The prayers of Tishe Beav

The prayers of Tisha B’av

  1. Maariv:
  • Removing the Paroches: [Prior to Maariv] one is to remove the Paroches from the Aron. [In some communities, the Paroches is not removed, but rather moved to the side, hence revealing the doors of the Aron. The Chabad custom is to also remove the covering of the Amud of the Chazan, as well as the Bima.]
  • Diminishing light: At night, one is to only light the bare minimum of light needed to read Eicha and the Kinos.
  • Sitting arrangements: One is not required to switch from his normal place of sitting on Tisha B’av. One may not sit on a chair when Davening Maariv and is thus to either stand or sit on the ground. One is to place an interval between the floor and his body, as explained in the previous Chapter 6 Halacha 14.
  • Davening like a mourner: By Maariv, one is to Daven slowly and in the tone of a mourner.
  • Ata Chonantanu: When Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, one is to recite Atah Chonantanu within Shemoneh Esrei. If one forgot to say Ata Chonantanu, he does not need to repeat Shemoneh Esrei, as in any event he will not be eating until he makes Havdala over wine on Sunday night.  [He must however say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Melacha.]
  • Kaddish: All the Kaddeishim that are recited from after Eicha until one leaves the Shul the next day [after Shacharis] omit the stanza of Tiskabel. However, prior to Eicha, Tiskabel is recited in Kaddish. [Thus, the order is as follows: After Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv, Kaddish with Tiskabel is recited. After Eicha, until Mincha, Kaddish is recited without Tiskabel.]
  • Meorei Haeish: When Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos, one is to recite the blessings of Meorei Haeish on Motzei Shabbos upon seeing a candle. One is to recite the blessing prior to Eicha.  [Some write that one may recite the blessing any time prior to Eicha, and hence if one is home prior to Maariv, he may say the blessing at home with his family and fulfill the obligation with them. Practically, the custom is like the former opinion to recite Borei Meorei Haiesh in Shul after Maariv, prior to Eicha.  The women at home are to recite the blessing over Meorei Haeish on their own. Some write one is not to use the regular Havdala candle for Meorei Haeish but is rather to join to small candles together.] In the event that one did not recite the blessing of Meorei Haeish before Eicha, it is to be recited afterwards.  If the blessing was not said at night, it may not be said the next day.
  • Eicha: After Maariv, one reads Megillas Eicha. Eicha is recited slowly and in the tone of a mourner. [The reader is to make a small break between each verse, and a larger break between each Eicha. The congregation is to read along silently together with the Chazan.] Each time the word Eicha is recited the Baal Korei is to raise his voice. When the Chazan reaches the verse of Hashiveinu, the congregation recites it in a loud voice and the Chazan then says it aloud; the congregation then repeats it again aloud and the Chazan then repeats after the congregation.
  • Should also women say Eicha and Kinos? Some Poskim rule women are required to hear Kinos and Eicha. However, the custom of women is not to be careful in this matter.
  • Should one read Eicha and say Kinos even if he is not with a Minyan? Yes.
  • Kinos: After Eicha, one reads the Kinos designated for the night of Tisha B’av.
  • Ata Kadosh: After the completion of Eicha and Kinos the congregation recites Veata Kadosh [omitting the verses of Uva Letziyon and Veani Zos Brisi]. This applies even when Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, in which case one skips Vihi Noam and begins from Veata Kadosh.
  • Kaddish without Tiskabel: After Veata Kadosh, the Chazan recites Kaddish without Tiskabel.
  • Aleinu: After Kaddish, Aleinu is recited. This is then followed by the mourners Kaddish.
  • Greetings: Upon leaving Shul, one is to avoid wishing a Shavua Tov and the like to a friend. One is not to walk in groups but rather alone in a state of mourning.
  1. May an Avel go to Shul?
  • An Avel within Shiva may attend Shul on the night of Tisha B’av, and by day until the completion of the Kinos. [He is not to go to Shul for Mincha.] This applies even within the first three days of Aveilus. However, some Poskim are stringent and rule that if the Avel is within the first three days of mourning, he is not to attend the Shul. Others say he is to only attend during the day and not at night.
  • Onen: An Onen does not go to Shul on Tisha B’av until after the burial. [However, Admur rules that a son which is an Onen on his father may go to Shul and say Kaddish for his father. Practically, so is the Chabad custom. The Rebbe said Kaddish while he was an Onen for his mother, Rebbetzin Chana, and his wife, Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka. Nevertheless, the Onen is to only participate in the Kaddish and is not to recite Kinos or any of the prayers.]
  1. Shacharis:
  • Netilas Yadayim until knuckles: In the morning, one only washes his fingers up until his knuckles, having intention to remove the impurity which they contain. [At the conclusion of Tisha B’av, prior to saying Kiddush Levana, one rewashes his [entire] hand three times inconsecutively.]
