Tuesday, 13th Nissan 5783/April 4, 2023
- A fire came from before Hashem and consumed the offerings, the Olah and the fats. The entire nation witnessed this and praised Hashem and fell on their faces.
- The passing of Nadav and Avihu:
- Nadav and Avihu took a pan with coals and incense and offered a foreign fire to Hashem, of which they were not commanded. A fire came out from Hashem and consumed them, and they died before Hashem.
- Moshe comforted Aaron saying that Hashem had told him that his sons merited to be chosen by Hashem to have the Temple sanctified through them. Aaron was silent.
- Moshe summoned Mishael and Eltzafan, the second cousins of Nadav and Avihu, to remove the bodies of their brothers from the Holy and remove them from the camp. They approached and removed Nadav and Avihu through their clothing to outside the camp.
- Mourning customs: Moshe instructed Aaron and his sons Elazar and Ithamar not to let their hair grow long or tear their clothing, or leave the Ohel Moed, lest they die, and Hashem become wrathful with all the Jewish people. The Jewish people will mourn the burning that Hashem made.
- Not to work while intoxicated:
- Hashem commanded Aaron that the Kohanim may not perform Avoda in the Mikdash under intoxication of alcohol, lest they die. This applies for all generations. This is necessary in order to distinguish between the holy and profane, and pure and impure and for them to instruct the Jewish people the laws of Hashem.
Tanya Begining of Chapter 40
- What happens to the Torah of one learns it habitually, without love and fear:
- Does not become elevated to the Sefiros: Although a person who serves G-d out of habit has ability to eventually elevate his Torah learning to the Sefiros upon him re-studying these Torah sections Lishma [as explained in the end of the previous chapter], nonetheless, until he does so, his Torah learning is not elevated to even the 10 Sefiros which shine in the world of Yetzira and Assiyah.
- The reason: The reason for this lack of elevation is because the Sefiros are a level of G-dliness in which the infinite light of G-d is invested in and actually united with. Now, without love and fear, the Torah learning cannot be elevated in front of G-d as explicitly stated in the Zohar.
- Their elevation to the external worlds: Although Torah that was studied without love and fear does not get elevated to even the lowest nonetheless, it is elevated to the chambers and dwelling places, which is the external aspects of the spiritual worlds. [The Torah remains in this level until it is restudied Lishma.]
- The same level as that of the angels: The above level of elevation of habitual Torah study is the same level in which angels reside.
- Habitual Torah-Angels in Yetzira; Habitual Mitzvos-Angels in Assiya: As states Rabbi Chaim Vital that Torah study without concentration creates angels in the world of Yetzira while mitzvah fulfillment without concentration creates angels in the world of Assiyah.
- It’s ability to create angels: Angels both have form and matter [and hence in order for them to be created as a result of one’s Torah learning and mitzvah fulfillment, there must be some level of concentration involved in order to create their form, and hence we must conclude that the intent of “concentration” in the above statement is in reference to love and fear. This means to say that although Torah and Mitzvos with basic concentration create angels, they are not elevated to the Sefiros unless they contain the real concentration of love and fear.]
2. What happens to the Torah of one who learns it for ulterior motives:
- Does not become elevated even to the chambers where angels reside: The above ability for Torah learning to be elevated to even the external worlds without love and fear, is only if it was studied habitually. However, if one studied it for actual ulterior motives, such as to be a Torah scholar and the like, then it is not elevated at all to the spiritual levels above, not even to the chambers and abodes of the Angels of holiness.
- Remains in the world of evil: Rather, such Torah learning remains down here below in this physical world which is the abode of the side of evil, as stated in the Zohar that even the spiritual service of Torah study, if done for selfish reasons of glory remains under the sun.
- Praised is one who enters heaven with his Torah learning: Based on this we can understand the statement of the sages which praise one who enters the next world with his Torah learning in his hands. This is coming to say that praised is one who learned Torah for the correct motives, and did not leave his Torah down here below in this world.
Rambam, Hilchos Aveilus Chapter 8
Chapter 8: The laws of Keriah
Halacha 1: The obligation
- It is an obligation for an Avel to tear his clothing at the event of the passing of a relative [for which he needs to keep Aveilus].
- Standing: One is obligated to perform the Keriah in a standing position.
Halacha 2: How to tear
- How much to tear: One must tear a Tefach worth of the clothing.
- Where to tear: One is not required to tear the border area [and may rather tear the middle of the garment].
- Hand versus scissor: One may perform the tear with the help of a vessel [such as a knife or scissor].
- In private: One [who is mourning relatives other than a parent] is to perform the Keriah in private, not in the presence of other people. He is thus to enter his hand inside his garment and tear it privately.
