Traveling hazards and restrictions-Part 2-Eating, learning, escorting and more

D. Traveling the day after experiencing night terrors:[1] [Achronim]

Some write that if a person experience fear during the previous night’s sleep, then he should abstain from traveling the next day.


E. Took a mistaken route:[2] [Achronim]

Some write that if during one’s travels to a certain destination one took a wrong route, then he should no longer continue his travels being that it will no longer be successful.

F. Receiving permission and blessing prior to traveling:[3] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

Prior to travel it is proper to receive permission for the travel from the leaders of the city, even if they are not his personal Rabbi’s, in order so they bless him prior to his travels.


G. Eating while traveling:[4] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

One should not eat too much while traveling as doing so can cause stomach pain. [This, however, applies mainly to one who is traveling by foot, however, one who is traveling by ship may eat normally.[5]]

H. Learning Torah while traveling:[6] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

One should study Torah while traveling although should not learn Halacha in too much depth while traveling in order not to take a wrong turn and so he can focus on the road. [This, however, applies only to one who is traveling by foot, or to one who is driving, however, one who is traveling as a passenger in a wagon or car may study Torah in depth.]

I. Escorting a traveler:[7] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

It is a mitzvah and obligation for one to escort a traveler upon him traveling, as whoever is escorted is safe from damage during his journeys.[8] Whoever does not do so is considered as if he is spilling blood.[9] Nonetheless, one should not escort a Rasha.[10]

J. Not to tell an escort to go back:[11] [Achronim]

There is a tradition that a traveler should not tell those who are escorting him in the beginning of his journey that they should return from escorting him.

K. Not to cry when someone leaves for travel:[12] [Achronim]

One is to beware not to separate from his friend [who is traveling] in a state of tears, as this is a great danger. If a person cannot hold himself back from crying, then he is to cry prior to the separation and calm himself down and only then separate.

L. Not to kiss relatives prior to travel:[13] [Achronim]

Some write that one is to beware not to kiss his relative goodbye prior to travel.

M. Farewell phrases:[14] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

Upon bidding farewell to another person he is to tell him “/לך לשלוםGo to peace” rather than “לך בשלוםGo in or with peace.”[15] [This is likewise the Nussach in Tefillas Haderech.[16] One is to follow this wording even when bidding farewell in languages other than Hebrew.[17] Nonetheless, some Poskim[18] rule that the above wording of “”לך לשלום is only required for those who are superstitious against having the other wording used due to it being a bad omen in their eyes. If, however, one is not particular in this matter then one may use whatever wording he desires.[19] Practically, as is implied from Admur, the above wording of  “/לך לשלוםGo to peace” is to be used by all people, however in the event that one was told “/לך בשלום/Go in or with peace” he should not be particular about this, and the matter will not damage him at all as stated in the Poskim above.[20]]


[1] Likkutei Mahran; Shemira Meialya 29; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 92:6

[2] Segulos Yisrael Mareches Daled 47; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 99:8

[3] Admur 110:9; Brachos 3b; Elya Zutah 110:5; Ateres Zekeinim 110; M”B 110:28; Aruch Hashulchan 110:15; Kitzur SHU”A 8:6

[4] Admur 110:9 “On the road one should not eat more than the amount one eats in a year of famine due to illness of the stomach, unless he is sitting in a ship and the like”; M”A 110:10; Taanis 10b; Kitzur SHU”A 68:6; M”B 110:20; Kaf Hachaim 110:29; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 101:1

[5] Shemiras Haguf ibid

[6] Admur 110:9 “One who is traveling is to study Torah although he should not learn Beiyun Halacha in order not to stumble on the road unless he is on a wagon and another person is leading the wagon.”: M”A 110:10; Taanis 10b; Kitzur SHU”A 68:6; M”B 110:20; Kaf Hachaim 110:29; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 101:2

