Wednesday, 7th Nissan 5783/March 29, 2023
- The inauguration of Aaron and his sons:
- Hashem told Moshe to take Aaron and his sons and perform the inauguration. He is to take the clothing, the anointing oil, the sacrifices which include the Chatas cow, the two rams and the basket of Matzos.
- The entire congregation is to be gathered to the opening of the Ohel Moed.
- Dressing Aaron: Moshe did as instructed, and bathed Aaron and his sons in water and dressed them. He placed on Aaron the Kutones, and wound the belt around him, the Meil, the Eiphod, and the belt of the Eiphod, the Choshen and the Urim Vetumim. He placed the Mitznefes on his head, and on the Mitznefes, towards his face, he placed the Tzitz.
- Anointing with oil: Moshe took the anointing oil and anointed the Mishkan and all of its vessels, and sanctified it. He sprinkled the oil onto the altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all its vessels with the oil, as well as the Kiyor. He poured the anointing oil on the head of Aaron to sanctify him.
- Dressing the sons of Aaron: Moshe clothed also the sons of Aaron in their four priestly garments
Tanya Beginning of Chapter 39
1. The difference between the service of man versus that of angels:
- Angels are like animals: The angels are referred to as animals, both wild [Chayos] and domestic, as the verse states “Upnei Aryeh El Hayamin, Upnei Shur Mihasmol.” The reason for this is because the angles do not have freedom of choice, and their love and fear are naturally born within them as written in the Raya Mihemna Parshas Pinchas.
- Tzadikim are in Beriyah while angels Yetzira: It is for this reason that the Tzadikim reach higher levels than the angels, as is seen from the fact that the abode of the Tzadikim in the upper world is in the world of Beriya, while the angels dwell in the world of Yetzira.
- Some angels live in Beiryah: This, however, only refers to the regular angels called Chayos Tiviyim. However, there do exist angles called Chayos Sichliyim which reside in the world of Beriya, as their Avoda is to serve Hashem with intellectual love and fear.
[To properly understand why the Tzadikim dwell in Beriya while the angels in Yetzira, we must first introduce the difference between the two worlds.]
2. The difference between the world of Beriya and Yetzira:
- Midos are revealed in Yetzirah: The difference between the worlds of Beirya and Yetzira is the level of G-dly revelation they contain. In the world of Yetzira, the Midos and emotional attributes of Ein Sof shine, as it states in the Tikkunim and Eitz Chaim that the six Sefiros dwell in Yetizra.
- Angels in Yetzira serve Hashem with emotions: This revelation of the Midos in Yetzira is expressed in the creations, and angels of that world through their service of love, fear, and trepidation. This is the service of the angel’s, day and night without break.
- The entire camp of Gavriel stands by the left with constant fear and trepidation. The entire camp of Michael stands by the right and serves with love.
- Chabad is revealed in Beriyah: However, in the world of Beriya shines the Chabad/intellect of the Ein Sof, as it states in Tikkunim that the supernal mother hovers over the three Sefiros in the world of Beriya.
- This intellect is the source of the Midos and is the mother and root of them. Based on the above, it is understood why the world of Beriya is the abode for Tzadikkim, as explained next.
3. Tzaddikim who serve with intellectual love dwell in Beriya:
- The world of Beriya is the abode for Tzadikkim who serve Hashem with intellectual love and fear that is born due to contemplation of His greatness.
- The fiery love of the heart that they arouse become garments for their Neshama/soul in the world of Beriya.
- This abode of the Tzaddikim is known as Gan Eden Haelyon.
Rambam, Hilchos Aveilus Chapter 2
Chapter 2: the relatives that one must mourn for and that a priest must defile himself on behalf of
Halacha 1: The relatives that one must mourn for
- Biblical: A person is biblically obligated to mourn after the death of the following relatives:
- One’s paternal brother and sister
- Rabbinical: A person is rabbinically obligated to mourn after the death of the following relatives:
- One’s wife who he is married to [i.e. Nessuah]
- One’s husband who she is married to.
- One’s maternal brother and sister
Halacha 2: A Kohen mourning for his married sister and maternal siblings
- Even a Kohen is obligated to to mourn the death of his maternal siblings, brother or sister, as well as his married sister, even though he is not allowed to defile himself to them for the sake of burying Them.
- Married paternal sister: One is biblically obligated to mourn the death of his married paternal sister.
Halacha 3: Mourning the death of Gentile relatives
- Gentile child or sibling: One does not mourn the death of his sibling or child who were born to Gentile mothers.
- Converts: A Gentile family who converted does not mourn each other’s death.
- Emancipated slaves: Emancipated slaves do not mourn each other’s death.
- A groom and Fiancé: A groom does not mourn the death of his fiancée, and likewise a fiancé does not mourn the death of her groom. This applies even if they were Halachcially engaged [i.e. Arussa].