  • Sheasa Li Kol Tzarchi: One does not recite the blessing of “Sheasa Li Kol Tzarki” on the ninth of Av. [One only resumes saying it the next day.]
  • Tallis Katan: The Tallis Katan is worn under one’s clothing without a blessing. [Other Poskim however rule a blessing is to be recited if one did not wear the Tallis Katan at night and is now putting it on in the morning. Some tuck in their Tzitzis and do not allow the fringes to show until midday. However, many wear the Tzitzis out as usual.]
  • Time of Davening: Shacharis is to be Davened slightly earlier than usual, however, at a time that will allow the Kinos recitation to extend until near midday.
  • Tallis and Tefillin: The custom is not to wear a Tallis Gadol or Tefillin by Shacharis. 
  • Karbanos: One is to read the regular order of prayers and Karbanos prior to Hodu.
  • Kissing the Tzitzis: The widespread custom is not to hold or kiss the Tzitzis by Baruch Sheamar and Shema.
  • Aneinu and Nacheim in Shemoneh Esrei: One does not recite Aneinu or Nacheim during Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis. However, the Chazan recites Aneinu in his repetition between the blessing of Goel and Rofei. [He, however, does not recite Nacheim in his Shacharis repetition.]
  • Nesias Kapayim/Birchas Kohanim: Some Poskim rule that Kohanim [in Eretz Yisrael] do not perform Nesias Kapayim, and the Chazan does not recite Elokeinu [Birchas Kohanim] during the Shacharis repetition. Others rule it is to be recited. Practically, the custom is not to perform Nesias Kapayim and to omit Elokeinu from the repetition.
  • Tachanun: Tachanun is not recited on Tisha B’av. Likewise, Selichos is not recited. [Avinu Malkeinu is not recited.]
  • Kaddish: After the Chazan’s repetition, half Kaddish is recited.
  • Kerias Hatorah: Kel Erech Apayim is not recited prior to the Torah reading. [Vayehi Binsoa and Brich Shmei is recited as usual. Some are accustomed not to place the Keser on the Sefer Torah.] The Torah is read from the Parsha of [Vaeschanan 4/25] “Ki Solid Banim.” [Three people are called up for the Aliya. The third Aliya is considered the Maftir. Half Kaddish is recited after the third Aliyah, which is then followed by the Haftorah. Hagba is performed after the half Kaddish. The person doing Hagba may sit on the bench as usual, holding the Sefer Torah.]
  • Haftorah: The Haftorah is read from Yermiah [8:13] “Asuf Asifam.” [Some are accustomed to reciting the Haftorah in the Eicha tune. This is not the Chabad custom.]
  • Yehalelu: After the completion of the blessings of the Haftorah, Yehallelu is recited, and the Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark.
  • Kinos: After the Torah reading, Kinos is recited. It is to be recited until close to midday. While the Kinos are recited, it is forbidden to talk about any other matter, or leave the Shul, in order so one does not divert his heart from the mourning. One is certainly not to talk to gentiles at this time. It is customary to recite verses of consoling at the completion of Kinos. [The paragraph of Keili Tziyon B’areha is customarily recited verse by verse, the congregation repeating after the Chazan. Many are accustomed to stand during its recitation, and so was the Rebbe’s custom.]
  • Ashrei/Uva Letziyon: Lamnatzeiach is omitted between Ashrei and Uva Letziyon. Uva Letziyon is recited [omitting the verse of Veani Zos Brisi].
  • Kaddish Shaleim: After Uva Letziyon, the Chazan recites Kaddish Shaleim without Tiskabel.
  • Aleinu: After Kaddish, Aleinu is recited. One does not recite Shir Shel Yom or Ein Kelokeinu. [It is recited later by Mincha.]
  • Eicha: After the completion of Shacharis each individual is to read Eicha to himself.
  • Greetings: Upon leaving the Shul, one is to avoid wishing goodbye and the like to a friend. One is not to walk in groups but rather alone in a state of mourning.
  • Cemetery: One is to visit a [Jewish] cemetery after the conclusion of Shacharis. [This is not the Chabad custom.]
  • Preparing food: The custom is not to slaughter meat and not to prepare food [for after the fast] until after midday.
  1. Mincha:
  • Paroches: The Paroches is returned to the Aron prior to Mincha.
  • Charity: Prior to Mincha one is to give Igara Ditaanisa to charity.
  • Tallis and Tefillin: By Mincha, one wears Tallis and Tefillin with a blessing. [One recites all three Parshiyos of Shema while wearing the Tefillin. Those who are accustomed to wear Rabbeinu Tam are to do so as well on Tisha B’av. The Chabad custom is to wear Tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam after Mincha, before sunset.]