[7] Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 96:1-4

[8] Sotah 46b; Rambam Aveilus 14; Darkei Moshe C.M.  426:1; Smeh 426:11; Birkeiy Yosef 110:4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 110:6; Kitzur SHU”A 68:6; Kaf Hachaim 110:15; Omitted from Michaber and Tur; See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh ibid footnote 4

[9] Sotah 46b

[10] Igara Dekallah Parshas Beshalach

[11] Sefer Darkei Tzedek; Mavor Yabok; Shemiras Hanefesh 51; Kaf Hachaim 116:159; Likkutei Maharich; Shulchan Chaiy 49; Ketzos Hashulchan 67 footnote 9; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 96:3

[12] Sefer Zechira in name of Mekubalim; Shemiras Hanefesh 53; Likkutei Maharich p. 108b; Kaf Hachaim 116:161; Ketzos Hashulchan 67 footnote 9; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 96

The crying of Dovid and Yehonason upon their separation: Scripture describes to us that when Dovid and Yehonason separated from each other for the last time they cried on each other, seemingly disregarding the above warning. In truth, however, one can say that they cried prior to their separation and then calmed down and separated. [Likkutei Maharich ibid; Shemira Meialya 34] Alternatively, one can say that they did separate upon crying on each other, and this endangered their lives, as can be seen from the fact that they never saw each other again, and Yehonason was killed in battle. [Kaf Hachaim 116:161]

[13] Possible understanding of Sefer Chassidim 741; Shulchan Chaiy 52; Shemiras Hanefesh 54; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 96:2

[14] Admur 110:9; M”A 110:9; M”B 110:17; Rebbe Avin in Brachos 64a and Moed Katan 29a; Shemiras Hanefesh 52; Kaf Hachaim Y.D. 116:160; See Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 80 footnote 3; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 95

[15] The reason: As Yisro told Moshe “/לך לשלוםGo to peace” [Shemos 4:8] and Moshe went and had continuous success. However David told Avshalom “/לך בשלוםGo in/with peace” [Shmuel 2:15] and he went and was hung. [Poskim ibid; Gemara ibid] When parting however from a dead person one is to say to him “לך בשלום/Go with peace” [Gemara ibid; Rambam Shoftim Avel 4:4] Several reasons have been offered behind this wording: 1) The reason why one is to say “Go to peace” when parting from a live person is because this implies that he is to have additional peace, while the wording of “Go with peace” implies that he should only go with the peace that he currently has. [Iyun Yaakov Brachos ibid in Pirush Hakosev and Anaf Yosef; Toras Menachem 1992 vol. 2 p. 248] 2) Alternatively, in truth there is no difference in positive or negative connotation between the two words, as we find many people in scripture who used both words, and even David Hamelech used it. Nonetheless, the term of “go to peace” is preferred as it is a message to the person leaving that he should go “to perform peace”, such as peace between couples and friends, and hence since he is being sent on a mission for peace, he will not be injured on his journey. [Iyun Yaakov Brachos ibid] 3) Alternatively, “go in peace” implies that only the journey is to be in peace while “go to peace” implies that he should find peace by his destination. [Maharsha Brachos ibid]

[16] “To lead us to peace and direct our steps to peace; to guide us to peace, to support us to peace, and to bring us to our destination in life, joy, and peace (one who intends to return that day says/and return us to peace).”

[17] Piskeiy Teshuvos 110:9; Ahalecha Beamasecha 8:13

[18] Nimukei Yosef and Ran Moed Katan ibid; Darkei Moshe Y.D. 403; Orach Mishur on Darkei Moshe ibid; Likkutei Maharich p. 108b; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[19] The proof: As we find many people who used this term, such as Yaakov Avinu said “Veshavti Beshalom El Beis Avi”, and even Yisro said “Vegam Kol Haam Hazeh Al Mikomo Yavo Beshalom”. Likewise Akish said to David “Go and return with peace” [Shmuel 1 29] [Orach Mishur ibid]

[20] Likkutei Maharich p. 108b; Shemira Meialya on Shemiras Hanefesh 33; Kaf Hachaim Y.D. 116:160

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