- What garment is one to tear: One [who is an Avel for relatives other than a parent] is only required to tear the most upper garment [that covers his chest].
Halacha 3: More tearing details & Tearing for death of parents versus other relative
- Front: One is to tear the front part of the garment.
- Changing Garments: One [who is in mourning for relatives other than a father or mother], may during the Shiva change from his torn clothing into untorn clothing. There is no need to tear the clothing that he changes into.
- Tearing for death of parents versus other relatives: All the above laws apply regarding one who is a mourner for relatives other than a parent. However, one who is in mourning for a father or mother, must tear in the following manner:
- Reveal chest: One who is an Avel for a parent is obligated to tear all his upper garments [that cover his chest] until he reveals his heart.
- Border area: One who is an Avel for a parent must tear the border area of the garment [i.e. Safah] until the torn area of the garment splits into two parts.
- Hand versus scissor: One who is in mourning for a father or mother, must perform the Keriah with his hands.
- Public: One who is an Avel for a parent must perform the Keriah in public in front of others.
- Undershirt: Even one who is in mourning for a parent is not required to tear his undershirt.
- Changing Garments: One who is in mourning for a parent is other than a father or mother], is required to perform a new Keriah onto all the upper clothing that he changes into during the Shiva.
- Chalitzas Kateif-Replacing one’s arm into the sleeve: One who is a mourner for a parent is to walk around with his arm and shoulder outside of its sleeve [i.e. Chalitzas Kateif] [from the time of death] until after the burial. After the burial, the sons may replace their shirts and sleeves to cover their arm and shoulders.
Halacha 4: More tearing details
- Children: A child [whose relative passed away] is to have his garment torn by others.
- One who is sick: An ill person is not to be informed of the passing and is not to have Keriah performed on him, as this may worsen his mental state.
- The woman are to be told to be quiet [about the death] while in his presence.
Halacha 5: Tearing after the death of one’s In-laws
- A man and women must tear on the passing of their father in-law or mother in-law due to the respect of their spouse.
Halacha 6: No shirt to tear
- Other relatives: A relative who did not have a shirt to perform Keriah, remains obligated to do so throughout the seven days of Shiva when he gets a shirt. If, however, seven days from burial have passed, then one who is mourning other relatives can no longer fulfill the Mitzvah of Keriah.
- Death of parents: However, one who is mourning a father or mother and has not yet done Keriah to his upper clothing, remains obligated to perform Keriah of all his upper clothing, even after seven days from burial. This obligation of doing Keriah for the passing of a parent is until the Shloshim.
- If one already has a torn garment: One who wears a previously torn garment and thus fools people into thinking that he performed Keriah, is considered to be stealing from the alive and the dead and belittling in their honor.
Halacha 7: Borrowed garment
- One may not perform Keriah on a borrowed garment, unless the lender knew that he borrowed it with intent to visit his deathly ill relative.
- In such a case, he may make the tear on the garment and then return the garment to the owner, and reimburse him for the cost of the tear.
- If the lender was not aware that he is visiting his deathly ill relative, then he may not tear it.
Halacha 8: Tore before death or for wrong relative
- Tore before passing: If one accidently tore before the passing of the relative, he does not fulfill his obligation, unless the passing occurred within Kdei Dibbur of the tearing.
- Tore for wrong relative: If one accidently performed Keriah under assumption that a certain relative passed away and then discovered it was a different relative who passed away, then he does not fulfill his obligation, unless it was informed of the correct relatives death within Kdei Dibbur of the tearing.
Halacha 9: Two relatives passed away simultaneously
- If two relatives passed away at the same time, one may make a single tear and fulfill his obligation of Keriah for both relatives simultaneously. However, if one’s parent and other relative passes away at the same time, one must first make a tear for the parent and then a second tear for the other relative.
Halacha 10: Using the same shirt for tears of more than one relative
- Within Shiva: For the passing of a second relative within Shiva of the first relative, one must make a completely new tear.
- After Shiva: For the passing of a second relative after Shiva of the first relative, one may simply add any amount to the original tear. The same applies to the passing of a third and fourth relative after Shiva that adding any amount to the original suffices.
- One may continue adding to the tearing for all future deaths of relatives until one reaches the area of the naval.
- Once the area of the naval is reached, one is to distance three fingers worth and start a new tear.
- Once the entire front part of the shirt is filled with tears, one is to turn it around and tear the back part of the shirt which is now in front.
- Once the top part of the shirt is torn one may flip it over and tear the bottom part which is now on top.
- Parent: For the passing of a parent, one must always make a new tear, even after Shiva of the first relative.
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