital punishment.
- Testifying falsely on a kidnapping: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] regarding a person that he had kidnapped someone and sold him, then they are liable for death of strangulation.
- If one set of false witnesses testified regarding the kidnapping and a second set testified regarding the sale of the kidnapped victim, then nonetheless both sets of witnesses remain liable for death.
- If there were no witnesses regarding the kidnapping but just regarding the sale, then no one is held liable. This applies even if witnesses later came to testify regarding the kidnapping.
Halacha 10: Motzi Shem Ra-Testifying falsely regarding an adulterous wife
- Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a person’s fiancé was adulterous when she was engaged [i.e. Kiddushin], are liable for death.
- If the witnesses which made the above witnesses liable for death due to false testimony were themselves found to be false, then they themselves are liable for death. In this case, they must also pay money to the husband.
- Narah Meurasah: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a man was adulterous with a certain engaged Narah whose name they did not mention, are liable for death although not for payment to the man. If however her name was mentioned then they are also liable to pay her father.
- Beastiality: Witnesses who falsely testified [i.e. Eidim Zomimim] that a man had relations with an animal, are liable for death although not for payment to the man. If however they mentioned the owner of the animal then they are also liable to pay the owner.