Halacha 4: Mourning the death of the relatives of one’s relatives
- Mourning in their presence: All relatives that one must mourn for one is rabbinically required to also mourn with them in their presence if their relative dies.
- Example by son: For example, if one’s sons and son, grandson, passed away, or if one’s sons maternal brother passed away, or if one’s sons mother passed away [whom he is not married to], then he is obligated to hear his clothing and to mourn in his sons presence.
- Not in front of the son: One is not required to mourn when not in their presence.
- This rule applies regarding all relatives.
Halacha 5: Mourning the death of one’s spouses relative
- Husband mourning one’s wife’s relatives: One is not required to mourn with his wife on the death of one of her relatives, such as her brother or son, with exception to her parents which is one’s parents-in-law.
- His in-laws: For example, if one’s wife’s mother or father passed away, which is one’s father or mother-in-law, then he is to mourn while in her presence, however, when not in her presence he does not need to mourn.
- Wife morning one’s husband’s relatives: One is not required to mourn with her husband on the death of one of his relatives, such as his brother or son, with exception to his parents which is one’s parents-in-law.
- Her in-laws: If one’s husbands mother or father passed away, which is one’s father or mother-in-law, then she is to mourn while in his presence, however, when not in his presence she does not need to mourn.
- Spouse of relative-son and daughter-in-law: One is not required to mourn with his relative for the death of their spouse, such as the spouse of one’s son or daughter.
Halacha 6: The command for a Kohen to defile himself to his dead relatives
- A Kohen: A Kohen is instructed to defile himself on behalf of his dead relatives and to mourn over them, and he is even forced to do so if he refuses.
- From all this we can understand how severe the mitzvah of mourning is.
- A Kohenes: A Kohenes is not obligated to defile herself on behalf of her relatives, and rather if the desire to do so they made if they don’t they may choose to abstain.
Halacha 7: A Kohen defiling himself for his dead wife
- A Kohen is rabbinically required to defile himself on behalf of his dead wife.
- A Kohen’s fiancé: A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his dead fiancé.
Halacha 8: A Kohen defiling himself for relatives who are not to be mourned
- All relatives that one may not mourn, such as those executed by the Jewish court, and heretics, and stillborns, and people who committed suicide, then a Kohen may not defile himself on their behalf.
- After the burial: A Kohen may only defile himself as behalf of his relatives prior to their burial. Once they are buried they are like any other corpse which a Kohen is prohibited from defiling himself with.
Halacha 9: A Kohen defiling himself for invalid relatives
- A forbidden wife: A Kohen may only defile himself as behalf of his wife if he is permitted to her in marriage.
- The wife of a Kohen who remarried: Thus, if the wife of a Kohen remarried thinking that he had passed away, and he then appeared, then neither husband may defile themselves to her, being that they are both forbidden to her in marriage.
- Invalid relatives: A Kohen is required to defile himself on behalf of his dead relatives even if they are an invalid, such as a mother who is a Chalalah, an invalid child or sibling even if they are bastards.
Halacha 10: A Kohen defiling himself for his married sister
- A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his married sister.
- This applies even if she is married to a priest.
- This applies whether she is a Nissua or Arussa.
- Non-virgin sister: A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his single sister who is no longer a virgin due to rape or seduction.
- Lost her hymen: A Kohen is to defile himself on behalf of his single sister who lost her hymen due to age or injury.
Halacha 11: A Kohen defiling himself for his divorced sister
- A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his divorced sister, unless she was divorced after engagement [i..e Nissuin] and was never yet married [Nissuin].
Halacha 12: A Kohen defiling himself for his maternal sibling
- A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his maternal sibling, as he may only defile himself to relatives who inherit him.
Halacha 13: A Kohen defiling himself for a questionable relative
- A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of a questionable relative, such as if the babies got mixed up in the hospital and the parents do not know which child is theirs.
- The same applies regarding if there is question as to who is the true father of the child.
- The same applies if the wife of the Kohen was divorced with a questionable Get.
Halacha 14: A Kohen defiling himself for the limb of a relative
- A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of a limb of his relative, such as the bones of his father.
Halacha 15: A Kohen defiling himself for an incomplete body of a relative
- Likewise, a Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of his fathers head. He may only defile himself on behalf of a complete body.
- The same applies regarding defiling himself on behalf of any other relative.
- Defiling oneself to other corpses: A Kohen is not allowed to defile himself on behalf of any other dead person even when he is defiling himself on behalf of his relative.
- Burying a priest at the end of the cemetery: Due to the above, when a Kohen passes away he is to be buried at the end of the cemetery being that his relatives may not enter the cemetery and defile themselves to the other graves during the burial of the relative.
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