  • Shir Shel Yom/Ein Kelokeinu: Shir Shel Yom and Ein Kelokeinu [which were omitted by Shacharis] is said after Shema, prior to Mincha. [One begins from Beis Yaakov, and recites Kaddish Yasom after Shir Shel Yom and Kaddish Derabanon after Ein Kelokeinu.]
  • Chitas: After reciting Ein Kelokeinu, one recites the Shiurim of Chitas. [The daily Tehillim is recited, followed by Kaddish Yasom. One does not recite the daily Rambam until Motzei Tisha B’AV.]
  • Karbanos: After the Shiurim of Chitas, one recites Karbanos.
  • The order of Mincha: Ashrei; Half Kaddish; Kerias Hatorah.
  • Torah reading: The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Mincha. This is followed by the reading of the Haftorah, just as is done on a regular fast day.
  • Yehalelu: After the reading of the Haftorah, Yehalelu is recited and the Torah is returned to the Aron. This is then followed by half Kaddish. [However, there were years that the Rebbe began the Kaddish immediately after the Haftorah, as is normally done by Mincha of Shabbos. However, in most years the Rebbe waited for the Sefer Torah to be returned.]
  • Nacheim and Aneinu: The prayer of Aneinu is added during Mincha Shemoneh Esrei. It is recited within the blessing of Shomeia Tefila, prior to the words “Ki Ata Shomeia.” The blessing of Nacheim is recited during Mincha, in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim. If one forgot to say Aneinu or Nacheim he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. [If one remembered to say Nacheim after finishing the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim, then he is to say it in Shema Koleinu, after Aneinu; or prior to Visechezena; or prior to Veal Kulam. In such a case, he is not to conclude with the blessing of “Menachem Tziyon” but is rather to continue with Visechezena until the end of the blessing.]
  • Nesias Kapayim/Elokeinu: In Eretz Yisrael, the Kohanim perform Nesias Kapayim. [The Kohanim are to wash their entire hand.] In the Diaspora, the Chazan recites Elokeinu [Birchas Kohanim] during the Mincha repetition.
  • Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu: Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu are omitted on Tisha B’av.
  • Kaddish Shaleim with Tiskabel: After the Chazan’s repetition, the full Kaddish with Tiskabel is recited.
  • Rabbeinu Tam: After Mincha, prior to sunset, one is to wear Tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam and recite the three paragraphs of Shema, Vehaya and Kadeish and the six Zechiros. [If one was wearing Tefillin prior to sunset he does not need to remove the Tefillin when sunset arrives.]
  1. Maariv:
  • All fasts conclude after nightfall. This is defined as the sighting of three medium stars, or when the moon shines very brightly on the earth. [In all cases, one may begin Maariv before the above time, in order to conclude Maariv and be able to eat when the above time arrives. In such a case, one is to make sure to read Kerias Shema again after nightfall.]
  • Washing hands after Maariv: Immediately after Maariv, one is to wash his hands three times as is done in the morning upon awakening. A blessing is not recited during this washing. [This washing is to be done also by the Kohanim who already fully washed their hands prior to Nesias Kapayim.]
  1. Kiddush Levana on Motzei Tisha B’av:
  • One does not recite Kiddush Levana prior to Tisha B’av. It is rather to be recited on Motzei Tisha B’av.
  • Eating and changing clothing before Kiddush Levana on Motzei Tisha B’av: Prior to reciting Kiddush Levana on Motzei Tisha B’av, one is to eat.  One is to also change his shoes. 
  1. Sunday night-Motzei Tisha B’av:
  • Havdala when Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos: In the event that Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, Havdala over wine is recited on Motzei Tisha B’av, which is Sunday night. The blessings of Besamim and Haeish are omitted from Havdala. One is to recite the blessings of Meorei Haeish on Motzei Shabbos upon seeing a candle. The blessing of Besamim is not said at all, not on Motzei Shabbos or Sunday night.
  • The Nusach of Havdala: On Sunday night, one begins Havdala from “Hinei Keil Yeshuasi”.
  • Eating and drinking: It is forbidden to eat and drink after Tisha B’av until one says Havdala over wine, just as is the law on Motzei Shabbos. It is permitted to drink water although our custom is to avoid doing so.
  • The mourning customs: In the event that Tisha B’av and Shabbos coincide, and hence Tisha B’av is deferred to Sunday, the custom is to not to eat meat or drink wine throughout the night of Motzei Tisha B’av [Sunday night]. See the list below regarding other mourning customs. The next morning [Monday] all the mourning customs are permitted.
  • The following mourning customs apply until sunrise of Monday:
    • Eating meat and poultry.
    • Drinking wine.
  • The following customs are permitted immediately on Sunday night, Motzei Tisha B’av:
    • Haircut
    • Laundry
    • Wear new clothing
    • Bathing
    • Music
    • Shehechiyanu

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